Alta Mesa Animal Hospital - Feline Life Stage Guidelines

Alta Mesa Animal Hospital Feline Life Stage Guidelines Mind Map

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Alta Mesa Animal Hospital - Feline Life Stage Guidelines by Mind Map: Alta Mesa Animal Hospital  - Feline Life Stage Guidelines

1. Geriatric: 15+ Years

1.1. Bi-Annual Veterinary Examinations

1.1.1. Age Related Changes

1.1.1.1. Decreased skin elasticity

1.1.1.2. Iris Pigment changes Lenticular sclerosis (cloudy eyes) Iris atrophy

1.1.1.3. Decreased hearing

1.1.1.4. Decreased digestion/ absorption of fat

1.1.1.5. Decreased sense of smell

1.1.1.6. Brittle nails

1.1.1.7. Decreased lung reserve

1.1.1.8. Altered sleep wake cycle

1.1.1.9. Decreased stress tolorance

1.1.1.10. Muscle atrophy

1.1.2. Diseases Common in this Age Group

1.1.2.1. Chronic Kidney Failure

1.1.2.2. Hyperthyroidism

1.1.2.2.1. Hyperactivity

1.1.2.2.2. Weight Loss in spite of good appetite

1.1.2.2.3. Behavior Changes

1.1.2.3. Diabetes

1.1.2.3.1. Weight loss in spite of good appetite

1.1.2.3.2. Increasing drinking

1.1.2.3.3. Increased or larger urination

1.1.2.4. Neoplasia

1.1.2.4.1. Tumors

1.1.2.4.2. Weight Loss

1.1.2.4.3. May not show outward signs

1.1.2.5. Periodontal Disease

1.1.2.5.1. Poor Grooming

1.1.2.5.2. Halitosis (bad breath)

1.1.2.5.3. Drooling

1.1.2.5.4. Behavior Changes / Lethargy

1.1.2.5.5. Appetite Changes

1.1.2.5.6. May not show any outward signs!

1.1.2.6. Hypertension

1.1.2.6.1. Often no outward signs

1.1.2.6.2. May see behavior changes

1.1.2.6.3. Sudden blindness may occur

1.1.2.7. Eye Problems

1.1.2.7.1. Decreased activity

1.1.2.7.2. May see red eyes or large pupils

1.1.2.7.3. Cloudy appearance to eyes

1.1.2.8. Poor Grooming

1.1.2.8.1. Lion cut helpful

1.1.2.8.2. Often related to other problems

1.1.2.8.3. Furminator to remove undercoat

1.1.2.9. Arthritis

1.1.2.10. Heart disease

1.1.2.10.1. Lethargy

1.1.2.10.2. Respiratory Distress

1.1.2.10.3. Weight Loss

1.1.2.10.4. Abdominal enlargement

1.1.2.11. Gastrointestinal disease

1.1.2.11.1. Vomiting

1.1.2.11.2. Diarrhea

1.1.2.11.3. Appetite Changes

1.1.2.12. Cognitive Disorders

1.1.2.12.1. Behavior Changes

1.1.2.12.2. Vocalizing at night

1.2. Diagnostics

1.2.1. Organ Screen Every 6 months

1.2.1.1. Blood Chemistry

1.2.1.1.1. Organ Panel

1.2.1.1.2. Electrolytes

1.2.1.1.3. Blood Glucose

1.2.2. CBC Screen Every 6 months

1.2.2.1. CBC: Complete Blood Cell count

1.2.2.1.1. Red Blood Cells

1.2.2.1.2. White Blood Cells

1.2.2.1.3. Blood Platelets

1.2.3. Yearly EKG

1.2.4. Blood Pressure Every 6 months

1.2.5. Urine Exam

1.2.5.1. Urine Sediment

