define problems, establish goals, identify stakeholders, consider ethics, consider document formats, identify information needed and obtained, choose adequate technologies.
determine necessary information, conduct research, organize information gathered, evaluate information and determine if more research is necessary.
confirm goals, document format and delivery medium, organize drafts, arrange document, integrate necessary visuals.
test usability of document, obtain peer review, revise and rewrite based on feedback, edit document accordingly.
include related materials for document, confirm appropriate delivery method, deliver final product to audience, follow up with audience, review document's outcomes and determine if further action is needed.
consider how documents will solve problems, affect credibility, and audience reception
understand the needs of the audience
make decisions about the technology needed to communicate effectively
make appropriate decisions about information that is to be conveyed.
HTW: Ethics in Writing
adequately research topics through interviews, field work, conversations, and databases.
consider how a document will look and how the audience will perceive it.
create documents which contain writing that is efficient and not wordy.
we can use rhetoric to solve many common workplace problems by identifying and understanding the underlying cause for these problems.
Exigency and Purpose
Audiences, Variety, Expectations, Use of Documents
Writers and Credibility, Correctness, Experience, Goodwill, Identification, Trust
Contexts and Constraints
technology is constantly changing the ways in which people communicate in the workplace. Writers must consider how to use technology to create their documents and how that technology shapes and changes the ways in which they write.
as technology is constantly evolving and progressing at an exponential rate, it is important for writers to continuously familiarize themselves with these new technologies in order to determine how they can be of use in writing.
Graphics and Imaging Software
Desktop Publishing Software
E-Learning Authoring Tools
World Wide Web
E-Mail, HTW: E-Mail
Ethics and E-Mail
Electronic Messaging, HTW: Instant Messenging
HTW: Global Communication
the difference between right and wrong.
ethics can help writers think more clearly and sensitively, enables writers to articulate perspectives, and allows writers to advance ethical thinking.
ethics and laws are not the same. One is concerned with what is right and wrong and the other is a set of rules by which society must abide.
Trademarks and Service Marks
it is important for writers to maintain integrity and honesty when communicating with their audience.
it is important for writers to consider their audience's right to privacy.
Situation and Perspective
Revision and Editing
writers must consider how their actions and documentation will affect the world in which we live.
Deception and Evasion
as a writer, it is important to understand the differences between cultures. What is traditionally accepted in one culture may not be accepted in another.
Language, Target Language, Official Languages, International English, Text Directionality, Writing Style, HTW: Varieties of English
Technology, Machine Translation
Education, Literacy, Knowledge, Learning Style
Politics and Law
Society, Age, Business Ettiquette, Family and Socialization
although it may be difficult, it is vital for writers to consider various stereotypes and to avoid them at all costs.
it is important for writers to adequately address and foresee any translation concerns.
Cultural and Rhetorical Differences
Localization, Improved Sales, Overcome Differences, Overcome Resistance, Access to New Markets
Globalization, HTW: Global Graphics
writers must undrstand that some ethical understandings do not always transfer from culture to culture. This will shape the way in which they writer and will force them to consider various aspects of their documentation in order to maintain an ethical position.
Account for Visual and Auditory Perceptions
it is essential for writers to understand the prevalence of global communication and to possess the ability to communicate with audiences from cultures other than their own.
it is important for writers to consider the PSA before even beginning to write any documentation.
Analyze the Audience
Organize the Information, Sequential, Chronological, Priority, General/Specific, Divsion, Classification, Cause and Effect, Comparison/Contrast, Spatial, HTW: Organization
Outline the Ideas, HTW: Outlining
Parts of the Document, Front Matter, Body, End Matter
Drafting the Body
Drafting the Conclusion
Drafting the Introduction
HTW: Writing a Draft
templates and wizards provide pre-completed outlines for documents that only require basic information to be completed. Although they save time, various problems can be encountered with these programs, such as increased saturation which may cause audiences to become bored and disengaged.