My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Liberal Perspective

1.1.1. belief in equality of opportunity and education for students; equal opportunity for economic wealth, political power, and sense of self.

1.1.2. belief in teaching respect of cultural diversity, so later in life, they will fit into the diverse society.

1.1.3. belief that schools have limited the chances for poor and minority children, and their underachievement is a serious issue that needs addressed.

1.1.4. strive for the improvement of failing schools, especially urban schools.

1.2. Progressive Vision

1.2.1. belief that schools should be part of a steady process to make things, as a whole, better

1.2.2. demands for greater equality

1.2.3. demands for individuality and freedom

1.2.4. belief that every culture's values and ideas are equally valid.

1.3. purposes of schooling

1.3.1. intellectual- teach basic cognitive skills; teach students a higher level of thinking

1.3.2. political- encourage patriotism; prepare students to participate in social order

1.3.3. social- help solve social problems

1.3.4. economic- prepare students for occupational roles that they will have later in life

1.4. explanation of unequal educational performance

1.4.1. liberal take- students start school with different life chances, so some have greater advantages than others.

1.4.2. liberal- it is societies job to provide equal ground, giving everyone a fair shot at a better chance, especially those with disadvantaged backgrounds

1.5. liberal definitions of problems in education

1.5.1. schools too often limit life chances of the poor and minority children- their underachievement is critical issue

1.5.2. schools limit role in helping students develop as individuals because they are too focused on authority

1.5.3. great differences in quality and climate in urban and suburban schools.

1.5.4. traditional curriculum does not teach about diverse cultures

1.6. Policies and reforms supported by liberals

1.6.1. quality with equality p.30

1.6.2. policies should focus on and lead to the improvement of failing schools

1.6.3. programs should increase opportunities for disadvantaged groups, including Head Start

1.6.4. curriculum should balance western civilization traditions with treatment of other groups within our diverse society

1.6.5. balance maintained between setting performance standards and making sure all students can meet those standards.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Benjamin Franklin

2.1.1. 1749- he wrote "Proposals Related to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania"

2.1.2. believed that believed that students should learn a mastery of process, and not rote learning

2.1.3. Reading, writing, public speaking, and art

2.2. Utilitarian curriculum

2.2.1. practical aspects of math- like accounting

2.2.2. biology

2.2.3. history, geography, and political studies

2.2.4. languages like Latin and Greek would be available if students wished

2.3. Self improvement

2.3.1. proponent in Franklin's and the utilitarian line of thinking

2.3.2. self-improvement happens through education

2.4. Equality of Opportunity

2.4.1. GI Bill

2.4.1.1. set precedent

2.4.1.2. gave servicemen and women the opportunity for higher education

2.4.1.3. GI Bill of rights immediately followed WWII

2.4.1.4. part of a growing policy to give those at a disadvantage, either by class or previous education, a chance at higher education. Was opposed by some because they saw it as a lowering the academic standards.

2.4.2. Race

2.4.2.1. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

2.4.2.1.1. Supreme Court ruled that state-imposed segregation was unconstitutional

2.4.2.1.2. started because civil rights activists proving that schools were anything but "separate but equal,"- Plessy v. Ferguson- especially in the South.

2.4.2.1.3. caused uproar and sometimes violence, especially in the south

2.4.2.2. late 1960's

2.4.2.2.1. many colleges and universities had open enrollment

2.4.2.2.2. conservatives argued that the standards were becoming too low

2.4.2.2.3. gives people who would not usually have a chance at a higher education, the chance to better themselves and class in society.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Sociology

3.1.1. empirical and conceptual- these tools help systematic thinking and for one to know what can realistically be done.

3.1.2. understanding sociology is crucial to prospective teachers becoming reflective practitioners

3.1.3. Sociologists are able to objectively analyze schools with the goal of producing effective learning communities

3.2. conflict theory

3.2.1. glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power

3.2.2. emphasize struggle with inequalities

3.2.3. Karl Marx- founder of the conflict school in sociology of ed.

3.2.4. "to understand the impact of culture on the lives of individuals and groups, one must understand the meanings that are attributed to cultural experiences by those who participate in them"- 120

3.3. Student Knowledge- effect of schooling

3.3.1. higher social class of individual, the higher his achievement level

3.3.2. Ron Emonds- differences in schools are directly related to student outcomes

3.3.3. education is related to one's self esteem.

3.3.4. social class should be considered when evaluating the impact of education

3.3.5. students of higher class have more opportunity for higher education.

3.3.5.1. more years of schooling leads to more knowledge and social participation

3.4. Education and Mobility- effect of schooling

3.4.1. Americans believe that education is what can make classes equal.

3.4.2. Hopper- "difference in educational amount, and educational route"

3.4.2.1. number of years educated= educational attainment

3.4.2.2. where one goes to school affects mobility

3.4.3. Rosenbaum- linked mobility to tournament selection- winners proceed and losers are eliminated

3.4.3.1. criteria for win or lose is related to social class, race, and gender characteristics, IN ADDITION TO GPA and SAT scores

3.4.3.2. rules are not entirely fair for everyone.

