Child Development Resource

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Child Development Resource by Mind Map: Child Development Resource

1. Musical Play

1.1. Exploratory use of instruments often without structure

1.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQfiT8vzQQc These children do not say anything to each other and are exploring the noise that the instruments makes.

1.1.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-xFCqpCHE8

1.1.1.1.1. This is a home video of a dad encouraging his kids to play instruments. Also he encourages them to sing songs, but they don;t until he suggests one.

1.2. Self-initiated movement play

1.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7B6Mavb6Y0

1.3. Singing to communicate to others and as a free-flowing personal narrative

2. Sensitivity to pulse

3. Invents and imitates new movements

3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SOHYHpT2ZAg The three little girls follow their dance teacher in circles around the room, attempting to do as she does. But in the midst of following her, they sometimes end up making up their own moves.

4. Sings light and airy for some songs and sings in a playground yell for lively songs

4.1. http://youtu.be/bGoqS4qje88 The little boy in this video sings more lowly and quiet because this song is supposed to be a sad song. He tries to sing in the same pitch and tone as Bruno Mars. Singing softly during the sadder parts of the song to follow Bruno's sound. http://youtu.be/4N8-Eeg0iQ0?t=2m21s In this video he sings much louder as Katy Perry. He once again tries to match the pitch and tone used in the song. He made sure to use more energy into singing this too.

5. Sensitivity to phrase, shown through movement

6. Practices known movements by repeating them

6.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ZK49xKs-5s Four year old girl tries out for tv competition by dancing the salsa. She begins just by swaying her dress then it becomes more distinct in movement. Very specific steps and movements as the dance progresses.

6.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0dCq9cpKHkhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0dCq9cpKH The woman leads the children in song by singing one line to the children and having the children repeat the line back to her. She also does different motions with her hands for each line of the song and the children repeat the motions back to her. The children have to pay attention to the teacher because each line has a different motion.

7. Maintenance of pulse https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GkthWKSYmwc Little kid playing Xylophone - keeping the beat

8. Birth - 2 years

8.1. Vocal

8.1.1. Babbles vowels and consonants as infant

8.1.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OlyUke5XFw

8.1.2. Babbles in irregular rhythmic patterns

8.1.3. Imitates the contour of songs, but not the specific pitches

8.1.4. Babbles in extended melodic phrases

8.1.4.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoO1J-R3mzM

8.1.4.2. This child can babble to the melody but can not yet clearly enunciate lyrics

8.1.5. Babbles in small intervals of seconds and thirs

8.1.6. Imitates some discrete pitches of songs

8.1.6.1. http://youtu.be/_Mw7L1jJv-M

8.1.6.1.1. The little girl starts off low but as she gets to the chorus she gets louder. She is running around performing the song and pretending to be holding a microphone in her hand. The little girl is unable to remember some of the words to the song, and gets help from her mother.

8.2. Melodic

8.2.1. Responds to different pitches

8.2.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-A_jI7AIUUQ

8.2.1.2. The baby responds to his moms singing by crying and having an emotional response

8.2.2. Can match vocally sustained pitches and begins to imitate sounds

8.2.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2hqiFENJUy In this video a father is teaching his son to match his pitch. The father is using a toothbrush as a tool in getting the little boy to repeat after him. The child matches his pitch due to the incentive.

8.2.3. Differentiates between pitch contours

8.2.4. Sensitive to phrase endings and intervals

8.3. Movement

8.3.1. Responds to music through generalized body movements; movements not yet synchronized to rhythm

8.3.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=to7uIG8KYhg

8.3.1.1.1. The twins respond to their dad playing the guitar by swaying and bopping

8.3.2. At 2: Responds by rocking, bouncing, waving arms to rhythm

8.3.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DyCJiZh8dsw

8.3.2.2. baby dancing to the rhythm of beyonce

8.3.2.3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77ql1emlCn4 Baby dancing to the rythym of single ladies. The baby is able to recognize the ryhtym and move her body up and down to dance along to the beat.

8.3.3. At 2: Develops walking and running skills

8.3.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQSnmBM-yzY

8.3.3.2. baby running/walking on the treadmill.

8.3.4. At 2: Attempts to imitate clapping and patty-cake movements

8.3.4.1. http://youtu.be/FLqN0If-EZ4

8.3.4.1.1. The little girl is singing and clapping her hands to the song. She is attempting to keep the rhythm of the Patty-Cake song. She is imitating the movements and rhythms that go with the song Patty-Cake.

8.4. Playing Instruments

8.4.1. Ricking, nodding, swaying

8.4.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMThCMjjpco

8.4.1.1.1. Baby responds to dad playing sitar by banging on drum and rocking her chair to the beat.

8.4.2. Can grip and grasp

8.4.2.1. http://youtu.be/a8aR5w_ao7E

8.4.2.1.1. The little boy kept a steady beat throughout his performance. As his father told him he was doing a good job he expanded more on where he would hit the drums and even did a drum roll. At this age the little boy is able to grasp the drum sticks and hit repeatedly on the drums while keeping the steady rhythm.

