Introduction to linguistics

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Introduction to linguistics by Mind Map: Introduction to linguistics

1. Unit 1 What is language?

1.1. What is language?

1.1.1. To distinguish between human and animal.

1.1.2. To express your thought.

1.1.3. the source or power of life.

1.2. Yule's 5 characteristics of human language

1.2.1. Displacement

1.2.1.1. People talk as to what is not happened here and now.

1.2.2. Abitrariness

1.2.2.1. There is no connection between sound and meaning.

1.2.2.1.1. Sound Symbolism

1.2.3. Productivity

1.2.3.1. Languages are always invented new words.

1.2.4. Cultural Transmission

1.2.4.1. Language contains cultures of the speakers.

1.2.5. Duality

1.2.5.1. Words are the combination of meaningless phonemes.

1.2.5.1.1. levels of language

1.3. What is linguistics?

1.3.1. The scientific study of language

1.3.1.1. language form

1.3.1.1.1. Phonetics

1.3.1.1.2. Phonology

1.3.1.1.3. Syntax

1.3.1.1.4. morphology

1.3.1.2. language meaning

1.3.1.2.1. meaning

1.3.1.3. language in context

1.3.1.3.1. Sociolinguistics

1.3.1.4. language acquisition

1.4. What is Grammar

1.4.1. Era of grammar analysis

1.4.1.1. 1st period

1.4.1.1.1. part of speech (POS

1.4.1.2. 2nd period

1.4.1.2.1. grammatical structure

1.4.1.3. 3rd period

1.4.1.3.1. Generative Grammar

1.4.2. Universal Grammar

1.4.2.1. All language share some common grammatical rules.

1.4.2.2. Grammar is innate.

1.4.2.3. It is believe that human are born with LAD.

1.4.2.4. Human are ready to learn any language structure because of LAD which doesn't exist in other species.

2. Unit 2 Language and Brain

2.1. What's in your brain?

2.1.1. left hemesphere

2.1.1.1. language

2.1.2. right hemesphere

2.1.2.1. nonlanguage

2.1.3. corpus colluseum

2.1.3.1. communicate between two sides of brain

2.1.4. grey matters

2.1.4.1. receive message

2.1.4.2. decision making

2.1.4.3. store memory

2.2. split brain

2.2.1. corpus collosum was cut which result in disability of two sides of brain communication.

2.2.2. What the right brain see is not able to speak or write by left hand but the patient is still able to draw the object. It because right brain cannot tell left brain to speak.

2.2.3. What the right brain see is able to speak or write.

2.3. language disorder/dysfunction

2.3.1. broca's aphasia

2.3.1.1. damage at the front lobe of the brain.

2.3.1.2. good comprehension

2.3.1.3. speak in a chunk

2.3.1.4. poor in grammar.

2.3.2. Wernicke's aphsia

2.3.2.1. The back lobe of left brain is damaged.

2.3.2.2. Speak fluently with no grammatical errors

2.3.2.3. Do not understand self utterance and other speaking.

2.3.3. Jargon aphasia

2.3.3.1. Wernicke's aphasia

2.3.3.1.1. errors in vocabulary

2.3.4. Agrammatic aphasic

2.3.4.1. Broca's aphasic

2.3.4.1.1. Omit function words

2.3.4.1.2. No grammar

2.3.4.1.3. Don't undersatand complex grammar

2.3.5. Acquired Dyslexia

2.3.5.1. unable to read and write

2.3.5.2. unable to read and write function words

2.4. dichotic listening

2.4.1. listen different sound with different ears simultaneously.

2.4.1.1. right ear (left brain)

2.4.1.1.1. listen to verbal language better.

2.4.1.2. left ear (right brain)

2.4.1.2.1. listen to nonlanguage sound better.

2.5. Critical period

2.5.1. 5 years-puberty

2.5.2. Human learns language during critical period better than learning language after critical period. Although adult language learn may develop faster at the first step, their language ability is not comparable to young language learner.

3. Unit 3 Morphology: The words of language.

3.1. definition

3.1.1. morphemes

3.1.1.1. the smallest unit of linguistic

3.1.2. morphology

3.1.2.1. the study of morphemes

3.1.3. dictionary

3.1.3.1. a collection of meaningful words in a book

3.1.4. mental lexicon

3.1.4.1. meaning and sounds, but also grammatical categories or syntactic class such as adjective, noun, and so on

3.2. types of morphemes

3.2.1. Bound and free morphemes

3.2.1.1. bound morphemes

3.2.1.1.1. smallest meaningful unit such as touch, dog, etc.

3.2.1.2. free morphemes

3.2.1.2.1. affixes

3.2.2. derivational and inflectional morphemes

3.2.2.1. deviational morphemes

3.2.2.1.1. derivational affix + the base form of a word = new word

3.2.2.2. inflectional morphemes

3.2.2.2.1. suffix or prefix

3.2.2.2.2. change gender, number, tense

3.2.3. Rood and Stem

3.2.3.1. Root

3.2.3.1.1. a meaningful unit which cannot be divided into smaller part.