1.2.5.1.1. Cells

1.2.5.1.2. Crystals

1.2.5.1.3. Bacteria

1.2.5.2. Urine Chemistry

1.2.5.2.1. Chemical properties of urine such as protein and glucose

1.2.5.3. Urine Specific Gravity

1.2.5.3.1. Measurement of kidney function / urine concentration

1.2.5.4. Checks for infection, crystals, inflammation, decreased kidney function, diabetes

1.2.6. Thyroid Level

1.2.6.1. This Age group frequently has an over production of thyroid hormone and should have a screen every 6 months

1.2.6.2. Untreated: will result in weight loss, hyperactivity, stress on heart, abnormal behavior

1.2.6.3. Treatment:

1.2.6.3.1. Oral or transdermal medication

1.2.6.3.2. Radioactive Iodine

1.2.6.3.3. Surgery

1.2.7. Yearly X-rays

1.2.7.1. Joints / Bones

1.2.7.2. Dental / Tooth Roots

1.2.7.3. Chest Cavity

1.2.7.3.1. Heart

1.2.7.3.2. Pericardial Sac

1.2.7.3.3. Pleural Space

1.2.7.3.4. Lungs

1.2.7.3.5. Lymph Nodes

1.2.7.4. Abdominal Cavity

1.2.7.4.1. Internal Organs

1.2.7.4.2. Gastrointestinal Tract

1.2.7.4.3. Urinary Tract

1.2.7.4.4. Lymph Nodes

1.3. Dental Care

1.4. Grooming

1.5. Nutritional Support

1.5.1. This age group frequently has reduced kidney function and requires a kidney friendly diet

1.5.2. Roayl canin Renal LP

1.5.2.1. Low Phosphorus: A restricted phosphorus intake is essential to slow the development of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism

1.5.2.2. Low Protein: Restricted levels of high biological value protein to minimize the production of nitrogenous waste products and improve the clinical signs associated with kidney disease

1.5.2.3. High Energy: High energy density utilizing dietary fat to improve palatability and reduce feeding volumes in inappetent pets

1.5.2.4. Natural Preservative: Naturally preserved to ensure freshness and quality

1.5.3. Ensure Adequate Food Intake. Appetite often suffers in this age group due to pre-existing diseases such as early kidney failure

1.5.4. Liquid Diets

1.5.4.1. Specialized Nutrition CliniCare RF is a liquid diet formulated with lower protein and lower electrolytes, designed to meet the needs of adult cats with renal and liver impairment.

1.6. Joint Support

1.6.1. Weight control to reduced forces on joints

1.6.2. Feline Cosequin Joint Supplement

1.7. Periodontal Disease

1.7.1. New node

1.7.2. New node

2. Prime: 3 - 6 Years

2.1. Bi-Annual Veterinary Examinations

2.1.1. This age group is often overlooked and would benefit from regular veterinary care

2.1.2. Problems frequently noted on a "healthy pet" exam include: ear infections, parasites, urinary tract infections, dietary sensitivities and many more.

