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Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 2 by Edwin Killick by Mind Map: Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 2
by Edwin Killick
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Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 2 by Edwin Killick

2.1 Shapes of molecules and ions

Predicting the shapes of molecules

Lone pairs affect the shape of the molecule and therefore the bond angles.

Shapes of simple organic molecules

Carbon

2.2 Intermediate bonding and bond polarity

Electronegativity

Intermediate bonding

Polarity of bonds and molecules

2.3 Intermolecular forces

Hydrogen bonds (strongest) Permanent dipole- permanent dipole interaction London forces (weakest)

Forces between molecules

Trends in physical properties

Solubility

2.4 Redox

Oxidation numbers

Redox: loss and gain of electrons

Oxidation Is Loss Reduction Is Gain

Changes in oxidation number

Ionic half equations

2.5 Group 2 and 7 elements

Alkaline earth metals

Flame tests of group 2 metals

Lithium-Red Sodium-Yellow Potassium-Lilac Magnesium-no colour Calcium (Yellow-) red Strontium-Red Barium-(pale) green

Group 2 oxides and hydroxides

Volumetric analysis

Group 1 and 2 nitrates and carbonates

Group 7: the halogens

Iodine/thiosulfate titrations

Reactions of the halogens and halides

Halogens and the water supply

2.6 Kinetics

The rate of reaction

Surface area

Catalysts

Temperature

Measuring reaction rates

Activation energy

2.7 Chemical equilibria

Dynamic equilibrium

Predicting changes in the position of equilibrium

2.8 Alcohols and halogenoalkanes

The alcohols

Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols are defined by the number of carbon atoms bonded to the carbon with the functional group. 1=primary 2=secondary 3=tertiary

The halogenoalkanes

Uses

Reactions

Identifying and preparing halogenoalkanes

2.9 Mechanisms

Classifying reactions

Bond breaking

Nucleophilic substitution of halogenoalkanes

Chemistry in the ozone layer

2.10 Mass spectra and IR absorption

Using mass spectra

Infrared spectroscopy

2.11 Green chemistry

Global warming and climate change

Carbon neutrality and carbon fooprint

Reducing hazard and pollution

Increasing efficiency