8.5. Musical Play

8.5.1. Playful exchanges between child and others, often based on imitation

8.5.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8cYCubol7a0

8.5.1.1.1. The playful exchanges between the child and father (I'm assuming) could also be considered purposeful silences. This was probably played before because the boy seems to know at least some of the words. Sometimes it is on his own, but I also noticed parts that were imitated.

8.5.2. Play is focused on repetition

8.5.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAsKLkkO6rs

8.5.2.1.1. There is some repetition in the vocals although it also sounds somewhat random at times. But this demonstrates musical development because the child is able to discern short rhythms and different pitches. The repetition displays that these things are a conscious part of the musical play.

8.5.2.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4mBwNqoeAc

8.5.2.2.1. While this video focuses on older children and repetition in musical play there is a baby present during the activity holding a musical instrument. She shakes the sound maker while the other children play with the instructor, although she is not able to shake it to the beat of the music. However, she is very engaged in the activity and continues to shake her noise maker which I think is a result of the repetitive nature of the music.

8.5.3. Find opportunities to play through music

8.5.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWw5Py6dmw0

8.5.3.1.1. In this example, the boy plays through music by exploring sounds. He learns about the sounds different instruments and objects make when struck with mallets. It is a simple form of musicking that may or may not be organized, depending on the child, and probably age. Also relating to playing instruments, he is able to grip/grasp and stay in a fairly steady pulse. So his playing incorporates sound as well as motion.

9. 3 years - 4 years

9.1. Vocal

9.1.1. Invents spontaneous songs with discrete pitches and recurring rhythmic and melodic patterns

9.1.1.1. http://youtu.be/5z5Nxd2qmoo This little girl managed to create her song with varying pitches to match the notes she made on what sounds like a keyboard.

9.1.2. Reproduces nursery rhymes and childhood chants

9.1.2.1. http://youtu.be/dMSaZx-q3pk This little girl was trying to teach her little brother the different nursery rhymes she learned at school. Sometimes her parents chipped in to remind her of other rhymes she knows so she can teach them.

9.1.2.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vxqy3-Tkz70 This little girl knows a lot of nursery rhymes. She sings to the camera nursery rhymes that she hears. She does it very well and remembers the words. She even adds movement

9.1.2.3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OfZgow512hA This girl sits on her mother's lap and sings every nursery rhyme that her father asks her to sing. She knows all the words to each nursery rhyme. When the father says that she's all done, she asks if she can sing "Old McDonald" next.

9.1.3. Discovers difference between speaking and singing voice

9.1.3.1. http://youtu.be/rVZUrqstZ9w

9.1.3.1.1. This video shows a little girl named Ella who alternates between singing songs and telling things about herself. She starts of singing "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" and stopped to use her normal voice when she was answering the questions the woman asked her.

9.2. Melodic

9.2.1. Able to recognize familiar phrases and songs based on contour and rhythm

9.2.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU_9yi6xvRs The child is very upset, from the looks of it because she does not want to be strapped in her seat. Once she hears the first notes to a Katy Perry song, her whole attitude changes and she stops crying.

9.3. Movement

9.3.1. Begins to develop large muscle coordination for jumping and hopping

9.3.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlpPsQaH2GQ The little girl in this video is very coordinated and able to do many different moves. She watches and copies what her mother does. She is hoping, jumping and moving around to the beat of the music.

9.3.2. Can perform simple action songs and game songs

9.3.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q84qzBIJlWs The little girls have learned pretty basic moves to very standard and old-school dancing songs. The one little girl that the video is focused on still struggles with the memorization of it all, but for the most part knows the basic moves.

9.4. Playing Instruments

9.4.1. Short periods of rhythmic regularity

9.4.2. Longer periods of rhythmic regularity

9.4.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R32O6554kjk This child has the beat in his head and is able to copy the beat on the drums. He could then play the rhythm along with the beat. He is able to keep up with the tempo changes with the band.

9.4.2.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=riEyWsCzYnk When this kid is younger he has shorter periods of rhythmic regularity while playing the drums ( at 40 seconds) When he gets older he is becoming better and better at keeping a rhythm and remembering how to play a song.

9.4.3. Increased ability to replicate familiar material

9.4.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WbX6tEuo2fk The girl has the song "Let it Go" memorized. She adds movements and dramatic gestures to certain words. Tries to reenact a performance using costume.

9.4.3.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5z4PKBNzmuo

9.4.3.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ow14mwEwVn This girl sings the song "Listen" by Beyonce she has memorized. She adds lots of emotion to the song as well. Due to the fact that she is not a English speaker, it must have been even more challenging for her to have memorized an entire English song.

