Psychosocial Development of Adolescence

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Psychosocial Development of Adolescence by Mind Map: Psychosocial Development of Adolescence

1. Achievement

1.1. Adolescent Issue

1.1.1. Achievement:

1.1.1.1. The psychosocial domain concerning behaviors and feelings in evaluative situations.

1.1.2. What you do (job) is part of one’s identity.

1.1.3. Special during adolescence because:

1.1.3.1. raises questions about nature of prep young people receive and the process that sort them into occupational roles.

1.1.3.2. School achievement is apparent as early as 1st grade, but can’t fully appreciate until adolescence.

1.1.3.3. Many choices: will influence earnings, lifestyle, identity, & psychosocial development.

1.1.4. Puberty:

1.1.4.1. Transition into high school is usually marked by temporary drop in motivation to achieve.

1.1.4.2. Attention on other issues such as dating and sex.

1.1.4.3. Worry about peer pressure, and “looking cool”, is doing well going to make them look like a nerd?

1.1.4.4. What is gender appropriate for/to them?

1.1.5. Cognitive Change:

1.1.5.1. Realize higher level thinking

1.1.5.2. Ability to think in hypothetical terms: “Should I go to college after I graduate or work?”, “If I go to college, then…”

1.1.6. Social Roles:

1.1.6.1. Child labor laws prohibit formal employment of kids under 14.

1.1.6.2. Transition into new roles is probably most important influence on achievement.

1.1.6.3. Society has structured the worlds of school and work so that major decisions about school & work take place in adolescence.

1.2. Motives & Beliefs

1.2.1. Success is partly determined by sheer ability.; Talent, desire, determination

1.2.2. Classic study of preschoolers 50 yrs ago: Choose get a marshmallow now or wait 15 mins and get 2 of them.

1.2.2.1. The children who chose to wait were far more likely to be successful in school, throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

1.2.3. Conscientiousness as well as intelligence.

1.2.4. Fear of failure:

1.2.4.1. manifests as test anxiety, can interfere with successful performance.

1.2.4.2. A little anxiety can be a good thing- increase focus

1.2.4.3. Studies of Affluent adolescents under strong pressure fine that it isn’t parent’s pressure to do well, but parent criticism that create mental health problem.

1.2.4.4. Underachievers:

1.2.4.4.1. Individuals whose actual school performance is lower than what would be expected on the basis of objective measures of their aptitude or intelligence.

1.2.5. Self-Handicapping:

1.2.5.1. 1. Deliberately behaving in ways that will likely interfere with doing well, in order to have an excuse for failing.

1.2.5.2. 2. Want to appear uninterested for social gain.

1.2.5.3. 3. Want an excuse for poor performance other than lack of ability.

1.2.5.4. 4. Want to downplay importance of academics as response to poor performance.

1.2.5.5. 5. Ex: class clown, procrastination, incomplete hw, excessive partying

1.2.5.6. 6. Happens to boys and girls:

1.2.5.6.1. *Boys tend to handicap to attribute poor performance to lack of effort

1.2.5.6.2. * Girls tend to blame emotional problems

1.2.5.7. 7. Ethnic minorities who disengage because they think in the long term they will be limited by discrimination and prejudice, not worth the effort.

1.2.6. Goal Orientation

1.2.6.1. 1. Mastery Motivation

1.2.6.1.1. “Intrinsic” -Motivation to succeed based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task.

1.2.6.2. 2. Performance Motivation

1.2.6.2.1. “Extrinsic”-Motivation to succeed based on the rewards one will receive for successful performance.

1.2.6.3. Tends to be a worrisome drop in mastery motivation as students transition from elementary school into secondary school because teachers are more performance oriented and less mastery oriented during this time.

1.2.6.4. Parents and adults can influence by using reward/punishment system for grades= student develops performance motivation and will not do as well in the long run.

1.2.7. Importance of Beliefs

1.2.7.1. How we behave in achievement situations is also influenced by our beliefs about our abilities and chances for success & failure.

1.2.7.1.1. Ex. think you are good at math, so you take more classes of math that challenge you.

1.2.7.2. Stereotype Threat:

1.2.7.2.1. the harmful effect that exposure to stereotypes about ethnic or sex differences in ability has on student performance.

1.2.7.2.2. Stereotypes change over time, and so does the strength of threat effect.

1.2.7.2.3. “Obama effect”- Black achievement went up because worldwide attention to his accomplishment, positive role model.

1.2.7.2.4. Girls’s performance in math and science have improved.

1.2.7.3. Intelligence:

1.2.7.3.1. Other studies suggest that the way in which adolescents think about intelligence in general (+ about their own) also enters into the equation.

1.2.7.3.2. What’s especially crucial is whether intelligence is thought of as something that is fixed or something that is changeable.

1.2.7.3.3. 3 Factors interact to predict student behavior in school:

1.2.7.4. Classroom

1.2.7.4.1. A classroom that makes performance more important than learning- grades over mastery of material-

1.2.7.4.2. In classroom where teachers are very performance oriented (rather than mastery)-

1.2.7.5. Attributions for Success & Failure

1.2.7.5.1. achievement attributions:

1.2.7.5.2. Individuals attribute performance to:

1.2.7.5.3. How student interprets failures:

1.2.7.5.4. Research on adolescent’s attributions suggests not dismissing low achieving students as having “low needs for achievement” or “low intelligence”

1.3. Environmental Influences

1.3.1. School Environment

1.3.1.1. physical facilities, opportunities of enrichment programs, classroom atmosphere.