3.5. Teachers- inside sociology of schools

3.5.1. huge impact on learning and behavior

3.5.2. extremely busy and have many roles

3.5.2.1. can cause role strain- where conflicting demands are placed and they cannot feel comfortable in any role

3.5.3. when teachers demand more and praise for more from their students, the students learned more and had better self esteem.

3.6. Today's crisis

3.6.1. 1/3 of children in this nation are at risk for failing in school, even before Kindergarten

3.6.2. 1990- 350,000 children were born to mothers that were addicted to cocaine.

3.6.2.1. 15 million children born to single women with $11,400 yearly income

3.6.3. 2009- 15.5 million children live in poverty

3.6.4. How can schools help produce productive and happy adults, when so many children are born at a severe disadvantage? -- Important question

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. generic notions

4.1.1.1. goal was a better society through education

4.1.1.2. children learn through experientially and books

4.1.2. John Dewey

4.1.2.1. most important influence on "progressive education"

4.1.2.2. Followed line of thinking of John Locke and Jean Rousseau

4.1.2.3. firmly believed in democracy, and thought that schools should reflect their community

4.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. conscious attempt at finding balance between the social role of the school with its effects on the social, intellectual, and personal development of individuals.

4.1.3.2. integrate children into a democratic society

4.1.3.3. growth- "to make human beings who will live life to the fullest, who will continually add to the quality and meaning of their experience and to their ability to direct that experience, and who will participate actively with their fellow human beings in the building of a good society." (p 189)

4.1.4. Role of teacher

4.1.4.1. encourages, offers suggestions, asks questions, helps plan and implement courses of study.

4.1.4.2. must know several disciplines, well, in order to create and teach curriculum

4.1.5. Methods of instruction

4.1.5.1. Group learning in addition to individual learning

4.1.5.2. inquiry method- children asking questions about what they would like to learn and teacher implementing those things.

4.1.5.3. furniture not stationary, and tables for students to do group work

4.1.5.4. memorization replaced with individualized study, problem solving, and project method.

4.1.6. Curriculum

4.1.6.1. curriculum changes as social order and children's needs change.

4.1.6.2. integrate all sorts of disciplines to teach one specific thing, a whale for example. Use science, math, wood-working, art, etc.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Highly Qualified Teachers

5.1.1. College Degree

5.1.2. full certification or licensure

5.1.3. demonstrable content knowledge

5.1.4. pass Praxis II

5.2. TFA- Teach for America

5.2.1. a national teacher corps that recruits liberal arts grads for teaching in high poverty urban and rural school districts

5.2.2. an alternate route to teaching

5.2.3. allows for teachers to take tests on subject matter, and if passed, they are allowed to teach, with little teacher education or student teaching experience

5.2.4. said to have a positive effect on student achievement

5.3. teachers are required to serve many roles

5.3.1. colleague, friend, nurturer of the learner, facilitator of learning, researcher, program developer, administrator, decision maker, professional leader, and community activist

5.3.2. most important teacher qualities in a teacher are: being caring, empathetic, well rounded, and a role model to the children

5.3.3. must be able to switch from role to role throughout the day. this is one of the main causes of teacher burnout.

5.4. "the social realities of teaching"

5.4.1. Liberman and Miller have identified elements that give teaching its uniqueness.

5.4.2. teachers develop classroom strategies that are highly personal and develop into a teaching style that is more like an artistic expression than it is technical or scientific.

5.4.3. they argue that teachers are crafts people and much of the craft is learned on the job.

5.5. rewards of teaching come from the students

5.5.1. sometimes the only positive feed back that teachers get is from the students.

5.5.2. Seymour Sarason wrote that teaching is a lonely profession.

5.6. very little is known about the links between teaching and learning

5.6.1. knowledge base for teachers is relatively weak, compared to other professions.

5.6.1.1. ex: they know little about learning theory

5.6.2. key part of teaching is control

5.6.2.1. and finding the balance with control. too much hinders learning, too little also hinders learning

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Modern Functionalist theory

6.1.1. Talcott and Parsons (1959) and Robert Dreeben (1968)

6.1.2. prepare students for complex roles in modern society

6.1.3. gets away from teaching facts and teaches students HOW to learn

6.1.4. believe that society is changing and is more tolerant. schools should teach to respect differences of others and to make decisions based on knowledge and not tradition

6.2. Major Stakeholders in MY district (Decatur Al)

6.2.1. State Senator- Sen. Author Orr (R-3)

6.2.2. State Representative- Rep Terri Collins (R-8)

6.2.3. State Superintendent on State School Board- Thomas R. Bice Ed.D

6.2.4. Representatives on State School Board- Governor Robert Bentley & Cynthia Sanders McCarty, PhD (district 6)

6.2.5. Decatur City Superintendent- Dr Edwin Nichols Jr

6.2.6. Decatur City Board of Education member- Karen Duke, President

6.3. Developmentalist Curriculum (approach)

6.3.1. student centered; relates curriculum to the needs and interests of students at certain developmental stages.

6.3.2. Influences from Dewey and Piaget

6.3.3. relates schooling to the life experiences of the student so that education comes alive and is meaningful

6.3.4. whole-language movement- teaching reading and writing by relating to experiences and developmental stages of children, as opposed to basal readers.

