1. - 7 Principles, seven guiding rules / orders
2. - 7 Themes, seven areas of project management knowledge
3. - 7 Processes (types of processes), seven groups of activities, describing what to do in the project life cycle
4. Project Environment, PRINCE2® methodology adaptation to the environment of the project, This means min. the introduction of specific terminology / language, Adaptation of the documentation for the needs / requirements of the organization, Adaptation of the project in the context of the industry (eg. IT, engineering, etc.) - PRINCE2 methodology is fully general
Detailed techniques, PRINCE2 is purely general in nature, not industry/domain specific, PRINCE2® doesn't cover every aspect of project management., PRINCE2® doesn't specify the use of specific techniques., Only techniques that have a specific PRINCE2® approach are described such as product based planning and the quality review technique., For detailed project management techniques (see PMBOK Guide)
Leadership capability, Even though it is very important that we have leadership on our project and we are motivating the team, how we do that is not addressed in PRINCE2®., Leadership capability, how you lead and motivate your team will vary depending upon circumstance.
Human resource management
Software for project management
PRINCE2® Agile, see PRINCE2® Agile mind map
ITIL®, see ITIL® mindmap
M_o_R® - Management of Risk, see M_o_R® mindmap
MoV® - Management of Value, see MoV® mindmap
MoP® - Management of Portfolios, see MoP® mindmap
MSP® - Managing Successful Programmes, see MSP® mindmap
PRINCE2® - PRojects IN Changing Environments, see PRINCE2® mind map
P3O® - Portfolio, Programme and Project Office, see P3O® mindmap
yet remember - "In reality there are no such things as best practices. There are only practices that are good within a certain context."
AXELOS are a new joint venture company, created by the Cabinet Office on behalf of Her Majesty’s Government (HMG) in the United Kingdom and Capita plc to run the Best Management Practice portfolio, now called AXELOS Global Best Practice
17 It industry veterans met at Snowbird Resort on February 11-13 2001 and created Agile Manifesto, Introduced 4 Values and 12 Principles defining Agile for Software Development
disciplines that gave rise to the Agile Manifesto, Extreme Programming, SCRUM, Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM®), Adaptive Software Development, Crystal, Feature-Driven Development, Pragmatic Programming.
Agile is like any other newly introduced popular concept. “… Everybody is talking about it. Very few are doing it and those who are, are doing it badly” (James O. Coplien)
Agile as a word by it's own simply means - nothing more than merketing term., there are so many Agile methodologies, Agile standards, Agile techniques, Agile tools, Agile good / best agile practices, Agile frameworks etc., that 'Agile' word itself is to general, see Agile World mind map
Agile is a generic description of a “Style of Working” and Philosophy., Not only style of working on project but rather culture in ENTIRE organization including also it's management level, clients and partners, ‘Agile Project Management’ is perhaps an oxymoron
4 Agile Value, 1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools, 2. Working software over comprehensive documentation, 3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation, 4. Responding to change over following a plan
12 Agile Principles, 1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software., 2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage., 3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale., 4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project., 5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done., 6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation., 7. Working software is the primary measure of progress., 8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely., 9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility., 10. Simplicity - the art of maximizing the amount of work not done - is essential., 11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams., 12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
The unlimited number of Agile Practices, The 'forest' of Agile Methods, Frameworks, Standards ..., see Agile World mind map, Being Agile vs Doing Agile
In Agile community umbrella symbolizes different approaches in implementing Agile Manifesto but yet all from them are "Agilelish"
SCRUM, Lean, KANBAN, XP are not ‘Agile Project Management’ practices but rather team level practices, No Project Manager role, No project definition and etablished project / programme governance, ...