1.3.1.2. Most successful schools are more personal, less departmentalized, and less rigidly tracked, team teaching

1.3.1.3. “Students who attend schools with a high concentration of poor, minority students are especially disadvantaged, as are students from single-parent families” (pg. 380)

1.3.2. Home Environment

1.3.2.1. Achievement directly related to parent’s values

1.3.2.2. Expect a lot, student learns to set high expectation for self.

1.3.2.3. Parents must encourage school success by structuring home environment to suit study time & time management.

1.3.2.4. Parents must be involved in their child’s education- attend programs, help in course selection, maintain interest in assignments and activities.

1.3.2.5. Parental involvement seems especially strong influence on achievement of Mexican American youth, perhaps due to importance of family in culture.

1.3.2.6. Authoritative-warm, fair, firm- linked to success

1.3.2.6.1. Parents can promote development of healthy achievement orientation. including emphasis on mastery, possibly strong work ethic.

1.3.2.6.2. Can help student adjust to middle school and/or turn around their academic performance in high school.

1.3.2.7. Authoritarian- and inept associated with lower school engagement and diminished achievement

1.3.2.8. Excessively permissive parenting is associated with higher rates of dropping out of school.

1.3.2.9. “Students also perform better when the values and expectations they encounter at home are consistent with those they encounter in school” (pg 382).

1.3.2.10. Quality of Home Environment

1.3.2.10.1. Measured by having item: TV, dictionary, encyclopedia, newspaper, vacuum cleaner, & other indicators of family income is strongly correlated with academic success than the quality of school facilities, background/training of teachers, or level of teacher salary paid by district.

1.3.2.10.2. Cultural Capital:

1.3.2.10.3. Social Capital:

1.3.2.11. Influence of friends:

1.3.2.11.1. “Having friends who earn high grades and aspire to further education can enhance adolescent’s achievement, whereas having friends who earn low grades or disparage school success may interfere with it” (p. 383).

1.3.2.11.2. Less likely to drop out.

1.3.2.11.3. May affect with classes student takes, such as increase girl’s who take math & science.

1.3.2.11.4. One study found that by 8th grade students didn’t want their classmates to know that they worked hard in school, even though knows it is a favorable impression to teachers.

1.3.2.11.5. Peers and Parents more strongly influence achievement in countries with schools of heterogeneous groups of students like in US.

1.4. Educational Achievement

1.4.1. School performance:

1.4.1.1. A measure of achievement based on an individual’s grades in school.

1.4.2. Academic achievement

1.4.2.1. Achievement that is measured by standardized tests of scholastic ability or knowledge.

1.4.3. Educational attainment:

1.4.3.1. The number of years of schooling completed by an individual.

1.4.3.2. When students enter labor force, those with a college degree earn twice as much per year as do individuals with only a h.s. diploma.

1.4.4. Socioeconomic Status gives students a head start

1.4.5. Intervention prior to 1st grade is important in preventing long-term academic problems among impoverished adolescents

1.4.6. Ethnic Differences:

1.4.6.1. Black & Hispanic students lag behind Whites, and all 3 are behind Asian students.

1.4.6.2. Theories why don’t reach the same goals:

1.4.6.2.1. Minority youths don't believe educational success will pay off in long run because of discrimination and prejudice.

1.4.6.2.2. Fear of failure

1.4.6.2.3. Burden of “Acting White”

1.4.6.3. Asian cultures tend to place more emphasis on effort than on ability, likely to believe all students have capacity to succeed.

1.4.6.3.1. Motivated by mastery

1.4.6.3.2. Asian students, both in US & in Asia spend significantly more time each week on hw and school related activities, & significantly less time socializing, watching TV than other youth.

1.4.6.3.3. Engagement in academics is linked to positive emotion and well-being.

1.4.6.4. Immigrants:

1.4.6.4.1. Foreign born adolescents as well as children of immigrants tend to achieve more in school than do minority youngsters who are 2nd and 3rd generation Americans

1.4.7. “…students achieve more when they feel a sense of belonging to their school, when they see the connection between academic accomplishment and future success, and their friends and parents values and support educational achievement and when their parents are effective monitors of their children’s behavior and schooling” (p. 390).

1.4.8. Changes in Educational Achievement Over Time

1.4.8.1. 3/4 of high school graduates enroll in college, 2/3 immediately after graduation

1.4.8.2. College graduates ages 25+

1.4.8.2.1. Non-Hispanic White: 35% Asians: 50% Black: 20% Hispanic: 14%

1.4.8.3. Adults who Completed High School:

1.4.8.3.1. Non-Hispanic White: 90% Asian: 88% Black: 82% Hispanic: 62%

1.4.8.4. Students staying in school longer, but not necessarily learning more.

1.4.8.5. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

1.4.8.5.1. A periodic testing of American 4th, 8th, 12th graders

1.4.8.5.2. Conducted by Federal government in order to track trends in educational achievement over time.

1.4.8.5.3. 40 yrs of testing.

1.4.8.5.4. Students making gains in elementary, holding ground in middle school, and losing ground in HS.

1.4.8.5.5. Science scores have declined in late 1990s and remain flat.

1.4.8.5.6. Math has improved steadily since 1970s.

1.4.8.5.7. Reading has barely increased since 1970. (can be because most are functionally literate?)

1.4.8.6. International Competition:

1.4.8.6.1. At elementary level, comparable, at middle school global gap widens, and high school significant gap

1.4.8.6.2. According to recent comparison: 15 yr old US kids rank slightly above average in reading, well below average in science, & near bottom of list in math.

1.4.8.6.3. Spending on education is among world’s highest, yet US still performing poorly.

1.4.8.6.4. WHY?

1.4.8.7. Dropping Out of High School

1.4.8.7.1. Dropouts far more likely to live at poverty level, to experience unemployment, to depend on government subsidized income maintenance programs, to be a pregnant teen, to be involved w/ delinquent and criminal activity.