9.4.4. Swaying of sarms

9.4.4.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lO3LJphpumI

10. 5 years - 6 years

10.1. Vocal

10.1.1. Sings spontaneous songs spanning two octaves

10.1.2. Sigs in tune within rages of five pitches, d to a

10.1.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QijJ9AmWIi4 5 year old girls sing "Do You Want to Build a Snowman?"

10.1.3. Sings in tune in rage of C to b, with smaller tessitura

10.2. Melodic

10.2.1. Beginning to conceptualize aspects of pitch and melody like high and low, upward and downward

10.2.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPGsosFjS1w

10.2.1.1.1. The children are demonstrating the melodic concepts of high and low pitch by responding to a visual aide which uses visual dimension as a metaphor for sound. The colors on the chart on the wall represent scale degrees, and the higher-placed colors are in fact the higher-pitched notes. The children clearly are beginning to understand ascending and descending melodic phrases.

10.2.2. Able to demonstrate their knowledge of melodic movement through showing

10.2.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlpPsQaH2GQ This is a video that is displaying imitation of movements. This video tells me that children can easily imitate their caregivers. As a teacher, I should use this to my advantage, I should imitate musical movements in order to influence proper engagement.

10.3. Movement

10.3.1. Begins to develop rhythmic clapping and patting

10.3.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhIMBIgwQRU

10.3.1.1.1. Children are doing the hand-clapping game "Miss Mary Mack". While the kids are clapping, they are chanting the tune that goes along with the movements. They try to match their movements to a certain part of the song, adjusting as they progress to a faster rhythm.

10.3.1.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kE3sooSFpIk This is a video of cute babies dancing and moving to the music. Most of the video clips in this one example show children independently dancing without parent influence. This video is an example of how children are able to innately associate movement and enjoyment through music.

10.3.2. Begins to develop skills for galloping (one-side skip) and jumping rope

10.3.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7RbqvnQkyrs

10.3.2.1.1. This is a video of a 5 and 6 year old jumping rope. They can keep a steady pace and can jump for an extended amount of time. These kids understand tempo and rhythm.

10.3.2.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B38UwD3Zb3Q

10.3.2.2.1. This one demonstrates a 5-year-old jumping rope. There is a steady pulse preserved, but even more impressive is the presence of subdivision of a strong beat. This is demonstrated by the fact that the rope passes under the child's feet every two jumps.

10.3.3. Can perform simple folk dances in circles and lines

10.3.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2MT8u8beor4

10.3.3.1.1. Kindergarten-aged children are performing a dance in a small space. The children are in line, moving from side to side while trying to keep a rhythm. Although the kids aren't completely in-syc, they are able to stay in a line formation throughout the whole song.

10.3.4. Begins to develop small muscle coordination for drawing and printing

10.3.4.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2dQeidz-YMg

10.3.4.1.1. This 5-year-old is demonstrating great small muscle coordination in drawing a perfect cat. Furthermore, she is demonstrating confidence in her abilities and showing advanced social skills by giving an effective drawing lesson. There are subtle elements of musicking as well: she lengthens "aaaaall the way around" as she draws a line, connecting the word with the time taken to draw the object. Also, for repeated elements like eyelashes or toes, she draws and counts rhythmically "1,2,3."

10.4. Playing Instruments

10.4.1. Alternation of hands

10.4.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rPxBOoTZzQ

10.4.1.1.1. Five year old boy plays a string instrument using both of his hands. He strums the instrument using one hand (and a pick-like object) while trying to hold the neck of the instrument with the other hand. When he gets the hang of how to hold the instrument, he freely starts to strum upwards and sings.

10.4.2. Basic eye-hand coordination

10.4.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtR3bzRX6n0

10.4.2.2. This video is of a boy named Jordan playing all the aspects of La Bamba, singing, drums, piano, and guitar. He is very advanced musically for his age and able to play many instruments

10.5. Musical Play

10.5.1. Begin to resemble already-existing songs

10.5.2. Use of rhythmic and melodic patterns

10.5.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35_0Pd6fNZQ

10.5.2.1.1. This is a third grade classroom who has made a rhythm and organized a song. This video is an example of children keeping a beat for a long period of time. Each student is able to keep up with the other students as well as add on people to their chain. This video tells me that children can easily pick up on beats and repeat them.

10.5.3. Parody of existing songs

10.5.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDbAxhV2ofM

10.5.3.2. This is a video of a 5 year old boy doing a cover of Folsom Prison Blues by Johnny Cash. He plays the guitar. He seems to know the basics of playing guitar and has memorized the words to the song.

