Bones & Joints

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Bones & Joints by Mind Map: Bones & Joints

1. 6 Functions

1.1. Support

1.2. Protection

1.3. Movement

1.4. Mineral Homeostasis

1.5. Blood Cell Production(Haemopiesis)

1.6. Fat Storage

2. Axial Skeleton

2.1. Skull & Associated Bones

2.1.1. Skull

2.1.1.1. Cranium

2.1.1.2. Face

2.1.2. Associated Bones

2.1.2.1. Auditory Ossicles

2.1.2.2. Hyoid

2.2. Thoracic Cage

2.2.1. Sternum

2.2.2. Ribs

2.3. Vertebral Column

2.3.1. Vertebrae

2.3.2. Sacrum

2.3.3. Coccyx

3. Appendicular Skeleton

3.1. Pectoral Girdles

3.1.1. Clavicle

3.1.2. Scapula

3.2. Upper Limbs

3.2.1. Humrus

3.2.2. Radius

3.2.3. Ulna

3.2.4. Carpal Bones

3.2.5. Metacarpal Bones

3.2.6. Phalanges

3.3. Pelvic Girdle

3.3.1. Hip Bones

3.4. Lower Limbs

3.4.1. Femur

3.4.2. Patella

3.4.3. Tibia

3.4.4. Fibula

3.4.5. Tarsal Bones

3.4.6. Metatarsal Bones

3.4.7. Phalanges

4. Bone Classification

4.1. Shape

4.1.1. Sutural Bones

4.1.2. Irregular Bones

4.1.3. Short Bones

4.1.4. Flat Bones

4.1.5. Long Bones

4.1.6. Sesamoid Bones

4.2. Internal Tissue Organization

4.3. Bone Markings

5. Structure of Long Bone

5.1. Epiphysis

5.1.1. Wide part @ each end

5.2. Diaphysis

5.2.1. The shaft

5.3. Metaphysis

5.3.1. Where diaphysis & epiphysis meet

6. Bone (Osseous) Tissue

6.1. Dense, supportive connective tissue

6.2. Specialized cells

6.3. Produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits

6.4. Around collagen fibres

6.5. Characteristics of Bone Tissue

6.5.1. – Dense matrix, containing: • Deposits of calcium salts • Osteocytes (bone cells)

6.5.2. – Canaliculi • Form pathways for blood vessels • Exchange nutrients and wastes

6.6. Bone Cells

6.6.1. Make up only 2 percent of bone mass

6.6.2. Bone contains four types of cells

6.6.2.1. 1. Osteocytes

6.6.2.1.1. Mature bone cell that maintains the bone matrix

6.6.2.2. 2. Osteoblasts

6.6.2.2.1. Immature bone cell that secretes osteoid, the organic component of bone matrix

6.6.2.3. 3. Osteoprogenitor cells

6.6.2.3.1. Stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts

6.6.2.4. 4. Osteoclasts

6.6.2.4.1. Multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix

7. Bone Matrix

7.1. Minerals

7.1.1. 2/3 of bone matrix is calcium phosphate

7.2. Proteins

7.2.1. 1/3 of bone matrix is protein fibres (collagen)

8. Homeostasis

8.1. – Bone building (by osteoblasts) and bone recycling (by osteoclasts) must balance

8.1.1. More breakdown than building, bones become weak

8.1.2. Exercise, particularly weight-bearing exercise, causes osteoblasts to build bone

9. Bone Formation and Growth

9.1. Bone Development

9.1.1. Calcification

9.1.1.1. The process of depositing calcium salts

9.1.1.2. Occurs during bone ossification and in other tissues

9.1.2. Ossification (bone formation)

9.1.2.1. Two main forms of ossification

9.1.2.1.1. Endochondral ossification

9.1.2.1.2. Intramembranous ossification

9.2. Factors Effecting Bone Growth

9.2.1. Hormones – growth hormone, thyroxine, parathyroid hormone etc

9.2.2. Minerals – calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron etc

9.2.3. Vitamins – vitamin C for collagen, vitamin K and B for protein synthesis, vitamin A for osteoblast activity, vitamin D for calcium uptake

9.2.4. Adequate diet – for production of new cells and energy for growth

9.2.5. Exercise – can lead to increased bone growth

9.2.5.1. exercise stimulates osteoblast activity

10. Joints or Articulations

10.1. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between:

10.1.1. two or more bones

10.1.2. bone and cartilage

10.1.3. bones and teeth

10.2. Functional and Structural Classifications of Joints

10.2.1. Synarthrosis (no movement)

10.2.1.1. Fibrous

10.2.1.1.1. Suture

10.2.1.1.2. Gomphosis

10.2.1.2. Cartilaginous

10.2.1.2.1. Synchondrosis

10.2.1.3. Bony

10.2.1.3.1. synostosis

10.2.2. Amphiarthrosis

10.2.2.1. Fibrous

10.2.2.1.1. Syndesmosis

10.2.2.2. Cartilaginous

10.2.2.2.1. Symphysis

10.2.3. Diarthrosis

10.2.3.1. Synovial

10.2.3.1.1. Permit wide range of movement (usually at end of long bones)

10.2.3.1.2. Structure

10.2.3.1.3. Accessory Structures

10.3. Movements

10.3.1. Three Types of Dynamic Motion

10.3.1.1. 1. Linear movement (gliding)

10.3.1.2. 2. Angular movement

10.3.1.3. 3. Rotation

11. Muscles

11.1. Three types of muscle tissue

11.1.1. Skeletal muscle

11.1.1.1. usually attached to bone

11.1.1.2. voluntary and striated

11.1.1.3. are multinucleate

11.1.1.4. cells are known as fibres

11.1.1.5. are striated

11.1.1.6. voluntary, stimulated by

11.1.2. Cardiac muscle (Heart)

11.1.2.1. involuntary and striated

11.1.2.2. cells are branched to connect to other cells

11.1.2.3. single nucleus

11.1.2.4. auto-rhythmic

11.1.2.5. have intercalated discs so impulses pass directly from one cell to the next

11.1.3. Smooth muscle

11.1.3.1. Found in the walls of hollow vessels

11.1.3.1.1. blood vessels

11.1.3.1.2. digestive system

11.1.3.1.3. respiratory system etc

11.1.3.2. Involuntary and non striated

11.1.3.3. spindle shaped cells

11.1.3.4. may occur singly or in sheets

11.1.3.5. auto-rhythmic

11.1.3.6. impulses can pass from one cell to next

11.2. Functions

11.2.1. Movement

11.2.1.1. Locomotion (skeletal muscle)

11.2.1.2. Substances in the body (lymph, blood, peristalsis)

11.2.2. Posture

11.2.3. Storing nutrients

11.2.4. Support soft tissues

11.2.5. Guard body entrances and exits via the use of smooth sphincter muscle

11.2.6. Temperature regulation

11.3. Characteristics

11.3.1. Excitability (irritability)

11.3.2. Contractility

11.3.3. Extensibility

11.3.4. Elasticity