1.4.8.7.2. Ages 16-24 who are not enrolled in school and who have not earned a high school diploma or GED- dropout rate has declined steadily over past 50 yrs. to about 8%

1.4.8.7.3. HUGE variations based on location: some urban districts have 50% of students leave school early.

1.4.8.7.4. Many hs dropouts had to repeat one or more grades, being held back is one of strongest predictors of dropping

1.4.8.7.5. Dropping out is a process characterized by a history of repeated academic failure and increasing alienation from school.

1.4.8.7.6. .

1.4.8.7.7. Four distinct groups of dropouts:

1.4.8.7.8. 1/3 to 1/2 of all dropouts obtain their GED later.

1.4.8.7.9. School Factors:

1.5. Occupational Achievement

1.5.1. The Development of Occupational Plans

1.5.1.1. Apprenticeships common in Europe.

1.5.1.2. Most industrialized societies, it is rare to start career as adolescent.

1.5.1.3. Fast food, restaurant, and retail jobs provide fewer opportunities to build career-related skills whereas office & clerical jobs are among the best.

1.5.1.3.1. NOT SURE I AGREE WITH THIS

1.5.2. Influences on Occupational Choices

1.5.2.1. 1. Work Values

1.5.2.1.1. the particular sorts of rewards an individual looks for in a job

1.5.2.1.2. Underestimate importance of other factors that influence vocational decisions

1.5.2.1.3. What jobs are accessible or “appropriate: for them by interest and preference.

1.5.2.1.4. One Study found that early adolescent Mexican American girls were more likely than Black or White girls to have stereotypical female career goals (p. 397).

1.5.2.2. 2. Occupational Attainment

1.5.2.2.1. A measure of achievement based on the status or prestige of the job an individual holds.

1.5.2.2.2. Socioeconomic status and of those around them influential.

1.5.2.2.3. Development of achievement motivation

1.5.2.2.4. Family connections- middle class leadership, more resources and information

1.5.2.2.5. Financially supported by family means more time to explore career options

1.5.2.2.6. Parents, siblings, serve as models of occupational choices

1.5.2.2.7. Value context- middle class families tend to encourage children to:

1.5.2.2.8. Told how important freedom, power, & status are.

1.5.2.2.9. Middle class traits valued in working class jobs: conformity and obedience.

1.5.2.2.10. One study of inner-city youths found that many had developed their ideas about their future job prospects by the time they were in 2nd grade.

1.5.2.2.11. “Today’s young people see work as a less central part of life than their counterparts did in the past” (p. 399)

1.5.2.2.12. Sex differences:

1.5.2.2.13. Career counselors needed to provide more information because rapid pace labor market changes.

2. Identity

2.1. Adolescent Issue

2.1.1. Puberty: Body is changing, sees self & others changing, thus self-image changes.

2.1.2. Cognitive

2.1.2.1. Possible Selves: the various identities an adolescent might image for him/her -self.

2.1.2.2. Future Orientation: the extent to which an individual is able & inclined to think about the potential consequences of decisions/choices

2.1.3. Social Role

2.1.3.1. "What do I really want out of life?"

2.1.3.2. “What’s important to me?”

2.1.3.3. “What kind of person would I really like to be?”

2.1.3.4. Researcher's approaches to how ID changes over time:

2.1.3.4.1. 1. Self-conceptions: the traits & attributes individuals see in themselves

2.1.3.4.2. 2. Self-esteem: "self-image"- how positively or negatively they feel about themselves

2.1.3.4.3. 3. Sense of Identity: the sense of who one is, where one comes from, and where one is going.

2.2. Changes in Self-Perceptions

2.2.1. Realize that their personality is expressed in different ways depending on different situations

2.2.2. Self descriptions take into account who is describing; realize they may come off differently to other people

2.2.2.1. “Neuroimaging studies show that adolescents’ self-conceptions may be particularly sensitive to the opinions of others” (Steinberg, 2014, p. 244).

2.2.3. Recognize but don’t always understand or reconcile inconsistencies & contradictions in their personality.

2.2.4. Development of more complicated view of self is one way can cope with faults & weaknesses, self awareness.

2.2.5. Can distinguish between actual self (who they really are) vs ideal self (who they want to be) vs feared self (who they most dread becoming)

2.2.6. False-self Behavior: behavior that intentionally presents a false impression to others.

2.2.6.1. Ex. trying to impress someone on a date, or hide an aspect of personality that others may not like.

2.2.7. Five-factor model: theory that there are 5 basic dimensions to personality.

2.2.7.1. 1. Extraversion: how outgoing and energetic person is

2.2.7.2. 2. Agreeableness: how kind, sympathetic

2.2.7.3. 3. Conscientiousness: how responsible & organized

2.2.7.4. 4. Neuroticism: how anxious or tense

2.2.7.5. 5. Openness to Experience:how curious and imaginative

2.2.8. Genetic & Environmental Influences on Personality

2.2.8.1. May inherit trait from family, or family encouraged trait showing at early age.

2.2.8.2. “Longitudinal studies show that both temperament and personality become increasingly stable as we grow older, in part because we tend to spend time in environments that reward and reinforce the traits that draw us to those settings” (p. 246).

2.2.9. Girls mature earlier, but boys catch up over time so that at end of adolescence there is no gender difference in maturity.

2.2.10. Core traits such as impulsivity or timidity are quite stable thu childhood and adolescence and young adulthood.

2.2.11. Extroversion appears especially to be stable over time.

2.3. Changes in Self-Esteem

2.3.1. Stability

2.3.1.1. Adolescent’s feeling about themselves fluctuate from day to day

2.3.1.2. From 8th grade on, self-esteem remains highly stable.

2.3.1.3. Statistical analysis shows that there has been no appreciable increase in American adolescent’s self-esteem during the past several decades.

