Categories of Disabilities

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Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: Categories of Disabilities

1. Emotional Disturbance (ED)

1.1. Sub-Categories

1.1.1. Anxiety disorders

1.1.2. Bipolar disorder

1.1.3. Conduct disorders

1.1.4. Eating disorders

1.1.5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

1.1.6. Psychotic disorders

1.2. Characteristics

1.2.1. Hyperactivity (short attention span, impulsiveness)

1.2.2. Withdrawal (not interacting socially with others, excessive fear or anxiety)

1.2.3. Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills)

1.2.4. Aggression or self-injurious behavior (acting out, fighting)

1.2.5. Learning difficulties (academically performing below grade level)

1.3. Intervention Strategies

1.3.1. Keep the classroom organized

1.3.2. Let the student use checklists to monitor their progress

1.3.3. Ask student about their strengths and weaknesses

1.3.4. Use visual aids to help students label their emotions

1.3.5. Be aware of students fears, medications and signs of escalation

1.4. Assistive Technology

1.4.1. Graphic organizers & devices that provide visual or auditory prompts

1.4.2. Video games consoles or other online educational games

1.4.3. Textual or auditory presentations

2. Autism

2.1. Sub-Categories

2.1.1. Autism

2.1.2. Asperger syndrome

2.1.3. Rett syndrome

2.1.4. Childhood disintegrative disorder

2.1.5. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (often referred to as PDDNOS).