see Agile World mind map
Traditional (waterfall or sequential) Project Management metaphor, Railway metaphor, Moving forward, based on delivering predicted upfront requirements in accepted tolerances with limited tolerance to change, destination (final product specification) is known upfront and it will hardly change to any other destination, Big Design Up Front (BDUF), We are expecting from customer to know everything and precisely what he wants (and needs) at the very beginning in project lifecycle, Which is very often not possible, “People don’t know what they want until you show it to them” (Steve Jobs, 1955 - 2011), Changing course of train based on requirements, Change is under strict control, change management process / procedure, a.k.a. Plan-driven, build around paradigm of process, defined process control model, All work is understood before execution, Given a well-defined set of inputs, the same outputs are generated every time, Follow the pre-determined steps to get known results
Agile (iterative + incremental + adaptive) Project Management metaphor, Sailing metaphor, Embracing change of requirements, finding TRUE value for stakeholders by experimenting, testing, changing status quo., Enough Design Up Front (EDUF), Customers often does not now what they want and by changes in project we will better understand customer needs and deliver valuable solution, Adapting / changing course of sailing based on business TRUE business needs and priorities, which could be different than requirements, Change is natural and recommended, it a part of our lives and projects as well, a.k.a. Change-driven, build around paradigm of change / adaptation, empirical (adaptive) process control model, Frequent inspection and adaptation occurs as work proceeds, Processes are accepted as imperfectly defined, Outputs are often unpredictable and unrepeatable
Simple (straightforward), Everything is known and predicatable, Characteristics, Repeating patterns and consistent events, Clear cause‐and‐eﬀect, Well establish knowns, Fact based management, Leader’s/Manager’s job, Use best practices, Extensive communication not necessary, Establish patterns and optimize to them, Command and control
Complicated, More is known than unknown, Characteristics, More predictability than unpredictability, Fact‐based management, Experts work out wrinkle, Leader’s/Manager’s job, Utilize experts to gain insights, Use metrics to gain control, Sense, analyze, respond, Command and control
Complex, More is unknown than known, Characteristics, More predictability than unpredictability, Fact‐based management, Experts work out wrinkle, Leader’s/Manager’s job, Create bounded environments for action, Increase levels of interaction and communication, Servant leadership, Generate ideas, Probe, sense, respond
Chaotic (unpredictable), Very little is known, Characteristics, High Turbulence, No clear cause‐and‐eﬀect, Unknowables, Many decisions and no time, Leader’s/Manager’s job, Immediate action to re‐establish order, Prioritize and select actionable work, Look for what works rather than perfection, Act, sense, respond
See also Cynefin framework (by Dan Snowden), different view on Cynefin Framework, Five domains, Disorder is the fifth, Can be used to assess the output, outcome or benefit, Can be used to assess the project environment, Collaboratively assessed to avoid people’s natural tendencies., https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N7oz366X0-8
Relating Complexity and Management Style
VALUE is NOT the same as BENEFIT, Benefits, Benefit is about outputs, what describes a product, features, characteristics, requirements, Benefit is a objective, Benefits are derived from change initiatives (formally constituted projects and programmes), Benefits must contribute to an objective, Benefit is an advantage to stakeholders (internal or external to the organization), Benefit can be same for each stakeholder, Benefit can be financial and non financial, Benefit can be ..., tangible (easy to measure), non tangible (not so easy to measure), Benefit MUST be measurable and observable, Benefits are identifiable and quantifiable, Benefits SHOULD have baselines, Benefits SHOULD have priorities, Benefits types:, Emergent benefits, Unplanned benefits, Intermediate benefits, Mostly chain of intermediate benefits is linked to the end benefits, but in many cases intermediate benefits don’t automatically lead to the end benefits, End benefits, in general benefit = delivered requirements on time, on budget, within scope etc., WHAT is a product?, Value, Value is about outcomes, how products are used, what it does, functions, ways of using it, Value is subjective, Value is different for each stakeholder, Value can be measurable (if required but not natural to use such techniques in any Agile approach), e.g., Value Drivers, Value Profiles, Value Trees, Function Analysis System Technique (FAST), Value can be ..., tangible (easy to measure), non tangible (not so easy to measure), Values SHOULD have priorities, in general value = designed fit for purpose, as small as possible solution, WHY such product is needed?, HOW products are used?, WHO will be using product?
Focusing on value delivery not on fixed product definition or strict adherence to plan, That's why most Agile approaches define Project Vision
“People don’t know what they want until you show it to them” (Steve Jobs, 1955 - 2011)
“You have to learn to manage in situations where you don’t have command authority, where you are neither controlled nor controlling. That is the fundamental change.” (Peter F. Drucker)
“Never write when you can talk. Never talk when you can nod. And never put anything in an email“ (Eliot Spitzer)
“If a process is too unpredictable or too complicated for the planned, (predictive) approach, then the empirical approach (measure and adapt) is the method of choice“ (Ken Schwaber)
"Move Fast and Break Things" Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook
"Change is the only constant." Heraclitus, Greek philosopher
Not every organization is ready for that change!
"It is quite difficult for a highly structured and seniority-based organization to mobilize itself for change, especially under noncrisis conditions. this effort collapses somewhere in the hierarchy" (K. Imai, I. Nonaka, H. Takeuchi)
"Scrum exposes every cultural dysfunction that impedes developing software [...] It is not an approach or process that can be modified to fit the existing organizational culture; the culture must change to enable Scrum" (K. Schwaber, J. Sutherland)
“We cannot become what we need by remaining what we are.” (John C. Maxwell)
1. The customer's representative is in the driver's seat
2. Quick reaction to the changing market and needs
3. More visibility
4. Ideal environment for development
5. Self-manged teams
6. Removes confusion and distraction
7. No fortune tellers; Plan as you go
8. Issues are less disruptive
9. Continuous improvement
The most important elements of this principle come in the form of the common Agile values of honesty, trust, integrity and respect.