2.3.2. Aspects of Self-Image

2.3.2.1. 1. Self-esteem: how positively/negatively feel about themselves

2.3.2.1.1. Differs based on relationship: parents vs. peers vs. friends vs, public

2.3.2.1.2. Physical appearance seems to be most important predictor of overall self-esteem, followed by self-esteem about relationships with peers

2.3.2.2. 2. Self consciousness: how much they worry about about their self-image

2.3.2.2.1. Evaluate themselves both globally (which may be a good indicator of general psychological well-being)

2.3.2.2.2. But also along several distinct dimensions such as academics, athletics, appearance, social relationships, and more conduct.

2.3.2.3. 3. Self-image stability: how much their self-image changes from day to day.

2.3.2.3.1. The extent to which an individual’s self-image is volatile is itself a fairly stable trait.

2.3.3. Group Differences

2.3.3.1. Sex Differences

2.3.3.1.1. Early adolescent girls more vulnerable to disturbances in their self-image than other group of youngsters.

2.3.3.2. Ethnic Differences

2.3.3.2.1. Black youth have higher self-esteem than Whites, who have higher than Hispanics, Asian, or Native American youths.

2.3.3.2.2. Asian have high rejection rates by peers.

2.3.3.2.3. Blacks have such high esteem because:

2.3.3.3. Consequences

2.3.3.3.1. Influenced by peers, parents, school success

2.3.3.3.2. Enhanced esteem doesn't lead to school success; Success leads to high esteem.

2.3.3.3.3. Low self esteem is a symptom of depression and other emotional problems

2.3.3.3.4. Cause and effect are difficult to untangle.

2.4. Adolescent Identity Crisis

2.4.1. Erikson’s Theoretical Framework

2.4.1.1. Identity versus Identity Diffusion

2.4.1.1.1. The normative crisis characteristic of the 5th stage of psychosocial development, predominate during adolescence.

2.4.1.1.2. The establishment of a coherent sense of identity.

2.4.1.1.3. Other people become a mirror and react to the adolescent.

2.4.1.1.4. They learn from others what they should keep doing and what they should stop doing.

2.4.1.1.5. Sharing of important memories with others.

2.4.1.1.6. Developing identity is a social and mental process.

2.4.1.1.7. Adolescent forges an identity, but at same time, society identifies the adolescent.

2.4.2. Social Context

2.4.2.1. Will vary in different cultures, among different subcultures within same society, and over different historical eras.

2.4.2.2. Identity crisis prolonged and more prevalent around world today.

2.4.2.3. Psychosocial Moratorium:

2.4.2.3.1. Period during which individuals are free from excessive obligations and responsibilities and can therefore experiment with different roles and personalities

2.4.2.3.2. Ex. Adolescents remain in school a long time to seriously think about future plans without need to make decision

2.4.2.3.3. Environment must support growing into an adult identity, but many consider this time a luxury.

2.4.3. Resolving ID Crisis

2.4.3.1. “being at home in one’s body” (p. 256).

2.4.3.2. Series of crises that may concern different aspects of the young person’s identity and may surface and resurface thought out time and young adult years.

2.4.3.3. How to resolve?

2.4.3.3.1. 1. “informational” orientation: those who seek info and approach ID related decisions with an open mind

2.4.3.3.2. 2. “normative” orientation: those who attempt to conform to family and other social expectations and try to get ID related decisions overs quickly as possible.

2.4.3.3.3. 3. “diffuse/avoidant”: those who tend to procrastinate and avoid making identity-related decisions

2.4.3.3.4. 4. Agency: the sense that one has an impact on one’s world, take responsibility for themselves, feel in control of decisions, have confidence that they will be able to overcome obstacles along the way.

2.4.4. Problems in ID

2.4.4.1. Identity Diffusion:

2.4.4.1.1. The incoherent, disjointed, incomplete sense of self characteristic of not having resolved the crisis of identity.

2.4.4.1.2. Can be mild state of not quite knowing who one is to more severe psychopathological condition that persists beyond a normal period of exploration.

2.4.4.1.3. Marked by disruptions in individual’s sense of time, excessive self-consciousness, problems in work/school, difficulties forming intimate relationships with others, & concerns about sexuality.

2.4.4.1.4. Can be reflected in areas of autonomy, intimacy, sexuality, and achievement.

2.4.4.2. Identity Foreclosure:

2.4.4.2.1. The premature establishment of a sense of identity, before sufficient role experimentation has occurred.

2.4.4.2.2. Typically revolve around the goals set by parents or authority figures

2.4.4.2.3. Ex. College freshman who enrolls in rigorous courses to be a doctor because she decided to be a dr. when she was little without considering other career possibilities.

2.4.4.2.4. Interferes with discovery of full potential.

2.4.4.3. Negative Identity:

2.4.4.3.1. The selection of an identity that is obviously undesirable in the eyes of significant others and the broader community.

2.4.4.3.2. Forging sense of identity in an environment that made it difficult to establish an acceptable identity.

2.5. Research on ID Development

2.5.1. Determining Identity Status

2.5.1.1. Status is the point in the ID development process that characterizes an adolescent at a given time.

2.5.1.2. James Marcia (1966): focused on the processes of exploration & commitment

2.5.1.3. Some theorists distinguish between 2 stages:

2.5.1.3.1. 1. Exploration in “depth” (making a commitment to an identity and then exploring one’s options)

2.5.1.3.2. 2. Exploration in “breadth” (exploring one’s options and them making a further commitment)

2.5.1.4. Others see identity development as a more dynamic process w/individuals moving back & forth between commitment and exploration over time.

2.5.1.5. All agree that some degree of experimentation and exploration before one finalizes one’s choices about work, love, & lifestyle.