2.2. Play, Weight, Activity

2.2.1. Review environmental enrichment

2.2.2. Teach techniques to increase the cat’s activity (eg, retrieve)

2.2.3. Encourage object and interactive play as a weight management strategy

2.3. Vaccination

2.3.1. Yearly Recombinant Rabies Vaccine

2.3.1.1. Based on AAFP Vaccine Guidelines

2.3.2. Upper Respiratory Vaccine at year 4

2.4. Fecal

2.4.1. Fecal Examination every 6months to 1 year based on lifestyle

2.5. Establish Normal Adult Database

2.5.1. Establish minimum database normals for the adult: blood, urine, weight...

2.6. Dietary Support

2.6.1. Males: Royal Canin Young Male WS

2.6.1.1. Optimal amounts of high quality protein to help preserve lean body mass

2.6.1.2. Urine dilution to reduce saturation of urine with minerals to prevent urinary crystal build-up

2.6.1.3. Natural preservatives: mixed tocopherols, rosemary extract, citric acid

2.6.2. Females: Royal Canin Young Adult

2.6.2.1. Urine Dilution to reduce urinary crystal formation

2.6.2.2. Optimal amounts of high quality protein

2.6.2.3. Natural preservatives: mixed tocopherols, rosemary extract, citric acid

2.7. Dental Care

2.7.1. Dental Cleaning Yearly

2.7.2. Continue Home Dental Care

2.7.2.1. Brushing

2.7.2.2. CET Rinse

2.7.3. Dental (CET) Chews

2.7.4. Dental Treats (d/d, t/d)

3. Junior: 7 Months to 2 Years

3.1. Bi-Annual Veterinary Examinations

3.1.1. Comprehensive Head to Tail veterinary examination

3.1.2. Diseases Common to this Age Group

3.1.2.1. Viruses

3.1.2.2. Parasites

3.1.2.3. Fungal Infections

3.1.2.4. Dietary Indescreation

3.1.2.5. Foreign Body Ingestion

3.1.2.6. Trauma

3.1.2.6.1. Abscess formation from cat fights

3.1.2.6.2. Hit by car and other trauma

3.1.2.6.3. Much more likely to occur in cats with outdoor access

3.1.2.7. Congenital Diseases

3.1.2.8. Gastrointestinal disease

3.1.2.8.1. Vomiting is NOT normal in cats

3.1.2.9. Reproductive Disease

3.1.2.9.1. Dystocia (stuck kittens)

3.1.2.9.2. Pyometra (uterus infection)

3.1.2.10. Behavior Problems

3.1.2.10.1. Spray (frequent in intact males)

3.1.2.10.2. Cat or human aggression

3.1.2.10.3. Scratching furniture or carpet

3.1.2.11. Periodontal Disease

3.1.2.11.1. Stomatitis (mouth Inflammation)

3.1.2.11.2. Gingivitis (gum inflammation)

3.2. 1st Year Vaccine Boosters

3.2.1. Panleukopenia Virus

3.2.1.1. Re-Vaccinate Every 3 Years

3.2.2. Herpesvirus-1

3.2.2.1. Re-Vaccinate Every 3 Years

3.2.3. Feline Calicivirus

3.2.3.1. Re-Vaccinate Every 3 Years

3.2.4. Rabies Vaccine

3.2.4.1. Canarypox virus-vectored

3.2.4.2. Recombinant (rRabies) DNA Vaccine

3.2.4.3. non-adjuvanted to reduce sarcoma risk

3.2.4.4. Requires yearly boosters

3.2.4.5. Exposure to Rabies in cats typically through wildlife such as bats.

3.3. Review of Litter Box Habits

3.3.1. Litter box set-up, cleaning and normal elimination behavior

3.3.2. Ensure that litter box size accommodates growing cat

3.4. Training

3.4.1. Provide continued training to allow manipulation of mouth, ears and feet

3.5. Establish Normal Database

3.5.1. Weight at 1 Year old typically is lifelong goal weight

