My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The Conservative Perspective

1.1.1. the conservative view of social problems places its primary emphasis on the individual and suggests that individuals have the capacity to earn or not earn their place within a market economy, and that solutions to problems should also be addressed at the individual level.

1.2. Traditional Vision of Education

1.2.1. view the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society, such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative.

1.3. The Purpose of Schooling

1.3.1. intellectual - to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing and math

1.3.2. political - to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (patriotism)

1.3.3. social - help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions.

1.3.4. economic - prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor

1.4. The Role of the School

1.4.1. the role of the school is the central focus of each of the perspectives. (conservative/liberal)

1.5. Unequal Education performance

1.5.1. conservatives - argue that individuals or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative, and that achievement is based on hard work and sacrifice

1.5.2. liberals - individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages that others.

1.6. The American Dream

1.6.1. All three perspectives have different views on U.S. educational history, especially with regard to the school's success in living up to the democratic promise.

2. •History of U.S. Education

2.1. Old Deluder Law

2.1.1. Was not very popular throughout New England. Laws were not followed but it remains a landmark in the history of U.S. Education, because it established public responsibility for education.

2.2. Horace Mann of Massachusetts

2.2.1. former lawyer, became the first secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education. The first state normal school was established in Lexington in 1839, partly because of his efforts.

2.3. Opposition to Public Education

2.3.1. Those without children felt it was unfair for them to pay taxes for schools that didn't benefit them.

2.4. Emma Hart Willard

2.4.1. Opened the first female seminary school in Troy New York. Used similar curriculum as the all male academics.

2.5. Mary Lyon

2.5.1. founded Mount Holyoke Seminary in 1837. The entry requirements and level of instruction were the same as the all male schools. (except a foreign language)

2.6. The Committee of Ten

2.6.1. National Education Associations newly established committee on college entrance requirements and the Carnegie Foundations for the advancement of teachings adoption fo the same core courses. Later known as Carnegie units.

3. •Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Teachers

3.1.1. teachers impact how successful students will ultimately become.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Knowledge and attitudes, Employment, Education and Mobility

3.3. major types of college students

3.3.1. careerist - middle and upper middle class backgrounds few academic honors

3.3.2. intellectuals - highly educated families, studied in the humanities earned many academic honors

3.3.3. strivers - often had working class background, came from ethnic or racial minorities, worked hard but often did not have a high gpa

3.3.4. unconnected - all backgrounds, participated in few extracurricular activities and were the least satisfied with their college experience.

3.4. Education and Equality

3.4.1. Inadequate schools differences in schools systems and schools reinforce existing inequalities

3.4.2. De Facto Segregation communities that are separated by race therefore the schools are segregrated

3.4.3. Gender

3.5. Theoretical Perspectives - three major theories about the relation between school and society:

3.5.1. functional - stresses the interdependence of the social system

3.5.2. conflict - social order is not based on some collective agreement. The glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power.

3.5.3. interactional - primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.

3.6. Employment

3.6.1. 54% of the 8 million college graduates in 1986 entered professional and technical jobs

4. •Philosophy of Education

4.1. The activity of doing philosophy aids teachers in understanding two very important notions - who they are or intend to be and why they do or propose to do what they do.

4.2. Idealism - the first systematic philosophy in Western thought. general thought to be the creation of Greek philosopher, Plato.

4.2.1. Generic notions - Plato thought that education was important as a means of moving individuals collectively toward achieving the good. Through that the state should play an active role in education and that it should encourage the brighter students to follow a curriculum that was more abstract and more concerned with ideas rather than with concrete matter. Goal of Education - interested in the search for truth through ideas rather than through the examination of the false shadowy world of matter. Role of teacher - to analyze and discuss ideas with students in order for students to move to new levels of awareness so that ultimately they can be transformed.