2.5.2. Interview/Questionnaire ID States:

2.5.2.1. Identity achievement- established coherent sense of identity (after period of exploration)

2.5.2.2. Moratorium- is in the midst of period of exploration

2.5.2.3. Identity foreclosure- made commitments but without a period of exploration

2.5.2.4. Identity diffusion- does not have firm commitments and is not currently trying to make them.

2.5.3. Studing ID Over Time

2.5.3.1. Studies show that coherent sense of ID is generally not established before age 18.

2.5.3.1.1. Esp. in Boys.

2.5.3.1.2. Clearly a decline with age in the proportion of individuals who are in a state of moratorium or diffusion.

2.5.3.1.3. But proportion who are in a state of ID achievement before late adolescence is low.

2.5.3.2. Less systematic change in ID than originally hypothesized.

2.5.3.2.1. Not all follow the pattern, regression is normal, some get stuck in a stage

2.5.3.2.2. Longitudinal study of Dutch youths:

2.5.4. Internal Factors:

2.5.4.1. Ex. Discontent w/ life

2.5.5. Life events or changes in circumstance:

2.5.5.1. Ex. Transitioning into or out of High School

2.5.5.2. "reminiscence bump”- putting more emphasis on events that took place during adolescence and young adulthood

2.5.6. College provides a psychosocial moratorium for many:

2.5.6.1. 1. may facilitate ID development

2.5.6.2. 2. may be simply maturation

2.6. Development of Ethnic ID

2.6.1. Ethnic Identity:

2.6.1.1. The aspect of individual’s sense of identity concerning ancestry or racial group membership

2.6.1.2. Whites can also identify w/ a group esp. working class: German, Irish, Italian, Jewish

2.6.2. Often the individual encounters prejudice and becomes aware of his/her group’s under-representation and then feels different from other adolescent’s backgrounds.

2.6.2.1. After, they engage period of exploration, during which immerse self in learning about their ethnic heritage.

2.6.3. Strong ethnic identity can help foster a sense of meaning in life.

2.6.4. Ethnic Socialization:

2.6.4.1. also called “racial socialization”

2.6.4.2. is process thru which individuals develop an understanding of their ethnic or racial background.

2.6.4.3. Parents can take an active role and teach child about heritage.

2.6.4.4. Focus on:

2.6.4.4.1. 1. Understanding & valuing culture

2.6.4.4.2. 2. Dealing with Racism

2.6.4.4.3. 3. Succeeding in mainstream society

2.6.4.5. May speed up process of development, but studies unclear whether it leads to a stronger sense of ethnic id.

2.6.4.6. “...many adolescents with a strong ethnic identity are members of peer crowds for which ethnicity is not a defining feature…” (Steinberg, 2014, p. 263).

2.6.4.7. Mental health of ethnic minority youth also affected by their orientation to mainstream culture.

2.6.4.8. “savvy biculturalism”- having a strong positive ethnic identity and healthy awareness of potential discrimination, but not outright rejection of mainstream.

2.6.4.9. Recent immigrants: report high levels of academic, familial, social, & economic stress.

2.6.4.9.1. Foreign born ethnic minorities tend to express more positive feelings about mainstream American ideals than those whose families have been in US longer.

2.6.4.9.2. Immigrant Paradox

2.6.5. Discrimination & Effects

2.6.5.1. 1. “perpetual foreigners”- stereotype given to those that speak with an accent, can lead to discrimination & victimization.

2.6.5.2. 2. Perceived discrimination-> Depression & Alienation-> Affiliation w/ antisocial peers-> Risky & Antisocial behavior.

2.6.6. Multidimensional model of racial identity:

2.6.6.1. Developed by psychologist Robert Sellers & colleagues.

2.6.6.2. Racial centrality- how important race is defining individual’s ID

2.6.6.3. Private Regard- how individuals feel about being a member of their race

2.6.6.4. Public Regard- how individuals think others feel about their race.

2.6.7. If race is central to ID then the adolescent may become too sensitive to discrimination and suffer mentally.

2.6.8. Multiethnic:

2.6.8.1. Having 2 parents of different ethnic or racial backgrounds.

2.6.8.2. Difficult to classify.

2.6.8.3. Melissa Herman examined what biracial adolescents do when forced to choose one ethnic identity

2.6.8.3.1. They described their parents, and then themselves.

2.6.8.4. Based on physical appearance and ethnic background of friends.

2.6.8.5. “Monoracial”-identifying self as 1 ethnic group.

2.6.8.6. Multiethnic individuals change identities often between adolescence and young adulthood.

2.6.8.6.1. Esp. common with Native Americans

2.7. Gender Role Development

2.7.1. Perhaps in past there were differences due to expectations, but now it is accepted that there is no difference in ability.

2.8. Females: “people-oriented”

2.8.1. Express aggression socially or verbally.

2.8.2. Intimacy expressed verbally

2.8.3. More prone to depression/ low self-esteem

2.9. Males: more “things-oriented”

2.9.1. Express aggression physically.

2.9.2. Intimacy expressed w/ activities.

2.10. Gender Intensification Hypothesis

2.10.1. The idea that pressures to behave in a sex-appropriate way intensify during adolescence.

2.10.2. Depends on context of adolescent’s lives: sex, birth order, parental attitudes.

2.11. Masculinity & Feminity

2.11.1. Those that act gender appropriate were more accepted by peers.

2.11.2. Being gender different is costly for boys than girls.

2.11.2.1. Ex. tomboy or tomgirl is fine, but a boy wearing pink or "girly" things can cause problems & makes others feel uncomfortable.

2.11.2.2. .

2.11.3. As result boys cut back on being feminine like emotionally expressive.

2.11.4. “macho” or overly manly-

2.11.4.1. Boys can have behavioral problems, experiment with delinquency, drugs, alcohol, unprotected sex.

2.11.5. Overly feminine girls may develop psychological issues like disordered eating.

3. Autonomy

3.1. Adolescent Issue

3.1.1. Independence: generally refers to individual’s capacity to behave on their own

3.1.2. Autonomy: emotional, cognitive, behavioral components.

3.1.2.1. Self-governing

3.1.2.2. Feeling independent & thinking for oneself.

3.1.2.3. Not to be confused w/ rebellion, often equated as a break away from family.

3.1.3. Puberty:

3.1.3.1. Evolutionary perspective: independence-seeking can be seen as natural consequence of individual’s sexual & physical maturation.