It is more than just cooperation., Empowered, self-motivated teams work as one unit.
Collaboration is about sharing any problems and taking a common approach to find the best solution.
Collaboration does not only mean internal to the team., It is also external, mainly with stakeholders, users and business representatives to make all of them responsible for the success of the project.
Rich communication is more about face-to-face communication (if teams are not located in one place, then using some high tech communication channels if possible with video camera).
It is generally known that more than 70% of communication is non-verbal, so the advantage of face-to-face communication is in fast and clear understanding, immediately solving problems, etc.
Means trusting the team to organize the work since they know best how to get the job done.
empower and facilitate the project team.
Is about learning and feedback., It is usually by using experiments, prototypes, and spikes that help better understand the customer expectations, get quick feedback and reduce the impact of mistakes., Faster feedback to the team means that quicker progress can be made., The sooner the team solves “known unknows” and uncovers “unknow unknows”, the sooner they can arrive at the right destination.
In order to create the right thing, it is necessary to first know what the right thing is.
1st priority is the added value for the client
Focus on deliverables and not on activities
Formal split between management and delivery
Specify as late as possible
Priority features (with MoSCoW)
Frequent review deliverables throughout the project
Install a change authority
Implement minor changes informal
Project manager facilitates
Learn from experience
Agile focus areas
PRINCE2 to embrace agile by applying the six aspects and very importantly their tolerances in an agile friendly way
Zero tolerance for extra time on all levels of plan, Considering that negative tolerance (the project should finish sooner) is not relevant, because the project should deliver “SHOULD” or “COULD” components in the remaining time.
Zero tolerance for extra cost on all levels of plan, The project cannot exceed the agreed budget.
Not all acceptance criteria and quality criteria are of equal importance, so they can be prioritised, It is necessary to fix essential customer quality expectations, but FLEX-ing those acceptance criteria is more desirable.
Fix and flex
Not everything the project aims to create is of equal importance, so they can be prioritised, There is zero tolerance (FIX) for essential products, but other products which are of lower priority might not be delivered.
Fix and flex
Tolerance to be defined to the needs of the Project Board and Project Manager as this depends on the specific situation, Tolerance to be defined according to the needs of the project board and Project Manager as this depends on the specific situation.
Fix or flex
Zero tolerance for the level that is defined as ‘minimum viability’ in the Business Case
Tolerance may be used above the level that is defined as ‘minimum viability’ in the Business Case
Fix or flex
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The most important, key position on PRINCE2 Agile® Practitioner exam.
The project manager performs this analysis and looks for each key area for possible or necessary improvements and gives insight how agile the project can be established.
Acceptance of agile;
Advantageous environmental conditions;
Ability to work iteratively and deliver incrementally;
Ease of communication;
Level of collaboration;
Flexibility on what is delivered.
Being on time and hitting deadlines using time-boxing techniques is already familiar to many agile practitioners and this enables the earlier realization of benefits for the customer.
Why this is important?, Early realisation of benefits, Helps with planning, Gives confidence, There may be no choice, Reduce the likelihood of cost overruns, Improves reputation
Protecting the level of quality of the delivered product(s) reduces their overall cost of ownership and increases user engagement.
Why this is important?, Damaging effects result from:, Reduced testing, Incomplete documentation, Sub-optimal design, Lack of appropriate training, Non-compliance to standards
Embracing change enables the delivery of products better able to meet users’ needs - so bringing about more beneficial business outcomes.
Why this is important?, It is inevitable, A more accurate final product is more likely, Can be handled by flexing what is delivered
Keeping teams stable enables teams to work more efficiently.
Why this is important?, Changing team members can have a detrimental affect such as:, Time spent bringing new team members up to speed, Number of communication lines in the team grows exponentially, An opportunity cost incurred to the areas providing the new people, The team dynamics change and need to be re-established
Accept that the customer doesn’t need everything which was defined on the project at the start. As the project progresses it is typical for users to evolve their understanding of what is required and the project needs to reflect this.
Why this is important?, Usually, not everything defined at the start must be delivered, Many functions and features are rarely, or never used, It is the safest area to compromise on, This helps when trying to hit deadlines and protect the level of quality, Delivers what the customer really wants more quickly