4.3. Realism - philosophy that follows in the same historical tradition as idealism

4.3.1. General Notions - only through studying the material world was it possible for an individual to clarify or develop ideas. syllogism is a system of logic that consists of three parts: a major premise, A minor premise, and a conclusion Goal of Education - important questions concerning such notions as the good life, truth, beauty, and so on could be answered through the study of ideas, using the dialectical method. Role of Teacher - teachers should be steeped in the basic academic disciplines in order to transmit to their students the knowledge necessary for the continuance of the human race.

4.4. Pragmatism - American philosophy that developed in the latter part of 19th century. Founders George Sanders Peirce, William James and John Dewey

4.4.1. Generic Notions -was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. Influenced by the theory of evolution. Goal of Education - rooted in social order; he did not separate from social conditions. Believed that philosophy had a responsibility to society and the ideas required laboratory testing Role of Teacher - the teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows.

4.5. Existentialism & Phenomenology - Roots can be tied back to the bible

4.5.1. General notions - believe that individuals are placed on this earth alone and must make some sense out of the chaos they encounter. Concerned with the way in which objects present themselves to people in their consciousness, and how people order these objects. Goal of Education - Believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and affectively, should stress individuality. Discussion of the non-rational as well as the rational world. Role of the Teacher - should understand their own "lived worlds" as well as that of their students in order to help their students achieve the best "lived worlds" they can. Must take risks, expose themselves to resistant students, and work constantly to enable their students to become "wide awake"

4.6. Neo-Marxism - approaches that trace their intelligence roots and theoretical assumptions.

4.6.1. Generic Notions - socialism always proceeds out of the collapse of capitalism Goal of Education - reproduction theories, argue that the role of education in capitalist societies is to reproduce the economic, social, and political status quo. Role of the teacher - teacher must become transformative intellectual who's role is to engage his or her students in a critical examination.

5. •Schools as Organizations

5.1. Governance

5.1.1. mandates curriculum, qualifications for teaching, and safety codes, but these mandates must be carried out not by agents of the sate but by citizens of a particular school district.

5.2. Size and Degree of Centralization

5.2.1. Because of consolidation of schools to make one school system the average pupils per elementary public school rose from 91 in the 1930's to 450 in the 1980s. Consolidation is cost effective but can give superintendents too much power limiting decisions made by the individual schools.

5.3. Student composition

5.3.1. The student composition of schools in the U.S. is becoming more diverse at the same time that there has been a trend toward increasing residential segregation. Basically all the non minorities are moving out of the city into the suburbs causing residential segregation

5.4. Degree of openness

5.4.1. all children are entitled to enroll into public schools and to remain in school until they graduate.

5.5. Private Schools.

5.5.1. Paid school, compete for students, they are less bureaucratic than public schools, and as a consequence, they are more innovative.

5.6. Lawrence County Schools - Senators - Richard Shelby & Jeff Sessions Representative of Education - Bradley Byrne, State Superintendent - Tommy Bice, Local Superintendent - Johnny Yates, Board Members - Gary Bradford, Beth Vinson, Rita Waldrep, Jackie Burch, and Christine Garner

5.6.1. Comparison with Colbert County Schools - These two systems are a lot alike. They are both county schools with smaller elementary schools that serve as feeder schools for High Schools Financially I feel Colbert County is in better shape because of the location and taxes. Since International paper closed, Lawrence County has suffered financially.

6. •Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Humanist curriculum

6.1.1. introduces students to the cultural traditions of society. organized around literature, history, foreign language, the arts and science. Not interested in preparing students for the work force.

6.2. Social Efficiency Curriculum

6.2.1. Students are tested to place them in appropriate classes. Focuses on preparing students for work including the introduction of vocational schools

6.3. Developmentalist curriculum

6.3.1. focus on attention to the development of emotional and behavioral qualities. student centered and was concerned with relating the curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at particular developmental stages. Sensorimotor stage, Preoperational state, Concrete operational stage, formal operational stage (Jean Piaget - Cognitive Theorist

6.4. Social Meliorate

6.4.1. Based on social reconstructionist therory

6.5. Functionalis theory

6.5.1. the role is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability to further the common social order

6.6. Conflict theory

6.6.1. Conflict theorist belive curriculum is a reflection of ideology; they do not believe that schools teach livberal values such as tolerance and respect (hidden curriculum)

6.7. Curriculum

6.7.1. Hidden includes norms that are taught to students through implicit rules and messages, but is not written in the official curriculum. Normal home training things.