3.1.3.2. Seek emotional support from peers rather than family.

3.1.3.3. Look older, adults tend to give more mature looking kids more autonomy.

3.1.4. Cognitive Change:

3.1.4.1. Being able to make independent decisions.

3.1.4.2. Able to take into account other people’s perspectives

3.1.4.3. Reason in sophisticated ways, foresee consequences of actions.

3.1.4.4. Provides logical changes in thinking about social, moral, & ethical problems.

3.1.4.4.1. Prerequisites to developing own values system, right & wrong, not merely accepting rules or parental regulations.

3.1.5. Social Roles:

3.1.5.1. Drivers License, new privileges, a Job, being able to legally drink, to vote- require more responsibility.

3.1.6. Types of Autonomy:

3.1.6.1. 1. Emotional

3.1.6.1.1. The establishment of more adult-like & less childish close relationships with family members & peers.

3.1.6.2. 2. Behavioral

3.1.6.2.1. The capacity to make independent decisions & to follow through with them.

3.1.6.3. 3. Cognitive

3.1.6.3.1. Also called "value autonomy"

3.1.6.3.2. The establishment of an independent set of values, opinions, & beliefs.

3.2. Development of Emotional Autonomy

3.2.1. Psychoanalytic Theory & Detachment

3.2.1.1. Detachment: the process of severing emotional attachments to their parents or other authority figures.

3.2.1.2. Anna Freud (1958):

3.2.1.2.1. Puberty changes cause disruption and conflict in the family system because repressed sexual impulses are reawakened.

3.2.1.2.2. Revolving around an unconscious attraction toward parent of opposite sex & ambivalence toward parent of same sex.

3.2.1.3. Believed the absence of conflict was a bad sign.

3.2.1.3.1. Conflict is natural and necessary.

3.2.1.4. Research: doesn't support Freud's view.

3.2.1.4.1. “...every major study done to date of teenagers’ relations with their parents has shown that most families get along quite well during adolescent years” (p. 277).

3.2.1.4.2. Bickering doesn't diminish closeness.

3.2.1.4.3. Most report growing closer to parents esp. after transition to college.

3.2.1.4.4. Emotional Autonomy is a “...transformation, not a breaking off, of family relationships” (p. 277)

3.2.2. Individuation:

3.2.2.1. The progressive sharpening of an individual’s sense of being an autonomous, independent person.

3.2.2.1.1. Relinquish childish dependencies.

3.2.2.1.2. Doesn't involve stress & turmoil.

3.2.2.1.3. Accept responsibility for their choices and actions instead of looking to parents to do it for them.

3.2.2.2. Research:

3.2.2.2.1. Studies show development is a long process- early in adolescence to young adulthood.

3.2.2.2.2. One study questionnaire measured 4 aspects of emotional autonomy to sample of 10-15 yr olds.

3.2.2.2.3. Boys report homesickness at summer camp: became less prevalent during middle adolescence.

3.2.2.2.4. Adolescent’s willingness to express negative emotions (anger or sadness) in front of parents is lower during early adolescence than before or after.

3.2.2.3. De-Idealization

3.2.2.3.1. 1st sign of individualization

3.2.2.3.2. Is the beginning, not end of process to adopt more realistic views of parents.

3.2.2.3.3. Happens later in relation to father because he seems to interact less often with adolescents in ways that permit them to be seen as individuals.

3.2.2.4. Connection

3.2.2.4.1. Important to distinguish between separating from one’s parents in a way that maintains emotional closeness in the relationship (which is healthy) and breaking away from one’s parents in a fashion that involves alienation, conflict, hostility.

3.2.2.5. What Triggers Individualization?

3.2.2.5.1. 1. Puberty: looking and thinking differently

3.2.2.5.2. 2. Social-cognitive: thinking we do about ourselves and our relationship with others.

3.2.2.6. Problems occur when adolescent wants independence at an earlier age than parents are willing to grant.

3.2.2.6.1. Leaving idea behind that parents are all knowing and all powerful is frightening and liberating.

3.2.2.6.2. Increased feelings of anxiety and rejection among parents, as parents become "people."

3.2.2.7. Parenting Practices

3.2.2.7.1. Strained family relationships appear to be associated with a LACK of autonomy during adolescence rather than with its presence.

3.2.2.7.2. Psychological control: parenting that attempts to control adolescent’s emotions & opinions.

3.2.2.7.3. Parenting Styles:

3.3. Development of Behavioral Autonomy

3.3.1. Changes in Decision Making Abilities

3.3.1.1. Can hold multiple viewpoints in mind to make comparisons and weighing options and advice of others.

3.3.2. Improvements to Decisions

3.3.2.1. Mid-Late adolescence.

3.3.2.2. 1. There is a decline over the course of adolescence to the extent to which decisions are influenced by immediate reward; reward vs cost of action.

3.3.2.2.1. “reward sensitivity”

3.3.2.2.2. Drawn to immediate reward more than adults are.

3.3.2.3. 2. Individual’s ability to control their impulses

3.3.2.3.1. Brain regions of self regulation still developing (Frontal Cortex)

3.3.2.3.2. With age, they get better at thinking ahead, imagining & analyzing consequences, seeking & evaluating other’s advice.