6.4. transformative practice

6.4.1. purpose of education is to make a meaningful change in student- intellectual, creative, spiritual, or emotional change

6.4.2. more multi-dimensional teaching theory

6.4.3. oppose the authoritarian tone of classroom

6.4.4. includes transfer of information from the teacher, but most importantly, conversation between teacher and student, makes the student become linked in the learning process.

6.5. Multicultural Education

6.5.1. James Banks

6.5.1.1. 5 components of multicultural ed

6.5.1.1.1. content integration

6.5.1.1.2. knowledge construction

6.5.1.1.3. prejudice reduction

6.5.1.1.4. equity pedagogy

6.5.1.1.5. empowering school culture

6.5.2. culturally relevant pedagogy

6.5.2.1. Ladson-Billings, 1994

6.5.2.1.1. 1. The teacher-student relationship is fluid, extending to interactions beyond the classroom and into the community.

6.5.2.1.2. 2. the teacher demonstrates a connectedness with all students

6.5.2.1.3. 3. the teacher encourages a "community of learners"

6.5.2.1.4. 4. the teacher encourages students to learn collaboratively. Students are exposed to teach each other and be responsible for one another.

6.6. pedagogy

6.6.1. the process of teaching

6.6.2. way to teach is not agreed upon by all; at the heart of many disagreements as to what is appropriate

6.6.3. relationship between pedagogy, curriculum, and content of education is interdependent. All rely on one another, to achieve the goal of bettering student and increasing knowledge.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Coleman Study (1966)

7.1.1. computers emerged and research was able to be done in large scale

7.1.2. James Coleman

7.1.3. he received a large grant to study the relationship between the organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement.

7.1.4. purpose was to show that white kids and African American kids had legitimately different schooling experiences.

7.1.5. found that organizational differences between schools had little to do with determining student outcomes.. The differences in student body composition was the main factor in this determination.

7.2. Political reactions

7.2.1. explosive

7.2.2. policy implication that poor students should go to school with middle-class students, in order to equalize opportunity

7.2.3. start of bussing students between schools and districts

7.3. Education is related to employment

7.3.1. More education attained, the more one is likely to get paid

7.3.2. the more education one has, the less likely they are to be unemployed

7.4. African American students

7.4.1. 27% of third graders had changed schools three times or more since 1st grade

7.5. Attainment

7.5.1. 84% AA children graduated from high school and 19.9 a BA degree

7.5.2. 92.1% of whites graduated from high school and 33.3% a BA degree

7.6. possible reasons for the attainment and achievement gaps with AA students

7.6.1. AA students have the highest % of teachers that lack certification in their area of teachings.

7.6.2. AA students have the lowest % of 4th graders who have had the same teacher from start to finish of their 4th grade year, according to nces.ed/gov

7.6.3. there is less parent participation, both in the classroom and school wide

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Interactionism

8.1.1. one must understand the interaction among people within schools and families, in order to understand the academic success/failure

8.1.2. doesn't just rely on empirical data on school outcomes

8.1.3. must look into the lives and worlds of families and schools

8.2. Student Centered explanations

8.2.1. also called extra-school explanations

8.2.2. focuses on factors outside of the school, such as family, the community, culture, peer group, and the individual student

8.3. social class background has greatest effect on educational achievement and attainment

8.4. Cultural DifferenceTheories

8.4.1. attribute cultural differences in education to social forces such as poverty, racism, discrimination, and unequal life chances

8.4.2. More affluent families give children access to cultural capital and social capital

8.4.3. Bernstein believed that schools reward middle class codes and reject working class codes

8.5. cultural capital

8.5.1. visits to museums, concerts, travel, etc.

8.6. social capital

8.6.1. networks for access to educational resources, college admissions, parental involvement, etc.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Teacher Education

9.1.1. 1986- at least 5 major articles examined and found problems with teacher education

9.1.2. programs were said to lack rigor and intellectual challenges in TEPs

9.1.3. The reports showed a need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates

9.2. Barriers to improving TE development

9.2.1. low expectations for student performance

9.2.2. unenforced standards for teachers

9.2.3. major flaws in teacher preparation

9.2.4. slipshod teacher recruitment

9.2.5. inadequate induction for beginning teachers

9.2.6. lack of professional development and rewards for knowledge and skill

9.2.7. schools that are structured for failure rather than success

9.2.8. 1980s

9.3. Teacher quality

9.3.1. highlighted the problem with underqualified teachers in urban schools.

9.3.2. required that TEP recruit and retain high quality teachers

9.3.3. urban schools are most frequently faced with underqualified teachers, because of turn over rate

9.4. Linda Darling-Hammond

9.4.1. head of National Commission on Teaching and America's Future

9.4.2. recent leader in TE reform

9.4.3. provided barriers listed above

9.5. TFA- Teach for America

9.5.1. founded by Wendy Kopp, 90's

9.5.2. largest alternative teacher education program.

9.5.3. requires that the elite chosen participants teach in an urban school for at least 2 years.