10.5.4. Text becomes important (lyrics)

10.5.5. Often make use of a wide range of syncopation and metric changes. Polymeter

11. 7 years - 8 years

11.1. Vocal

11.1.1. Begins to develop head voice (light and focused higher voice) with guidance

11.1.2. Begins to have expressive control of voice

11.1.2.1. Another seven year old has control reaching the low notes. In control with an old soul type of voice that not many singers have. She's able to be in control without her voice cracking https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3D0e0miMSI0

11.1.3. Sings in tune in rage of octave, about C to c' or d to d' with smaller range of comfortable singing (tessitura)

11.1.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWHto0X_qyk This is a seven year old singing a song from The Little Mermaid. Rachel is singing Part of Your World. She can carry a tune and is improving her vocal skills.

11.2. Melodic

11.2.1. Able to demonstrate knowledge of melodic movement by telling

11.2.2. Sensitivity to intervals and to tonality emerges

11.2.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xIjobdArtiA In this video children are learning melodic intervals such as Do RE Mi Fa So La Ti Do. They then learn how to combine them in structured musical pattern, and leap between the tones.

11.2.3. Continued development of phrase as unit

11.2.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YvU-dYDizao

11.2.3.1.1. The 8 year old Tallan Latz has advanced skills in melodic phrasing. He’s really good with the guitar and already has people looking into him. He’s able to keep pace with a group of musicians rather than just playing on his own

11.2.4. Beginning to identify aspects of pitch motion like steps, leaps, and repeated tones.

11.2.4.1. seven year old Rhema Marvanne sings "amazing grace" she's able to move her voice up in down changing her tone. Theres a lot of pitches that this song has and she can identify which pitch is appropriate to use throughout the song. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIQl6ygRqhw

11.3. Movement

11.3.1. Begins to develop skipping skills

11.3.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jvdp4rV9Mrk

11.3.1.1.1. Seven year old boy learns how to skips and is skipping with a jump rope. He does full skips with the whole jump rope. Then he skips while moving the jump rope side to side. This little boy is only a week in getting ready for boxing. You can tell his skipping skills were develop and used while jump roping

11.3.2. Responds (frequently) to music through hand-clapping; achievement of beat competence

11.3.2.1. this video has a seven year old is reacting the "cup song" from the movie Pitch Perfect she uses her hands and a cup to make a beat while singing along with the song. She keeps the melody flowing and doesn't get unorganized https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DpCVXYxhx2k

11.3.3. Can follow the pulse and dynamics of music and respond to gradual changes through movement

11.3.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LdVxBO-ry3E This is eight year old Aidan Prince doing a dance choreographed by Tricia Miranda. He can follow the beat and pulse of the music very well. He is an exceptional dancer for his age. He does respond to gradual changes through movement.

11.3.4. Can perform on drum, rhythm sticks; can play sustained patterns on xylophone (but require preperatory movement to precede)

11.3.4.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2dFB7LVV66w This 8 year old little boy is performing Feliz Navidad on the drums. He does the whole song and is great. He's following very well.

11.3.4.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTld-Uqtfwk

11.3.4.2.1. A ten year old on the xylophone and a seven year old on a drum pad playing Animals by Martin Garrix. They both play their instruments together and can play a pattern to the song Animals. The seven year old plays the drum pad and the ten year play the xylophone to the beat of the song. They have the song in the background listening to it while performing on the drum pad and the seven year old is showing rhythm with the drum sticks.

11.4. Playing Instruments

11.4.1. Eye-hand coordination further develops

11.4.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSihWOKvy28

11.4.1.2. These are two seven year olds, William and Trumpy are playing Thai music. The instrument is called the ranad. They are using hand-eye coordination play the instrument and keep in beat.

11.5. Musical Play

11.5.1. Play rule-bound games with music

11.5.1.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bCS-H1uYfT8

11.5.1.1.1. The kids are playing musical chairs and have to listen to music and have to sit once the music stops. This helps with auditory skills and reaction times. In one part they have to clap along with the music and they follow along with the beat. The kids are playing musical chairs and have to listen to music and have to sit once the music stops. This helps with auditory skills and reaction times. In one part they have to clap along with the music and they follow along with the beat.

11.5.2. More social-directed and dictated play

11.5.2.1. http://youtu.be/oF2zA4BreOI

11.5.2.1.1. There is a brother, sister, and baby sister playing Simon Says in their living room. The dad is playing Simon and saying the commands while the mom is recording the video. The dad says Simon say’s to touch your eyes. The two older kids follow the command and the adorable baby sister does not follow the command at first. She begins to laugh and so do her parents. They repeat the command again and she touches her eyes.

11.5.2.2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0PGrtdcvlVE

11.5.2.2.1. The video shows how sing a long movies can help inspire people to make their own videos about it. They were directed by the movie, following the trend of the popular movie. This also follows the social influences of many people making their own videos.