3.5.2. Consider blood & urine minimum database based on breed and lifestyle (risk factors)

3.6. Fecal Testing

3.6.1. Completed at first yearly visit and then every 6 months to yearly based on exposure.

3.7. Continue Flea, Tick, Heartworm preventative

3.8. Dietary Support

3.8.1. Males: Royal Canin Young Male WS

3.8.1.1. Optimal amounts of high quality protein to help preserve lean body mass

3.8.1.2. Urine dilution to reduce saturation of urine with minerals to prevent urinary crystal build-up

3.8.1.3. Natural preservatives: mixed tocopherols, rosemary extract, citric acid

3.8.2. Females: Royal Canin Young Adult

3.8.2.1. Urine Dilution to reduce urinary crystal formation

3.8.2.2. Optimal amounts of high quality protein

3.8.2.3. Natural preservatives: mixed tocopherols, rosemary extract, citric acid

4. Mature: 7 - 10 Years

4.1. Bi-Annual Veterinary Examinations

4.1.1. Age Related Changes

4.1.1.1. Decreased skin elasticity

4.1.1.2. Iris Pigment changes Lenticular sclerosis (cloudy eyes) Iris atrophy

4.1.1.3. Decreased hearing

4.1.1.4. Decreased digestion/ absorption of fat

4.1.1.5. Decreased sense of smell

4.1.1.6. Brittle nails

4.1.1.7. Decreased lung reserve

4.1.1.8. Altered sleep wake cycle

4.1.1.9. Decreased stress tolorance

4.1.2. Diseases Common in this Age Group

4.1.2.1. Chronic Kidney Failure

4.1.2.2. Hyperthyroidism

4.1.2.3. Diabetes

4.1.2.4. Neoplasia

4.1.2.5. Periodontal Disease

4.1.2.6. Heart disease

4.1.2.7. Gastrointestinal disease

4.1.2.8. Liver Disease

4.1.2.9. Gastrointestinal disease

4.2. Litter Box Care:

4.2.1. Increased importance of good/easy accessibility to litter box, bed, food

4.3. Mobility Support:

4.3.1. Increase focus on mobility as joints age

4.3.2. Consider Nutritional Joint Support

4.3.2.1. Cosequin Feline

4.4. Diet:

4.4.1. Convert to a Mature Diet:

4.4.1.1. Royal Canin Mature wk 28

4.4.1.2. Dry &/or Canned acceptable

4.5. Dental Care

4.5.1. Yearly Cleaning and Periodontal Exams

4.5.1.1. Feline Oral Resorptive Lesions Common

4.5.1.2. Extractions Maybe needed

4.5.1.2.1. Based on previous dental care

4.5.2. CET Oral Rinse

4.5.3. CET Dental Chews

4.5.4. Royal Canin D/d treats

4.6. Minimum Database Lab Work-up Needed Yearly at 6+ Years Old

4.6.1. Blood Testing

4.6.1.1. Blood Chemistry

4.6.1.1.1. Organ Panel

4.6.1.1.2. Electrolytes

4.6.1.1.3. Blood Glucose

4.6.1.2. CBC: Complete Blood Cell count

4.6.1.2.1. Red Blood Cells

4.6.1.2.2. White Blood Cells

4.6.1.2.3. Blood Platelets

4.6.1.3. Felv/Fiv Testing Yearly

4.6.1.3.1. Based on Exposure

4.6.2. Urine Testing

4.6.2.1. Urine Sediment

4.6.2.1.1. Cells

4.6.2.1.2. Crystals

4.6.2.1.3. Bacteria

4.6.2.2. Urine Chemistry

4.6.2.2.1. Chemical properties of urine such as protein and glucose

4.6.2.3. Urine Specific Gravity

4.6.2.3.1. Measurement of kidney function / urine concentration

4.6.2.4. Checks for infection, crystals, inflammation, decreased kidney function

5. Kitten: Birth to 6 Months

5.1. Physical Examinations

5.1.1. Comprehensive Head to Tail veterinarian examination each visit for a series of at least 3 visit during kitten series.

