Biology Semester 1

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Biology Semester 1 by Mind Map: Biology Semester 1

1. Cells

1.1. Parts

1.1.1. Cell Membrane

1.1.1.1. Encloses cell

1.1.2. Cytoplasm

1.1.2.1. Cell interior

1.1.3. Cytoskeleton

1.1.3.1. Suspend cytoplasm

1.1.4. Ribosomes

1.1.4.1. Make protien

1.1.5. DNA

1.1.5.1. Controls:

1.1.5.1.1. Protiens

1.1.5.1.2. Genes

1.1.5.2. Specilized cells can lose their DNA

1.2. Cell Theory

1.2.1. 1. All living things are made of one or more cells

1.2.2. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms

1.2.2.1. Single celled organisms that lack neuclus and other internal components

1.2.3. 3. All cells arise from existing cells

1.3. Prokaryotes

1.3.1. History

1.3.1.1. Only organisms for 2.5 billion years

1.3.2. Parts

1.3.2.1. Flagella

1.3.2.1.1. Enable movement

1.3.2.2. Cell wall

1.3.2.3. Capsule

1.3.2.3.1. Surrounds some cell walls

1.4. Eukaryotes

1.4.1. Parts

1.4.1.1. Cilia

1.4.1.1.1. Movement

1.4.1.1.2. Flagella

1.4.1.2. Cytosol

1.4.1.2.1. Fluid surrounding everything

1.4.2. Organ

1.4.2.1. Specific job

1.4.3. 1st cells with internal components

1.4.3.1. Neucleus

1.4.3.1.1. Internal

1.4.3.1.2. Holds DNA

1.5. Cytoskeleton

1.5.1. 3 types

1.5.2. Internal framework

1.5.2.1. Made of protien fibers

1.5.2.2. Strucutre/ support

2. Homeostasis

2.1. Photosynthesis

2.1.1. Plants generating their own food

2.1.1.1. Steps

2.1.1.1.1. 1. Plant takes in photons (light energy) from the sun

2.1.1.1.2. 2. The photons enter plant cell's choloroplast

2.1.1.1.3. 3. Inside the chloroplast, these photons enter a thylakoid which is in the cholrophyll where they engage in photosystems 1 and 2

2.1.1.1.4. 4. Water that has also been absorbed by the cell, now splits apart leaving 2 oxygen atoms, 2 hydrogen protons and two electrons

2.1.1.1.5. 5. The electrons are transported in the electron transport cycle

2.1.1.1.6. 6. They are taken into photosystem 2 where NAPD connects to them and is transformed to NAPDH or glucose

2.1.1.1.7. 7. Meanwhile, the plant cells absorb ADP energy and turn it into ATP energy

2.1.1.1.8. 8. The plant exports ATP energy and oxygen molecules

2.1.1.2. Cytoplasm: the material between parts of a cell

2.1.1.3. Aerobic: with oxygen

2.1.1.4. Anaerobic: without oxygen

2.2. Plant

2.2.1. Autotroph (makes own food)

2.3. Animal

2.3.1. Heterotroph (obtains food elsewhere)

2.4. Chemotroph (obtains energy from oxidization of electrons)

2.5. Homeostasis: maintaining internal balance or equallibriam inside of an organism

2.5.1. Temperature

2.5.2. Light

2.5.3. Metabolism

2.6. Egg Exploration

2.6.1. Egg in H2O solution

2.6.1.1. Egg membrane (cell membrane) turned blue because of the blue water

2.6.2. Egg in NaCl solution

2.6.2.1. Egg membrane turned yellow because of the yellow water

2.6.3. Egg in NAPDH solution

2.6.3.1. Egg membrane turned red because of the red water

2.7. Cellular Respiration or Kreb's Cycle

2.7.1. Oxidizing of food molecules to carbon dioxide and water

2.7.2. 2 phases

2.7.2.1. 1. glycolosis: breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid

2.7.2.1.1. cytosol

2.7.2.2. 2. pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water

2.7.2.2.1. mitochondria

2.7.3. Citric Acid Cycle

2.7.3.1. 1. ATP molecules collide with glucose molecule producing Fructose-1 6 biphosphate and ADP

2.7.3.2. 2. The broken glucose molecule forms two NAD^+

2.7.3.3. 3. The ADP energy collides with these and form two pyruvates whith turn into NADH

2.7.3.4. 4. NAP^+ collides with the three molecules left and forms CO2 and NAPH and actetyl-6t

