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Panopticism by Mind Map: Panopticism
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disciplinary generalization

late 17th cent. disciplinary mechanisms: plague-stricken town

exceptional situation

reduced to a simple dualism, life, death


discipline-blockade, enclosed institution, on the edges of society, suspending time, exceptional discipline

19th cent. disciplinary mechanism: panopticon

everyday life



discipline-mechanism, functional mechanism, power, lighter, more effective, more rapid, subtle, generalized surveillance

Discipline and Punish

Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. Originally published in 1975 in France under the title Surveiller et punir: Naissance de la...

formation of a disciplinary society

functional inversion of disciplines

controlling the crowd

increasing the utility of the individual

swarming of disciplinary mechanisms


closed apparatus

external surveillance, Christian School, surveillance of parents, hospital, surveillance of those outside

spread of disciplinary procedures

flexible, transferable, adaptable


state control over disciplinary institutions

18th century police apparatus, complete surveillance, co-extensive with the social body, interstitial discipline, disciplining the non-disciplinary spaces

"our society"




'Discipline' may be identified neither with an institution nor with an apparatus; it is a type of power, a modality for its exercise, comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, targets; it is a 'physics' or an 'anatomy' of power, a technology.





levels of applications



anatomy of power

type of power

modality for the exercise of power

objectives of disciplinary mechanisms

ordering of human multiplicities

optimize effects of social power, intensity, extension

optimize the state apparatuses (educational, military, industrial or medical) and their link to social power

historical processes


The growth of a capitalist economy gave rise to the specific modality of disciplinary power whose general formulas, techniques of submitting forces and bodies, in short, 'political anatomy', could be operated in the most diverse political regimes, apparatuses or institutions.


What generalizes the power to punish, then, is not the universal consciousness of the law in each juridical subject; it is the regular extension, the infinitely minute web of panoptic techniques.

18th century, bourgeoisie the politically dominant class, masked by a formally egalitarian judicial framework, Enlightenment, liberties, disciplines


18th century, combination of disciplinary mechanisms, mutual reinforcement, knowledge, power, The eighteenth century invented the techniques of discipline and the examination, rather as the Middle Ages invented the judicial investigation., sciences of man