5.1.2. Diseases Common to this Age Group

5.1.2.1. Viruses

5.1.2.2. Parasites

5.1.2.3. Fungal Infections

5.1.2.4. Dietary Indescreation

5.1.2.5. Foreign Body Ingestion

5.1.2.6. Trauma

5.1.2.7. Congenital Diseases

5.1.2.8. Gastrointestinal disease

5.2. Vaccinations

5.2.1. Upper Respiratory Vaccines (combo)

5.2.1.1. Panleukopenia Virus

5.2.1.1.1. Series of 3 Vaccines Starting at 6-8 Weeks of age

5.2.1.2. Feline Herpesvirus-1

5.2.1.2.1. Series of 3 Vaccines Starting at 6-8 Weeks of age

5.2.1.2.2. Series of 3 Vaccines Starting at 6-8 Weeks of age

5.2.1.3. Feline Calicivirus

5.2.2. Leukemia

5.2.2.1. Via Vet Jet Transdermal Vaccine

5.2.2.1.1. Given Twice During Kitten Series then yearly if indicated based on lifestyle

5.2.2.1.2. Needless Vaccine System

5.2.2.2. This is feline leukemia protection like you’ve never seen before. Non-adjuvanted PUREVAX® Recombinant Leukemia Vaccine and the VET JET™ transdermal vaccination system enhance immune response through targeted antigen presentation.

5.2.3. Rabies Vaccine

5.2.3.1. Given Once at last kitten series, then yearly

5.2.3.2. Purevax Rabies Vaccine

5.2.3.2.1. Non-adjuvanted

5.2.3.2.2. Recombinant technology

5.2.3.2.3. Revaccinate annually

5.2.4. Non-Core Vaccines

5.2.4.1. Used based on need/lifestyle

5.2.4.2. FIV: Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

5.2.4.3. FIP: Feline Infectious Periotinitis

5.2.4.4. Bordetella

5.2.4.5. Chlamydophilia

5.2.4.6. Feline Giardia

5.3. Parasite control

5.3.1. Internal Parasites

5.3.1.1. Fecal Examination needed as kitten

5.3.1.1.1. Recommendations from Companion Animal Parasite Control (capcvet.org)

5.3.1.1.2. Common Parasites in Kittens

5.3.1.1.3. NOTE: Many feline & canine parasites are potentially infectious to humans and deworming all pets is considered a public health issue.