3.3.2.3.3. Combo of heightened reward sensitivity+immature impulse control=potential for lots of risky behavior.

3.3.3. Legal Decisions

3.3.3.1. Researchers find adolescents are less likely than adults to think about long-term implications of their decisions,

3.3.3.2. More likely to focus on immediate consequences.

3.3.3.3. Less able to understand the ways in which other’s positions might bias their interests.

3.3.4. When do they make Decisions as well as Adults?

3.3.4.1. Debates on having to make medical or legal decisions w/o parents, where to draw legal boundary for driving, alcohol, cigarettes, or tried in adult court.

3.3.4.2. Difficulty results from:

3.3.4.2.1. 1. Cognitive abilities (logical reasoning) & Psychological factors (impulse control)

3.3.4.2.2. 2. Skills appear at slightly different timelines for everyone

3.3.4.3. They may think like adults, but act immaturely.

3.3.4.3.1. -used as evidence for juvenile court to not have teens convicted of adult crimes.

3.3.5. Changes in Susceptibility to Influence

3.3.5.1. Opinions and advice of peers and other adults outside family become very important.

3.3.5.2. When parents and peers give conflicting advice, do teens tend to follow one group over the other more?

3.3.5.3. Influence of parents & peers:

3.3.5.3.1. 1. Researchers have studied conformity & peer pressure.

3.3.5.3.2. 2. In general, sway of parent or friend is based on situation.

3.3.5.3.3. 3.Short-term situations- what to wear, musical taste, choice of leisure activities, social matters goes to peer opinion

3.3.5.3.4. 4. Long-term situations- like educational or occupational plans, values, ethics, religious beliefs goes to parent influence

3.3.5.3.5. 5. In general, when teen problems center on relationship with a friend, they turn to a peer, a preference that becomes stronger w/ age.

3.3.5.3.6. 6. Teens willingness to turn to adult for advice (esp ones with good healthy parent relationships) remains very strong & increases as individual moves toward late adolescence.

3.3.5.4. Responding to Peer Pressure

3.3.5.4.1. Pressure of friends vs Individual’s own opinion

3.3.5.4.2. Studies show that conformity to peers is higher during middle adolescence than later.

3.3.5.4.3. Some studies show conformity peers around age 14, whereas others find no change during this time or that preadolescents are more susceptible than teenagers.

3.3.5.4.4. Research:

3.3.5.4.5. Individual Differences

3.3.5.4.6. Studies of Brain Development

3.3.5.4.7. Authoritative parents best at deterring peer pressure.

3.3.6. Ethnic & Cultural Differences in Expectation

3.3.6.1. Mental health is best when desire for autonomy matches their expectations for what their parents are willing to grant.

3.3.6.2. White adolescents have earlier expectations for autonomy than do Asian adolescents and parents from the same countries.

3.3.6.3. Studies in behavioral autonomy indicated sex and birth order differences tend to be very small and are often inconsistent.

3.3.6.3.1. *CONTRARY to popular belief.

3.3.6.4. Traditional households with belief in gender roles give more autonomy to sons.

3.3.6.5. Educated parents give more autonomy on daughters, perhaps because easier to supervise.

3.3.6.6. Sex differences more pronounced in Black households when compared to other ethnic groups- boys given more freedom than girls

3.3.6.7. Immigrants- children tend to acculturate more quickly to new culture than parents

3.3.6.8. “Adolescents’ expectations for autonomy are shaped to a great extent by their perceptions of how much independence their friends have,” (pg. 289).

3.3.7. Changes in Self-Reliance

3.3.7.1. Third approach to studying behavioral autonomy focuses on adolescent’s own judgement of how autonomous they are.

3.3.7.2. Asked them to complete standardized tests of self-reliance.

3.3.7.2.1. - results show that subjective feelings of autonomy increase steadily over adolescent years.

3.3.7.2.2. Adolescent Girls reported feeling more self-reliant than boys.

3.3.7.2.3. Adolescents may not see own peer pressure affected behavior has sign of low autonomy but chance to make own decisions.

3.4. Development of Cognitive Autonomy

3.4.1. Changes in beliefs, opinions, and values & study how they thinking about moral, political, and religious issues.

3.4.2. Trends:

3.4.2.1. 1. Become abstract in way they think about moral, etc

3.4.2.2. 2. Beliefs become increasingly rooted in general principles.

3.4.2.3. 3. Beliefs become increasingly founded in young person’s own values, not merely system of values passed on by parents/authority figures.

3.4.3. Individuals with stronger sense of cognitive autonomy show more maturity in other psychological domains as well such as ID development & self awareness.

3.4.4. Moral Development:

3.4.4.1. Most widely studied aspect of cognitive autonomy.

3.4.4.2. Involves reasoning (how individuals think about moral dilemmas) & behavior (how they behave in situations that call for moral judgement)

3.4.4.3. Prosocial behavior: behavior intended to help others.

3.4.4.4. Assessing Moral Reasoing

3.4.4.4.1. Dominate theoretical viewpoint is grounded in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development- changes in structure & organization of thought rather than on changes in its content.

3.4.4.4.2. Lawrence Kohlberg expanded theory.

3.4.4.4.3. Assess by examining responses to hypothetical moral dilemmas about difficult, real-world situations, interview or questionnaire.

3.4.4.5. Stages of Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg suggested 3 levels-

3.4.4.5.1. 1. Preconventional morality

3.4.4.5.2. 2. Conventional morality

3.4.4.5.3. 3. Post-conventional morality

3.4.4.6. Studies have confirmed Kohlberg’s suggestions that moral reasoning becomes more principled over time.

3.4.4.7. Some evidence that development of advanced moral reasoning among Black youth is facilitated by commitment to traditional African values of spirituality and community.

3.4.4.8. Most adults reach a plateau in moral reasoning after completing their formal education.

3.4.4.9. Moral Reasoning & Moral Behavior

3.4.4.9.1. On average individuals who reason at higher stages behave in more moral ways.

3.4.4.9.2. Sometimes still situational:

3.4.4.9.3. Correlation between adolescents’ moral reasoning and their moral behavior is especially likely to break down when they define issues as personal choices rather than ethical dilemmas.