6.7.2. Null specifically omitted from being taught in schools (part of History but too much for the kids to hear at their age)

6.8. Mimetic tradition

6.8.1. purpose is to relay specific knowledge to students. Lectures and presentations as the main form of communications. (Realist)

6.9. Transformative traditions

6.9.1. having the ability to change each student in a meaningful way, intellectually, creatively, spiritually and emotionally

6.9.2. Dialectic teaching Use of questions and answers as

7. •Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational Attainment - Class

7.1.1. Class is directly related to achievement and to educational attainment; there is a direct correlation between parental income and children's performance on tests, as well as placement in ability groups. Children from working-class and underclass families are more likely to underachieve, drop out, and resist the curriculum of the school.

7.2. Educational Attainment - Gender

7.2.1. Society discriminates against women occupationally and socially. There is possibly a relationship between educational attainment and occupational attainment for women.

7.3. Educational Attainment - Race

7.3.1. Race related to educational outcomes is undeniable, although, given the nature of U.S. society, it is extremely difficult to separate race from class. In a society as segregated as that in the U.S., it is not surprising that minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students.

7.4. Coleman: Round One

7.4.1. Where an individual goes to school has little effect on his or her cognitive growth or educational mobility.

7.5. Coleman: Round Two

7.5.1. The findings of 1966 were challenged by the findings of 1982. Coleman and his colleagues argued that private schools enforce discipline in a way that is consistent with student achievement. Private schools demand more from their students that public.

7.6. Reading Gap

7.6.1. The gap between the literacy of children of the highest status workers and the lowest-status workers is greater even in other countries.

8. •Educational Inequality

8.1. Functionalists believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family, background

8.1.1. Both agree that understanding educational inequality is a difficult task.

8.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality, the fact that educational outcomes are to a large degree based on family background is fully consistent with this perspective.

8.3. Gender and schooling

8.3.1. At one time there were many differences between a girls education and a boys education. Through the work of many women theses differences are no longer an issue. I graduated in the 90's and had every opportunity as the male students.

8.4. Between school differences

8.4.1. I agree that there are many differences between schools. City schools and county schools are funded differently and one may have more money that the other. This will always be a problem but it is up to the teachers and administrators to provide an equal education regardless if they have the latest technology. Teachers make the difference, not the money.

8.5. Within school differences

8.5.1. Students are all unique and do not come from a mold. There will be in school differences because we are all different. The goal of teachers is to make sure they are teaching to every student and not just the one that fits the mold.

8.6. Student centered theories

8.6.1. students feel that your socioeconomic background has more to do with the educational gap than the education itself.

9. •Educational Reform

9.1. Federal reform

9.1.1. Bush's Educational reform proposal "America 2000" Creating better and more accountable schools for today's students Creating a new generation of American Schools for tomorrow's students Transforming America into a nation of students Making our communities places where learning will happen

9.1.2. No Child Left Behind

9.2. School based reforms

9.2.1. School choice If you are in a school zone for a failing school, you can choose to attend a different school.

9.2.2. Charter schools Most states allow charter schools that are publicly funded and independent of school district mandates

9.2.3. Vouchers Vouchers given to students in urban areas with failing schools who cannot afford private school.

9.3. School Business partnership

9.3.1. The committee to support Philadelphia Public schools pledged management assistance and training to the Philadelphia school district to restructure and implement a site-based management plan. In return the city promised to raise test scores and improve grade promotion rates.

9.4. School to work programs

9.4.1. to extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students regarding skills necessary for successful employment and to stress the importance of work based learning.

9.5. Connecting school, community, and societal reforms.

9.5.1. leadership as the driver for change, parent-community ties, professional capacity, student-centered learning climate, instructional guidance.

9.6. Concerns of quality control

9.6.1. School systems private or public need to have the children's education as the top priority. Money should never be a motivator.