5.3.1.2. Preventative Deworming

5.3.1.2.1. At least twice as kitten

5.3.1.2.2. Monthly Heartworm / Gut Preventative as adult

5.3.2. External Parasites

5.3.2.1. Control/Preventaion

5.3.2.1.1. Topical Monthly Product for Fleas/Ticks

5.3.2.2. Includes: Fleas, Ticks and Mites

5.4. Diagnostic Testing

5.4.1. Fecal Examination

5.4.2. Felv/Fiv

5.4.2.1. Leukemia Testing

5.4.2.2. Feline Immunodeficiency Testing

5.4.2.3. Every Kitten should be tested

5.5. Behavior

5.5.1. Veterinarian Consult

5.5.2. Socalize

5.5.2.1. Appropriate Human & Animal Interactions

5.5.2.2. Acclimate to car and veterinary visits

5.5.3. Litter Box Set-up/Care

5.5.3.1. One per cat and one additional

5.5.3.2. Determine Best Location for cat

5.5.3.3. Determine Appropriate Substrate

5.5.3.4. Determine Best type of Box for cat

5.5.4. Play

5.5.4.1. Play and appropriate toys

5.5.4.2. Foraging

5.5.5. Training

5.5.5.1. Teach commands (eg, come, sit)

5.6. Grooming

5.6.1. Coat

5.6.1.1. Bathing

5.6.1.2. Brushing Coat

5.6.1.2.1. Furminator for cats

5.6.2. Teeth

5.6.2.1. Brushing Teeth

5.6.2.2. Chews

5.6.2.3. Treats

5.6.3. Claw Care

5.6.3.1. Discuss Laser Declaw

5.6.3.2. Nail Trimming

5.6.3.3. Soft Paws

5.7. Dietary Care

5.7.1. Higher Protein & Calorie Levels needed during this life stage.

5.7.2. Diet: Royal Canin Growth Kitten Food

5.7.2.1. Digestive support with fermentable fibers, MOS, and zeolite to balance gut flora

5.7.2.2. High Digestibility to ensure optimal intake of nutrients for growing kittens

5.7.2.3. Natural preservatives: mixed tocopherols, rosemary extract, citric acid

5.8. Reproductive Control

5.8.1. Responsible Pet Ownership includes preventing unwanted litters

5.8.2. Discuss sterilization: Typical spay / neuter via laser surgery at 4-6 months old.

5.9. Oral Care

5.9.1. Brushing

5.9.2. CET chews

5.9.3. Dental Treats

5.9.3.1. Roayl Canin dd

5.9.3.2. Science Diet t/d

6. Senior: 11 - 14 Years

6.1. Bi-Annual Veterinary Examinations

6.1.1. Age Related Changes

6.1.1.1. Decreased skin elasticity

6.1.1.2. Iris Pigment changes Lenticular sclerosis (cloudy eyes) Iris atrophy

6.1.1.3. Decreased hearing

6.1.1.4. Decreased digestion/ absorption of fat

6.1.1.5. Decreased sense of smell

6.1.1.6. Brittle nails

6.1.1.7. Decreased lung reserve

6.1.1.8. Altered sleep wake cycle

6.1.1.9. Decreased stress tolorance

6.1.1.10. Muscle loss / Atrophy Common

6.1.2. Diseases Common in this Age Group

6.1.2.1. Chronic Kidney Failure

6.1.2.2. Hyperthyroidism

6.1.2.3. Diabetes

6.1.2.4. Neoplasia

6.1.2.5. Periodontal Disease

6.1.2.6. Hypertension

6.1.2.7. Eye Problems

6.1.2.8. Heart disease

6.1.2.9. Gastrointestinal disease

6.1.2.10. Note: Many of these disease will cause similar symptoms or the disease signs may be confused as normal aging by many owners. Blood & Urine testing is needed.

6.2. Diagnostics

6.2.1. Organ Screen Every 6 months

6.2.1.1. Blood Chemistry

6.2.1.1.1. Organ Panel

6.2.1.1.2. Electrolytes

6.2.1.1.3. Blood Glucose

6.2.2. CBC Screen Every 6 months

6.2.2.1. CBC: Complete Blood Cell count

6.2.2.1.1. Red Blood Cells

6.2.2.1.2. White Blood Cells

6.2.2.1.3. Blood Platelets

6.2.3. Yearly X-rays

6.2.3.1. Chest Cavity

6.2.3.1.1. Heart

6.2.3.1.2. Pericardial Sac

6.2.3.1.3. Pleural Space

6.2.3.1.4. Lungs

6.2.3.1.5. Lymph Nodes

6.2.3.2. Abdominal Cavity

6.2.3.2.1. Internal Organs

6.2.3.2.2. Gastrointestinal Tract

6.2.3.2.3. Urinary Tract

6.2.3.2.4. Lymph Nodes

6.2.3.3. Joints / Bones

6.2.3.4. Dental / Tooth Roots

6.2.4. Yearly EKG

6.2.5. Blood Pressure Every 6 months

6.2.5.1. Hypertension in cats of all ages is a common finding and left untreated it may result in heart disease or blindness

6.2.6. Urine Exam

6.2.6.1. Urine Sediment

6.2.6.1.1. Cells

6.2.6.1.2. Crystals

6.2.6.1.3. Bacteria

6.2.6.2. Urine Chemistry

6.2.6.2.1. Chemical properties of urine such as protein and glucose

6.2.6.3. Urine Specific Gravity

6.2.6.3.1. Measurement of kidney function / urine concentration

6.2.6.4. Checks for infection, crystals, inflammation, decreased kidney function

6.2.7. Thyroid Level

6.2.7.1. Hyperthyroidism in older cats is very common and untreated may result in heart failure. Yearly screening of thyroid level is needed.

6.3. Dietary Needs may change

6.3.1. Often Need decreased protein and or calories

6.3.2. Royal Canin Mature wk 28

6.3.2.1. Promote Joint Health

6.3.2.2. Phosphorus Control for renal Health

6.3.2.3. Natural preservatives: mixed tocopherols, rosemary extract, citric acid