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Amygdala by Mind Map: Amygdala
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Amygdala

Lateralisation

Right amygdala

Involved in taking actions as response to stressful stimuli More involved in negative emotions

Left amygdala

Involved in thought as response to stressful stimuli Involved in recalling details

Researchers

Karl Friedrich Burdach

Kluver and Bucy

John Downer

Lawrence Weiskrantz

Alheid and Heimer

Swanson and Petrovich

Mortimer Mishkin

Ralph Adolphs

Joseph Ledoux

James McGaugh

Paul Whalen

Main Groups of Nuclei

Basolateral nuclei

Main input station of the amygdala

Corticomedial nuclei

Central nuclei

Main output station of the amygdala

Major Pathways

These projections connect the amygdala with several other important brain structures.

Ventral amygdalofugal pathway

The shortcut Involved in associative learning

Stria terminalis

The long way around Projects only to subcortical structures Similar in form, function, and location as the fornix for the hippocampal pathway

Direct connections

"Abnormal" functioning

Could be the result of developmental problems, neurotranmitter imbalance or damage.

Autism

Depression

Post-traumatic stres disorder

Phobias

Schizophrenia

Generalized anxiety disorder

The amygdala is normally active, but the prefrontal cortex is unable to calm her down.

Klüver–Bucy syndrome

amnesia hyperphagia hyperorality hypersexuality docility visual agnosia

Urbach-Wiethe disease

Bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes Disruption in recognizing emotional expressions and in emotional learning

Flat affect

Emotions are blunted, impaired, or absent usually caused by.

Amygdala hijack

Term coined by Daniel Goleman When the hippocampus signals a fight or flight situation, the amygdala triggers the HPA axis which hijacks the rational brain.

General

Comprises a group of more than 10 nuclei located near the hippocampus in the middel of the temporal lobe

One of the most important subcortical brain structures involved in emotion

Complex vertebrates have two amygdaele, one in each hemisphere

Considered to be a part of the limbic system

The idea of a functionally unified limbic system is grounded on historical concepts of brain anatomy. These concepts are no longer considered to be accurate. It's a group of structures loosely working together in relation to memory and emotion and not a completely integrated system as the name would suggest.

Random Facts

While dreaming the pons can activate the amygdala giving the dream an emotional content

There is a correlation between sexual orientation and amygdala activity

In humans, the amygdala is the most sexually-dimorphic brain structure

When males are castrated the amygdala shrinks by more than 30%

The intercalated cell clusters are important for inhibitory control over the amygdala

The size is positively correlated with aggressive behavior across species

Became in the last decade one of the most heavily studied brain areas

According to Jaak Panksepp the amygdala participates mostly in the emotional systems of FEAR, RAGE and LUST

Main Functions

Plays an important role in emotion, memory, homeostasis and olfaction

Responsible for assigning emotional significance or value to sensory information

Plays a primary role in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotional events

Involved in fear conditioning and reward processing

Involved in memory consolidation

Very responsive to the facial expressions of others

Plays a role in prioritizing information processing and allocation of attention

Responsible for fight or flight reactions

Books

The Human Amygdala

Emotional Intelligence

The Emotional Brain Revisited