2.2. Characteristics

2.2.1. Communication problems (for example, with the use or comprehension of language)

2.2.2. Difficulty relating to people, things, and events

2.2.3. Playing with toys and objects in unusual ways

2.2.4. Difficulty adjusting to changes in routine or to familiar surroundings

2.2.5. Repetitive body movements or behaviors.

2.3. Intervention Stratgies

2.3.1. Have a set routine visible if possible

2.3.2. Give clear and concise language

2.3.3. Be aware of sounds that may disturb the student

2.3.4. Give the student extra time to respond to questions or directions

2.3.5. Provide a space the child can go when they are overstimulated or overwhelmed

2.4. Assistive Tecnology

2.4.1. Video

2.4.2. Computers

2.4.3. AppyAutism

2.5. Case Study

3. Deaf-blindness

3.1. Intervention Strategies

3.1.1. Touch cues

3.1.2. Picture and object symbols

3.1.3. Seat the student near the teacher or activity

3.1.4. Small group discussions and activities

3.1.5. Use audiovisual materials

3.2. Assistive Technology

4. Deafness

4.1. Characteristics

4.1.1. Does not respond consistently to sounds or to his or her own name

4.1.2. Asks for things to be repeated or often says “huh?”

4.1.3. Is delayed in developing speech or has unclear speech

4.1.4. Turns the volume up loud on the TV and other electronic devices.

4.2. Sub-Categories

4.2.1. Congenital

4.2.2. Aquired

4.3. Intervention Strategies

4.3.1. Have students sit closer to the teacher

4.3.2. Look directly at the student

4.3.3. Do not exaggerate your lip movements or shout

4.3.4. During group interation and discussion a circle is the best seating arrangement

4.3.5. Clearly identify who is speaking or asking a question

4.4. Assistive Technology

4.4.1. Captioning

4.4.2. Computers

4.5. Case Study

5. Developmental Delay

5.1. Sub-Categories

5.1.1. Physical development (fine motor skills, gross motor skills)

5.1.2. Cognitive development (intellectual abilities)

5.1.3. Communication development (speech and language)

5.1.4. Social or emotional development (social skills, emotional control)

5.1.5. Adaptive development (self-care skills)

5.2. Intervention Strategies

5.2.1. Plan physical activities for when the student has the most energy

5.2.2. Demonstrate what you want the student to do rather than only providing verbal instructions

5.2.3. Paraphrase what the student has said back to them

5.2.4. Use words to describe feelings and experiences rather than sounds or actions

5.2.5. Teach students the ability to give their personal information when asked

5.3. Assistive Technology

5.3.1. Cognitive training software

5.3.2. Memory aids

5.4. Case Study

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Sub-Categories

6.1.1. Conductive

6.1.2. Sensorineural

6.1.3. Mixed

6.1.4. Central

6.2. Characteristics

6.2.1. Does not respond consistently to sounds or to his or her own name

6.2.2. Asks for things to be repeated or often says “huh?”

6.2.3. Is delayed in developing speech or has unclear speech

6.2.4. Turns the volume up loud on the TV and other electronic devices.

6.3. Intervention Strategies

6.3.1. Give the student a swivel chair to follow the teachers movements

6.3.2. Reduce noise and reverberations

6.3.3. Use flashing lights as well as bells for schedules and emergencies

6.3.4. Increase the number of practice examples before assigning work

6.3.5. Have group activities for deaf and hearing students to work together

6.4. Assistive Technology

6.4.1. Personal hearing devices

6.4.2. Sound Amplifications

6.4.3. Interpretype devices

6.4.4. Captioning when available and possible

6.4.5. Specialized flashing lights for schedules and alarms

7. Intellectual Disabilities

7.1. Sub-Categories

7.1.1. Mild

7.1.2. Moderate

7.1.3. Severe

7.1.4. Profound

7.1.5. Unspecified

7.2. Characteristics

7.2.1. Sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children

7.2.2. Learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking,

7.2.3. Find it hard to remember things

7.2.4. Not understand how to pay for things

7.2.5. Have trouble understanding social rules

7.2.6. Have trouble seeing the consequences of their actions

7.2.7. Have trouble solving problems

7.2.8. Have trouble thinking logically.

7.3. Intervention Strategies

7.3.1. Allow students a quite place to work without distractions

7.3.2. Reuse learned concepts as much as possible to improve retention

7.3.3. Implement learning activities that allow students to interact with the lesson

7.3.4. Break down learning tasks into small steps

7.3.5. Implement a hands-on approach

7.3.6. Utilize visual aids when possible

7.4. Assistive Technology

8. Visual Impairment

8.1. Sub-Categories

8.1.1. Strabismus

8.1.2. Congenital cataracts

8.1.3. Retinopathy

8.1.4. Retinitis pigmentosa

8.1.5. Coloboma

8.1.6. Optic nerve hypoplasia

8.1.7. Cortical visual impairment

8.2. Characteristics

8.2.1. Eyes that don’t move together when following an object or a face

8.2.2. Crossed eyes, eyes that turn out or in, eyes that flutter from side to side or up and down, or eyes that do not seem to focus

8.2.3. Eyes that bulge, dance, or bounce in rapid rhythmic movements

8.2.4. Pupils that are unequal in size or that appear white instead of black

8.2.5. Repeated shutting or covering of one eye (as noticed with Julian)

8.2.6. Unusual degree of clumsiness, such as frequent bumping into things or knocking things over

8.2.7. Frequent squinting, blinking, eye-rubbing, or face crunching, especially when there’s no bright light present

8.2.8. Sitting too close to the TV or holding toys and books too close to the face

8.2.9. Avoiding tasks and activities that require good vision

8.3. Intervention Strategies

8.3.1. Seat the student near the backboard or screen

8.3.2. Provide the student with your materials so they can read or copy from it

8.3.3. Do not use red ink

8.3.4. Avoid glares in the classroom

8.3.5. Use contrasting colors whenever possible

8.3.6. Large printed text or braille text

8.4. Assistive Technology

8.4.1. Screen Magnification software

8.4.2. Braille technology like a translator or printer

8.4.3. Communication boards

9. Multiple Disabilities

9.1. Causes

9.1.1. Chromosomal abnormalities

9.1.2. Premature birth

9.1.3. Difficulties after birth

9.1.4. Poor development of the brain or spinal cord

9.1.5. Infections

9.1.6. Genetic disorders

9.1.7. Injuries from accidents

9.2. Need to Know

9.2.1. Which individual disabilities are involved

9.2.2. How severe (or moderate or mild) each disability is

9.2.3. How each disability can affect learning and daily living.

9.3. Intervention Strategies

9.3.1. Use modifications related to the child's specific disabilities. Take into account the combined effects of the disabilities on the student's ability to participate

9.3.2. Writing - using adapted materials (large grip pencils), have a peer write for the student, have the student present material in another form (orally)

9.3.3. Reading - Use audio books, books on the computer (pages turn by activating a switch)

9.3.4. Computer - Use a switch to navigate programs.

9.4. Assistive Technology

9.4.1. Switch Operated Technology

9.4.2. Alternative and Augmented Communication Systems

10. Orthopedic Disabilities

10.1. Sub-Categories

10.1.1. Bone Disease

10.1.2. Cerebral Palsy

10.1.3. Muscular Dystrophy

10.1.4. Scoliosis

10.1.5. Spinal Cord Injury

10.1.6. Brachial Plexus/Erb's Palsy

10.1.7. Hydrocephalus

10.1.8. Poliomyelitis

10.1.9. Spina Bifida

10.1.10. Spinal Muscular Atrophies

10.2. Intervention Strategies

10.2.1. Seating arrangements catered to the students needs and to develop useful posture and movements

10.2.2. Activities that focus on gross and find motor skills

10.2.3. Awareness of the students level of vitality and plan the most high energy activities when they are likely to have the most energy