3.4.4.9.4. Moral disengagement

3.4.5. Prosocial Reasoning, Behavior, & Volunteerism

3.4.5.1. Changes in Reasoning:

3.4.5.1.1. The way individual thinks about prosocial phenomena such as honesty or kindness, become more sophisticated during late adolescence.

3.4.5.1.2. Increases and levels off during early 20s.

3.4.5.1.3. Parenting: authoritative, adolescents are allowed in discussion, can express own view, practice reasoning in family before with peers, more likely to feel sympathy toward others, empathy and emotion regulation

3.4.5.2. Behavior

3.4.5.2.1. Those that volunteer or were made aware of the suffering of others while a child tend to show more advanced prosocial reasoning.

3.4.5.2.2. Less likely to behavior violently after having witnessed violence themselves (pg 295).

3.4.5.2.3. Females tend to score higher on measures of prosocial reasoning than males, as do males & females who are relatively more feminine.

3.4.5.3. Research: not always consistent

3.4.5.3.1. 1. Some find adolescents become more empathetic and helpful as they age but many do not.

3.4.5.3.2. 2. Some find that they become less helpful toward others over high school years.

3.4.5.3.3. 3. Studies reveal prosocial behavior is stable over time and across different contexts.

3.4.5.3.4. 4. Girls tend to be more caring perhaps due to parental emphasis and the way they are socialized to nurture.

3.4.5.3.5. 5. “Encouraging adolescents to spend time thinking about what’s important to them seems to increase their tendency to act prosocially” (pg. 295).

3.4.5.4. Civic Engagement

3.4.5.4.1. Involvement in political & community affairs, as reflected in knowledge about politics & current affairs, participation in conventional & alternative political activities, and engaging in community service.

3.4.5.4.2. Studies have found only a small portion of young people are politically engaged.

3.4.5.4.3. .

3.4.5.5. Service Learning

3.4.5.5.1. The process of learning through involvement in community service.

3.4.5.6. Consequences of involvement:

3.4.5.6.1. Best predictor of volunteerism (besides attending a school that requires it) is participation in religion & having parents who are active volunteers in community.

3.4.5.6.2. Volunteers tend to be female, more socially mature, more extroverted, more altruistic.

3.4.5.6.3. Gains in social responsibility, increases in the importance individuals place on helping others, and increases commitment to tolerance, equal opportunity, & cultural diversity

3.4.5.6.4. Evidence is mixed about the effects of choosing it and it being forced upon them.

3.4.6. Political Thinking

3.4.6.1. Becomes more abstract: “What is the purpose of laws?”

3.4.6.2. Individual’s understanding of rights becomes more abstract

3.4.6.3. Becomes less authoritarian and less rigid

3.4.6.4. Increasing use of principles

3.4.6.4.1. ex. civil liberties, freedom of speech, and social equality

3.4.6.4.2. Linked to Social Class

3.4.6.5. Depends on context when young person comes of age. Historical environment.

3.4.6.5.1. .

3.4.7. Religious Beliefs

3.4.7.1. Less Oriented toward rituals, practices, and strict observance of religious customs.

3.4.7.1.1. 90% of all american adolescents pray, 95% believe in God, substantial portion does not feel organized religion plays a very important role in their lives.

3.4.7.1.2. More importance placed on what the individual believes (internal aspects) over external (like going to church)

3.4.7.2. Religiosity

3.4.7.2.1. the degree to which one engages in religious practices like attending services.

3.4.7.2.2. May be important for ID development because identify with certain religious group.

3.4.7.2.3. .

3.4.7.3. Spirituality

3.4.7.3.1. the degree to which one places importance on the quest for answers to questions about God and the meaning of life.

3.4.7.3.2. .

3.4.7.4. Patterns of Involvement

3.4.7.4.1. 1. generally, the states importance of religion (esp religiosity) declines somewhat during adolescent yrs.

3.4.7.4.2. 2. Church attendance & religious observation more common in rural youth (esp. farm families)

3.4.7.4.3. 3.Early college years: time to reexamine & reevaluate belief grew up with

3.4.7.4.4. 4. For many, involves a decline in organized religious activities (perhaps college environment doesn't encourage this) but increase in spirituality & religious faith

3.4.7.5. Individual Differences in Religiosity

3.4.7.5.1. According to US surveys- 85% of American adolescents report an affiliation with a religious group, 10% report not being religious, 3% says uncertain, 3% report atheist or agnostic.

3.4.7.5.2. Approx. 38% report weekly attendance at religious services, 17% attend once or twice a month, 45% report rarely or never attending.

3.4.7.5.3. About half identify selves as Protestant (of which half identify as conservative Christians)

3.4.7.5.4. One-Fifth identify as Catholic

3.4.7.5.5. Girls are slightly more likely to be religious than boys (sex difference is also seen in adults)

3.4.7.5.6. In general-Black and Latino adolescents are more religious than youths from other ethnic backgrounds, as are adolescents who live in the South or Midwest.

3.4.7.5.7. Religious Participation around world:

3.4.7.6. Impact:

3.4.7.6.1. Growing research suggests religious adolescents are better adjusted and less depressed than other adolescents, less likely to engage in premarital sex, less likely to use drugs, less likely to engage in delinquent behavior

3.4.7.6.2. Positives are influenced by other factors too- having supportive parents, prosocial peers, adults who care about them etc.)

3.4.7.6.3. Religious involvement may buffer Black adolescents from inner city harms like violence

3.4.7.6.4. Buffers against adverse effects of family conflicts

3.4.7.6.5. Rates of identity foreclosure are higher among religious adolescents