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Assessments by Mind Map: Assessments

1. Advantages: • Encourages student involvement and responsibility. • Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work. • Allows students to see and reflect on their peers’ assessment of their contribution. • Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills.

1.1. Disadvantages: • Potentially increases lecturer workload by needing to brief students on the process as well as on-going guidance on performing self evaluation. • Self evaluation has a risk of being perceived as a process of presenting inflated grades and being unreliable. • Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment.

1.1.1. Example: STARR Practice exam

2. Performance assessment is one alternative to traditional methods of testing student achievement. While traditional testing requires students to answer questions correctly (often on a multiple-choice test), performance assessment requires students to demonstrate knowledge and skills, including the process by which they solve problems.

2.1. Advantages- Performance assessments closely tied to this new way of teaching provide teachers with more information about the learning needs of their students and enable them to modify their methods to meet these needs. They also allow students to assess their own progress and, therefore, be more responsible for their education.

2.1.1. Disadvantages-Performance assessments usually include fewer questions and call for a greater degree of subjective judgement than traditional testing methods. Since there are no clear right and wrong answers, teachers have to decide how to grade and what distinguishes an average performance from an excellent one. This potential disadvantage can be avoided if teachers set up an evaluation rubric (rating scale with several categories) that clearly defines the characteristics of poor, average, and excellent performances so teachers can score them in a consistent manner. Example: The PARCC exam

3. Summative- OF learning

3.1. The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark.

3.1.1. Advantages- Information from summative assessments can be used formatively when students or faculty use it to guide their efforts and activities in subsequent courses. Disadvantages- The test comes at the end and you are not able to track the students progess Example- A Essay

4. Performance based- OF learning (Summative)

5. Formative -FOR learning

5.1. monitors student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning.

5.1.1. Advantages- help students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work help faculty recognize where students are struggling and address problems immediately Disadvantages- help students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work help faculty recognize where students are struggling and address problems immediately Example: Having students partner up

6. Diagnostic-OF learning (Summative)

6.1. Used to diagnose strengths and areas of need in all students. Diagnostic assessment involves the gathering and careful evaluation of detailed data using students’ knowledge and skills in a given learning area.

6.1.1. Advantage- the rich data from the formatives allow teachers to set a scope and sequence for curriculum and instruction. Disadvantage- I don't recommend using the results of formative assessments in a student's grade, as in theory, the material has not yet been taught and therefore a student should be not penalized for underperforming. Example: SRI Scholastic Reading Inventory

7. self-assessment- FOR learning (Formative)

7.1. Students can become better language learners when they engage in deliberate thought about what they are learning and how they are learning it. In this kind of reflection, students step back from the learning process to think about their language learning strategies and their progress as language learners.

7.1.1. Advantages- Students have an incresed responsiblities due self reflection. Also students become more skilled at adjusting what they are doing to impove the quality of their work. Disadvantages- Self assessment assighnments may take more time. Can increase lecture workload by needing to brief students in depth about the assighned task. Example- Reflection

8. peer assessment- FOR learning (Formative)

8.1. One of the ways in which students internalize the characteristics of quality work is by evaluating the work of their peers. However, if they are to offer helpful feedback, students must have a clear understanding of what they are to look for in their peers' work.

8.1.1. Advantages: • Agreed marking criteria means there can be little confusion about assignment outcomes and expectations. • Encourages student involvement and responsibility. • Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work. • Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills. • Students are involved in the process and are encouraged to take part ownership of this process. • Provides more relevant feedback to students as it is generated by their peers. • It is considered fair by some students, because each student is judged on their own contribution. • When operating successfully can reduce a lecturer's marking load. • Can help reduce the ‘free rider’ problem as students are aware that theircontribution will be graded by their peers. Disadvantages: • Additional briefing time can increase a lecturer’s workload. • The process has a degree of risk with respect to reliability of grades as peer pressure to apply elevated grades or friendships may influence the assessment, though this can be reduced if students can submit their assessments independent of the group. • Students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark. • Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment. • Students may be reluctant to make judgements regarding their peers. • At the other extreme students may be discriminated against if students ‘gang up’ against one group member. Example: Academic Knowledge and Skills test

9. Sources:*Chan C.(2010) Assessment: Self and Peer Assessment, Assessment Resources@HKU, University of Hong Kong []: Available: Accessed: DATE; *List of Pros and Cons of High Stakes Testing. (2015, May 20). Retrieved September 22, 2015; *Project Appleseed Parental Involvement in Public Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved September 22, 2015.

10. High stakes-OF learning (Summative)

10.1. A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers.

10.1.1. Advantages- Helps Teachers Learn More About Student Needs, The Testing Data Is Readily Available, Improved Test Taking Abilities Disadvantages- Some Subjects Are Not Properly Emphasized, Creativity Is Stifled, Increasing Pressure Does Not Always Work. Example- T.O.F.L Test of English as Forein Language

11. Portfolio- OF learning (Summative)

11.1. Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts.

11.1.1. Advantage-One great benefit of portfolio assessment for learning is that it is ongoing. One thing I’ve noticed over the past few weeks is that this allows for incremental feedback that helps us to identify a learner’s problems at an earliest stage. For example, the learner can be made aware of fossilized errors in their writing after one piece of work, and thus have the chance to not continue making the error that might otherwise have gone unnoticed. Disadvantage- Effective portfolio assessment can be difficult to achieve on a school-wide scale. Firstly, it may be logistically impossible to offer detailed descriptive feedback for every learner in a large class. I’m giving such feedback to only twelve of my students at present, and that’s more than enough, to be honest. Even with a smaller number to deal with, formative assessment is a time-consuming proposition because it requires significant, ongoing dedication and effort from both the learner and teacher to sustain effectiveness. Secondly, you have to coordinate the level and degree of feedback that each teacher is giving, so that all learners receive roughly the same amount of attention to their work: this is not an easy task. Example- L.E.P Limited English Proficient

12. Authentic-FOR learning (Formative)

12.1. A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills

12.1.1. Advantages- uses tasks that reflect normal classroom activities; authentic assessment focuses on higher order thinking skills; authentic assessment embeds assessment in the classroom context; requires active performance to demonstrate understanding; promotes a wide range of assessment strategies; involves the teacher and student collaboratively in determining assessment; focuses on progress, rather than identifying weaknesses. Disadvantage- When giving some assessments you may set unrealistic goals for the students. Example- Spelling Test