2.7.4. Electron Transport Chain

2.7.4.1. 3 complexes

2.7.4.1.1. NADH dehydrigenase

2.7.4.1.2. cytochrome c reductase

2.7.4.1.3. cytrochrome c oxidice

2.7.4.2. NADH to oxygen to water

2.7.4.3. 2 molecules

2.7.4.3.1. cytochrome c

2.7.4.3.2. ubiquione

2.8. Key

2.8.1. Cell membrane is made of phosphate and lipids or phospholipid bilayer

2.8.2. Carrier Protein: proteins involved in moving ions

2.8.3. Concentration Gradient: moving particles from higher to lower concentration though a membrane

2.8.4. Sodium-Potassium Pump: potassium ions go into cytoplasm and sodium ions go out of cytoplasm

2.8.5. Chemical Energy: energy stored in the bonds of compounds

2.8.6. Fermentation: breaking down something with bacteria or other microorganisms and it gives off heat

2.8.7. The volume of a cell increases faster than the surface area

2.8.8. Receptor Proteins: proteins in the cell that stay near the chemical bonds

2.8.9. Endocytosis: when the cell takes stuff in to form a vacuole

2.8.10. Exocytosis: when said vacuoles are released from the cell

2.9. Passive and Active Transport

2.9.1. Diffusion: particles going to from a higher concentration to a lower concentration "where it is less crowded"

2.9.2. Semi-Permiable: allows things thorugh

2.9.2.1. When things do pass through: osmosis

2.9.3. HypOtonic

2.9.3.1. concentration is lOwer inside of the cell

2.9.4. Hypertonic

2.9.4.1. concentration is higher inside the cell than out

2.9.5. Isotonic

2.9.5.1. Happy meduim: concentration is same inside as out

3. Origin of Life

3.1. Phylogeny

3.1.1. Phylogenic trees

3.1.1.1. Diagram of all ancestors (lineage)

3.1.1.1.1. Gene flow

3.1.1.1.2. LUA - last universal ansestor

3.1.1.2. Types

3.1.1.2.1. Simple

3.1.1.2.2. Rooted

3.1.1.2.3. Monophyletic

3.1.1.3. Used since Charles Darwin

3.1.2. Cladogram - diagram showing all the related species

3.1.3. Cladistics - uses derived characters ONLY to classify organisms

3.2. Taxonomy

3.2.1. Kingdoms (have many species each)

3.2.1.1. Viruses

3.2.1.1.1. Need host to reproduce

3.2.1.1.2. Parts

3.2.1.1.3. Microscopic non-cellular particles of neuclaic acid in a capsid

3.2.1.1.4. Asexual reproduction

3.2.1.2. Bacteria

3.2.1.2.1. Eubacteria and Archeabacteria ; used to be classified as bacteria, but this is outdated

3.2.1.2.2. Microscopic and everywhere

3.2.1.2.3. Simplest form of life

3.2.1.2.4. Functions

3.2.1.2.5. Shapes

3.2.1.2.6. Plasmid - genes that learn to resist medicine

3.2.1.2.7. Cell wall made of peptidoglycan

3.2.1.3. Fungi

3.2.1.3.1. Heterotrophic

3.2.1.3.2. Groups

3.2.1.3.3. Reproduction by spores

3.2.1.3.4. Eukaryotes

3.2.1.3.5. Mycology

3.2.1.3.6. Beneficial

3.2.1.3.7. Pathogenic

3.2.1.3.8. Types

3.2.1.4. Protista

3.2.1.4.1. Eukaryote

3.2.1.4.2. Aquatic

3.2.1.4.3. Alternating generations - one generation has gamete producing haploids and the next has spore producing diploids

3.2.1.4.4. Eating

3.2.1.4.5. Types

3.2.1.4.6. Slime mold

3.2.1.4.7. Movement

3.2.1.5. Animalia

3.2.1.5.1. aka Metazoa

3.2.1.5.2. Has body symmetry

3.2.1.5.3. Sexual reproduction

3.2.1.5.4. Multicellular heteratrophs

3.2.1.5.5. Sophisticated

3.2.1.5.6. 0, 2 or 3 germ layers

3.2.1.5.7. Blastula - stage of embryo before gastrulation

3.2.1.5.8. Invertebrates - animal without a backbone, but replaces with and exoskeleton

3.2.1.5.9. Vertebrates - animal with a backbone or spine inside their body ; eubacteria found in intestines

3.2.1.5.10. Arthropod - inveterbrate with a segmented body such as insects and spider ; exoskeleton formed by carbohydrate called chitin

3.2.1.6. Plantae

3.2.1.6.1. Nonvascular

3.2.1.6.2. Vascular

3.2.1.6.3. Has multicellularity ; Autotrophic

3.2.1.6.4. Tropism - respond to stimuli; such as a plant moving towards sunlight

3.2.1.6.5. Transpiration - plants releasing water vapor into the air through the stromata

3.2.2. Science of naming species (plant, animal...)

3.2.2.1. Based on genetics, behavior and observations

3.2.2.1.1. Phenitic System

3.2.2.1.2. Genotype System

3.2.2.2. Species have a biological difference

3.2.2.2.1. Different species cannot reproduce

3.2.2.3. Binamial naming system

3.2.2.3.1. Each species has two names

3.2.3. Genus - taxonomic rank used in classifying species

3.2.4. Phylum - classification before class and after kingdom

3.2.5. Aka evolutionary systematics

3.3. Where did life come from?

3.3.1. Primordial Soup

3.3.1.1. Mix of all organisms before the species and before complex life

3.3.2. Miller-Urey Model

3.3.2.1. Simulated conditions thought to be like early Earth

3.3.3. Innate Behavior - behavior that was inherited from generation to generation ; such as foraging, mobility and defense