10.2.4. Make books, multimedia or information on disabilities available to other students so they can learn about the students needs as well

10.2.5. Ask the student to tell you when they need assistance

10.2.6. Rather than talking down to the student kneel or bend down so you are at eye level

10.3. Assistive Technology

10.3.1. Speech recognition software

10.3.2. Using multimedia the student can access on their own time

10.3.3. Alternative communication devices like communication boards, text messaging or voice recorders

10.3.4. Word prediction, screen reading, and academic software

11. Other Health Impairment

11.1. Sub-Categories

11.1.1. ADD and AH/HD

11.1.2. Diabetes

11.1.3. Leukemia

11.1.4. Tourette syndrome

11.1.5. Other Health Impairments

11.2. Intervention Strategies

11.2.1. Flexible time limits

11.2.2. Freedom to use bathroom or drinking fountain as needed

11.2.3. Frequent breaks

11.2.4. Alternative assignments when absent frequently

11.2.5. Utilizing the school nurse and social worker in IEP process

11.3. Assistive Technology

11.3.1. Electronic organizers & software for outlining and organization of ideas

11.3.2. Audio reminders for assignments, schedules or tasks and meetings

11.3.3. Recorded materials, audio books, video recordings of lectures

12. Specific Learning Disability

12.1. Sub-Categories

12.1.1. Dyslexia

12.1.2. Dysgraphia

12.1.3. Dyscalculia

12.1.4. Dyspraxia

12.2. Intervention Strategies

12.2.1. Provide in large print

12.2.2. Provide a designated reader

12.2.3. Present instructions orally

12.2.4. Allow for verbal responses

12.2.5. Allow the use of a tape recorder to capture responses

12.2.6. Permit responses to be given via computer

12.2.7. Extend allotted time for a test

12.3. Assistive Technology

12.3.1. Audio Recorders

12.3.2. Reading pens

13. Speech or Language Impairment

13.1. Sub-Categories

13.1.1. Articulation

13.1.2. Fluency

13.1.3. Voice

13.1.4. Language

13.2. Characterisitics

13.2.1. Improper use of words and their meanings

13.2.2. Inability to express ideas

13.2.3. Inappropriate grammatical patterns

13.2.4. Reduced vocabulary

13.2.5. Inability to follow directions

13.3. Intervention Strategies

13.3.1. If you do not understand what is being said, don't pretend that you do. Let the student know you don't understand and to repeat themselves

13.3.2. Encourage participation, but do not require the student with difficulties to speak in front of the class

13.3.3. Let the student respond in writing and have a fellow student read it

13.3.4. Teach other class members to use communication devices with the student

13.4. Assistive Technology

13.4.1. Computers with an LED display or printer

13.4.2. Voice synthesizer

13.4.3. Multimedia and props

14. Traumatic Brain Injury

14.1. Sub-Categories

14.1.1. Concussion

14.1.2. Contusion

14.1.3. Coup-Contrecoup

14.1.4. Diffuse Axonal

14.1.5. Penetration

14.2. Characteristics

14.2.1. Physical disabilities: Individuals with TBI may have problems speaking, seeing, hearing, and using their other senses.

14.2.2. Difficulties with thinking: long and short term memory, focus, judgement

14.2.3. Social, behavioral, or emotional problems: These difficulties may include sudden changes in mood, anxiety, and depression.

14.3. Intervention Strategies

14.3.1. Allow additional time to complete in-class assignments

14.3.2. Provide student with instructor’s notes or help student obtain quality notes from other students

14.3.3. Allow use of a portable computer with spelling and grammar checks for assignments and note-taking

14.3.4. Provide preferential seating at or near the front of the classroom

14.3.5. Reduce quantity of work required, in favor of quality

14.3.6. Avoid placing student in high pressure situations (for example: short time frames, extensive volume of work; highly competitive)

14.3.7. Exempt student from reading aloud in front of classmates because of impaired reading skills

14.4. Assistive Technology

14.4.1. Wheelchairs, scooters, and walkers help with mobility and increase independence

14.4.2. Voice recognition programs and screen enlargement programs

14.4.3. Education and work aids such as automatic page turners, book holders, and adapted pencil grips

15. References