3.2.3.2. Stem

3.2.3.2.1. a combination between root and affix which is considered either word or not

3.3. types of morpheme structure

3.3.1. Linear organization of morphemes

3.3.1.1. affixes

3.3.1.1.1. prefixes

3.3.1.1.2. suffixes

3.3.1.1.3. infixes

3.3.1.1.4. Circumfixes

3.3.2. hierarchical organization of morphemes

3.3.2.1. analyze root and affixes into smallest unit as a tree diagram

3.4. word formation

3.4.1. compound

3.4.1.1. word+word

3.4.2. coinage

3.4.2.1. brand name for generic name

3.4.3. nounce word

3.4.3.1. using only for special occasion

3.4.4. borrowing words/loanwords

3.4.4.1. derived from other langauges

3.4.5. calquing

3.4.5.1. translated word by word from other language

3.4.6. back formation

3.4.6.1. New words were invented from derivational affix.

3.4.6.1.1. babysitter to babysit

3.5. content and function words

3.5.1. Content words

3.5.1.1. open class

3.5.1.2. New words are constantly added.

3.5.1.3. noun, adjective, adverb, verb

3.5.2. function words

3.5.2.1. closed class

3.5.2.2. auxiliary verbs, preposition, determiner and so on.

3.5.2.3. no more development

4. Unit 5 Semantics

4.1. definition

4.1.1. meaning or words in different context.

4.1.1.1. study of semantics

4.1.1.1.1. Related meaning of the word

4.1.1.1.2. Semantic properties

4.1.1.1.3. Semantic relationship

4.2. word types in Semantics

4.2.1. -nyms

4.2.1.1. synonyms

4.2.1.1.1. e.g. sofa vs couch

4.2.1.2. antonyms

4.2.1.2.1. e.g. beautiful vs ugly

4.2.1.3. hyponyms

4.2.1.3.1. word class

4.2.1.4. metonyms

4.2.1.4.1. substitution

4.2.1.5. retronyms

4.2.1.5.1. word has to be changed or created because of the changes of the world

4.2.2. metaphor

4.2.2.1. compare object to the meaning

4.2.2.1.1. time is money

4.2.2.1.2. wall have ears

4.2.3. idiom

4.2.3.1. an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements

4.2.3.1.1. cut it out

4.2.3.1.2. bite your toungue

4.3. word meaning

4.3.1. parasodic meaning

4.3.1.1. word stress makes the meaning changed

4.3.2. pragmatic meaning

4.3.2.1. intention of speaker

4.3.2.1.1. e.g. It's very hot.

4.3.3. propositional meaning

4.3.3.1. predict the past

4.3.3.1.1. e.g. You are soaking.

4.4. denotation and connotation

4.4.1. denotation

4.4.1.1. name of the object

4.4.1.1.1. fork

4.4.1.1.2. star

4.4.1.1.3. chicken

4.4.2. connotation

4.4.2.1. hidden meaning based on specific culture

4.4.2.1.1. moon=beautiful women (Thai)

4.4.2.1.2. star and moon=Symbols of Islam (Muslim)

4.4.2.1.3. chick=coward (English)

4.5. other aspects of semantics

4.5.1. pragmatic

4.5.1.1. When you say something but it hints to hidden meaning

4.5.1.1.1. What time do you call this? = You are so late.

4.5.2. discourse

4.5.2.1. discourse marker

4.5.2.1.1. oh, err, umm. yeah, you know, so , look, well

4.5.2.1.2. It is so-called filler.

4.5.2.1.3. when you are thinking of something before speaking

4.5.2.2. It involves questions of style, appropriateness, cohesiveness, rhetorical force, topic/subtopic structure, differences between written and spoken discourse, as well as grammatical properties.

4.5.3. speech acts

4.5.3.1. command

4.5.3.1.1. Open the door!

4.5.3.2. asking

4.5.3.2.1. What is it?

4.5.3.3. inform

4.5.3.3.1. Mary is not at home now.

4.5.3.4. warning

4.5.3.4.1. Be careful!

4.5.3.5. threaten

4.5.3.5.1. Don't ever step into this house again or I will beat you into a pulp.

4.5.4. presupposition

4.5.4.1. predict what was going on from what you know now.

4.5.4.1.1. He never comes late. = He was here once. It is not his first time.

5. unit 4 Syntax

5.1. Grammaticality

5.1.1. grammatical but not comprehensive

5.1.1.1. Monday walks on the water.

5.1.2. Comprehensive but not Grammatical

5.1.2.1. Monday market busy.

5.2. principles of compositionality

5.2.1. structure of sentences

5.2.1.1. head

5.2.1.1.1. NP

5.2.1.2. compliment (VP)

5.2.1.2.1. V+NP

5.2.2. structure of phrase

5.2.2.1. head=N

5.2.2.2. modifier=N or Adj

5.2.3. Be careful with transitional verbs or intransitional verbs in an attempt to prevent ungrammatical.

5.2.4. Syntactic consistuency

5.2.4.1. definition

5.2.4.1.1. correct form of noun phrases

5.2.4.2. Consistuency test

5.2.4.2.1. Wh-questions

5.2.4.2.2. Conjunction

5.2.4.2.3. clefting

5.2.5. Combinatorial system

5.2.5.1. Word order

5.2.5.1.1. SVO

5.2.5.2. Co-occurance

5.2.5.2.1. argument

5.2.5.2.2. adjunct

5.3. principles of compositionality

5.4. definition

5.4.1. To study how the sentence is constructed.

5.5. types of structure

5.5.1. deep structure

5.5.1.1. a sentence which has more than one meaning.

5.5.1.1.1. A police see a man with a telescope.

5.5.1.1.2. 1st meaning: A police see a man who has a telescope.

5.5.1.1.3. 2nd meaning: A police see a man by using a telescope.

5.5.2. surface structure

5.5.2.1. Several sentences which have one meaning

5.5.2.1.1. I love you

5.5.2.1.2. You loved by me.

5.5.2.1.3. Love you

5.6. Morphorsyntax

5.6.1. order of word arrangement doesn't effect the meaning

5.6.2. S and O are assigned by inflectional morphemes

5.6.3. e.g. Russian