3.3.3.1. Ancestral characters - characteristics that were inherited and all the of species have them

3.3.4. Learned Behaviors - behaviors that organisms have adapted to create though analogous evolution aka mutations ; such as migratation

3.3.4.1. Differentiation - when cells change in order to accommodate needs of an organism

3.3.5. Eukaryotes are from the eukaraya taxon

3.4. Key

3.4.1. Endosymbiosis - one organism living inside another, such as viruses living inside another organism to use a host cell

3.4.2. Domain - highest rank of taxonomic speceis

3.4.3. Ozone layer - Layer that carbon effects

3.4.4. Aggregation - cells that are affiliated with each other, meet then dispurse

3.4.5. Photoperiodism - response to changes in day length ; such as getting tired (plants and animals)

3.4.6. Colonial organism - identical cells that have no interaction inside of the cell, however are associated together

3.4.7. Cephalization - Tissues that enable organisms to move ; such as the brain and head

4. EOC Review

4.1. Lipids

4.1.1. Lipid diagram

4.1.2. Examples : fats, vegetable oils, corn oils

4.2. Proteins

4.2.1. Examples : insulin, hemoglobin

4.3. Enzymes

4.3.1. Acts as a catalyst ; such as helping to digest food

4.3.2. Fit together

4.3.3. Activation energy

4.4. Charbohydrates

4.4.1. Examples : sugar, starch, wheat

4.5. DNA

4.5.1. Deoxyribo-neuclaic acid

4.5.2. Holds genetic information

4.5.3. Microtubules

4.5.3.1. transports information to the nucleus

4.6. Enacted by RNA

4.7. Catalyst

4.7.1. Speeds up / activates chemical reactions

4.8. Path to a complex organism

4.8.1. Cell _ Tissue _ Organ _ Organ System

4.9. Water

4.9.1. H2O

4.9.2. Polar - uneven distribution of electron density

4.9.3. Good solution maker because it breaks down ions

4.9.4. 212 degrees F - boils ; 100 degrees C - boils

4.9.5. 32 degrees - freezes ; 0 degrees C - freezes

4.10. Organic compounds have carbon ; inorganic compounds do not

4.11. Bacteria Diagram with Labels

4.11.1. Archeabacteria - found in harsh or extreme environments ; volcanos, glaciers

4.12. Cells

4.12.1. Cell Theory

4.12.1.1. 1. All living things are made of one or more cells

4.12.1.2. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms

4.12.1.2.1. Single celled organisms that lack neuclus and other internal components

4.12.1.3. 3. All cells arise from existing cells

4.12.1.4. Single celled organisms that lack neuclus and other internal components

4.12.2. Labeled Plant Cell

4.12.2.1. Have cell wall and chloroplast

4.12.2.2. Plant Leaf Cross-Section

4.12.2.3. Vascular tissues = flowem and xylem

4.12.2.3.1. Flowem for food

4.12.2.3.2. Xylem for water

4.12.2.4. Roots_xylem_leaf_stomata

4.12.2.4.1. Stomata = opening in a leaf

4.12.2.5. Meri Stem - where a plant grows

4.12.3. Labeled Animal Cell

4.12.3.1. The volume of a cell increases faster than the surface area

4.12.3.2. No central vacuole

4.12.3.3. Centrioles

4.12.4. Cell membrane - regulates homeostasis

4.12.5. Aerobic - with oxygen

4.12.6. Anaerobic - without oxygen

4.12.6.1. In humans produces lactic acid

4.12.7. Labeled Protista Diagram

4.12.7.1. Single-celled eukaryote

4.12.7.2. Have internal organelles

4.12.8. Prokaryote Diagram

4.12.8.1. No organized nucleus

4.12.9. Eukaryote

4.12.9.1. Has organized nucleus

4.12.10. Osmosis - transfer of water

4.12.11. Diffusion - transfer of CO2 or O or anything other than water

4.12.11.1. Must have ATP

4.12.12. Hypertonic solution - concentration is higher inside the cell than out of the cell

4.12.13. Metabolism - all chemical reactions together that sustain life

4.12.14. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

4.12.14.1. Photosynthesis

4.12.14.1.1. Glucose and oxygen

4.12.14.1.2. In chlorophyll

4.12.14.1.3. Light intensity - more light makes more photosynthesis

4.12.14.2. Cellular Respiration

4.12.14.2.1. CO2, ATP and water

4.12.14.2.2. Glycolosis , Kreb's Cycle , Electron Transport Chain

4.12.14.2.3. In any cell

4.12.15. Labeled Virus Diagram

4.12.15.1. Injects neuclaic acid

4.12.15.2. Not considered living

4.12.15.3. Has genetic material

4.12.16. Kingdoms

4.12.16.1. Taxonomic Rank Order

4.12.16.2. Genus and species make up a scientific name