IDEA: 14 Categories of Disabilities

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IDEA: 14 Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: IDEA: 14 Categories of Disabilities

1. Deaf- Blindness: Hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs.

2. Developmental Delay: A delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication, social/emotional development or adaptive behavioral development.

3. Hearing Impairment: Impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”

4. Other Health Impairments: Limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment.

5. Speech Language Impairment: A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

6. Traumatic Brain Injury: An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

7. Visual Impairment Including Blindness: An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

8. READING DECODING/READING FLUENCY Provide student with an audio version of the text. Use books on tape/CD or have another student or assistant record the text. Use computer software to transfer printed text into speech. Provide a reading “buddy” to read aloud text. (PEER PARTNER) Read written directions and key points aloud before beginning. Allow student to input unknown words into an electronic spelling dictionary with voice output.

9. READING COMPREHENSION ACCOMADATIONS: Provide student with list of important vocabulary before reading the text. Have student read the summary of the text first. Have student read the review questions first and then read text to look for answers. Provide student with a study guide of the text. Allow student to use sticky notes, highlighter tape and erasable highlighter to mark important information in the text. (MARK-UP TEXT) Ask student to paraphrase information in their own words and discuss what is unclear.

10. MATH COMPUTATION ACCOMADATIONS: Frequently use manipulatives for reference when assisting a student. Assign a peer or study buddy to assist with assignments. Pre-teach or review key terms, such a dividend and sum. Highlight or underline key terms in math problems. Reduce the number of problems on a page. Increase the font size on handouts. Allow student to verbalize math examples and procedures Use structured and concrete examples to help students’ bridge informal mathematical understanding with formal mathematical concepts. Encourage students to: 1) Stop after each answer; 2) Read aloud the problem and answer; 3) Listen to myself and ask "Does that make sense?" Make it pleasant and positive for a student to ask questions about things he or she does not understand. Slow down the pace of delivery.

11. INATTENTION/TASK COMPLETION ACCOMADATIONS: Allow extra work time. Eliminate busy work. Formulate student seatwork goals. Give an assignment head start. Highlight textbook information. Provide a work plan. Provide text with easy readability. Provide work samples. Chunk individual assignments. Start assigned reading in class. Start challenging homework assignments in class. Use peer to help start assignment. Worksheet, give two copies.

12. RETENTION OF INFORMATION ACCOMADATIONS: Visual Aids, Anchor Charts, Whole class oral quizzes, Work completed in sequential order leading up to mastery. Re-teaching standards using different learning methods. Technology reinforcement (games, worksheets, online quizzes/tests)

13. CASE STUDY: Learning Disability (LD) Case Study– “Colin” Colin, a 7th grader, came to JCOS as a 3rd grader. He was referred by his learning consultant and had already been retained a year and attended 3 different schools. Although bright with a wonderful memory, he did not have reading or writing skills to match his ability. Like most children with learning disabilities (LD), Colin’s struggles were not just academic – they were social and emotional too. JCOS Response: Before academics, the goal was to gain trust and worth in Colin’s eyes. Through perseverance and patience and believing in Colin, his teachers found a way to reach him with positive reinforcement and attainable short-term goals. Using his strength of memory, alternative means of assessments were used such as: oral testing, project-based assessments, debates and dramatic role- playing, affording Colin the ability to hold on to his successes rather than his failures. Daily, intensive instruction for: • Reading, based on research-supported literacy instructional/remediation method, using Preventing Academic Failure (PAF) program. Initial reading instruction was one-to-one until it graduated to small reading groups. • Writing, based on research-supported Judith Hochman’s Basic Writing Skills for struggling writers Outcome: Today, Colin is a self-reliant student who actively advocates well or himself and others. He has taken on leadership roles – both in the school and in organizations in his community.

14. CASE STUDY: Speech and Language Case Study – “Ashley” Ashley, a 4th grader was referred to JCOS by her pediatric neurologist due to concerns about anxiety, speech development and problems acquiring reading skills that impacted academic progress and functioning in school. She repeated first grade due to lack of reading skills and overwhelming anxiety interfering with her participation in the classroom. JCOS response: Small class sizes allowed for individual and differentiated instruction and more opportunities to break down instruction into manageable parts, building self-advocacy skills to help manage anxiety and maintain focus. Daily, intensive instruction for: Reading, based on research-supported literacy instruction/remediation method, using Preventing Academic Failure program. Writing, based on research supported Judith Hochman’s Basic Writing Skills for struggling writers. Orton-Gillingham Methodology to classroom instruction utilized throughout the curriculum. Outcome: After two years at JCOS, Ashley gained significant reading and writing skills, approaching her appropriate grade level, as well as individual strategies that have proven successful in both the academic and socio-emotional arena.

15. References:

16. Autism: developmental disability that affects verbal and nonverbal communication adn social interaction.

17. Deafness: a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing. (effects a child’s educational performance)

18. Emotional Disturbance: A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

19. Intellectual Disability: Significantly intellectual functioning; affects a child’s educational performance.

20. Multiple Disabilities: Combination of impairments which causes such severe educational needs.

21. Orthopedic Impairment: a severe orthopedic impairment that affects a child’s educational performance.

22. Specific Learning Disability: A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.

23. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING ACCOMADATIONS: (ORGANIZING INFORMATION AND MATERIALS. CONTROLLING IMPULES) Tape “behavior cards” to student desk, Post the days schedule Post expected behavior for student, Construct a point or incentive system.

24. WRITTEN EXPRESSION ACCOMADATIONS: Provide the student with appropriate time limits for the completion of the task. Recognize quality work; provide timely feedback to student. Encourage the student to use a computer for writing to increase the speed and legibility of the work. (technology) Provide ample opportunity for the student to proofread written assignments Read the student’s work aloud so they can learn to identify errors; encourage the student to read his or her work aloud. Reduce distractions when student is engaged in writing activities. Frequently conference with the student; explain what the student is doing wrong and clarify expectations about what he or she should be doing. Reduce the length requirements on written assignments-stress quality over quantity. Avoid assessing student work for neatness and spelling. Teach students note taking skills including the use of abbreviations. Provide a list of relevant vocabulary words to be included when taking notes. Reduce the amount of productivity expected on writing assignments.

25. SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF BASIC SKILLS ACCOMMADATIONS: More time for work, Preferential seating, One-on-one assistance, Small group work, Partner or “Buddy” system , Work breaks

26. CASE STUDY: Other Health Impairments (OHI) Case Study – “Jason” Jason, a 6th grader referred to JCOS by his psychologist due to concerns about his inattention and academic frustration leading to classroom failure, poor self-image and behavioral difficulties which began in the 3rd grade. Jason and his family struggled between his academic ability and his poor classroom performance leading to a decline of emotions and behaviors that interfered with everyday functioning in school, at home and with his peer groups. JCOS response: Multisensory instruction allowed for more hands-on and visually supported lessons increasing focus in the classroom. The small teacher to student ratio gave the student more support, both academically and emotionally, to gain a confidence base and begin his self-advocacy. The physical education teacher worked one-to-one with Jason giving him the skills to be a team leader and a role model. This reinforcement in his area of strength gave Jason a positive self image which generalized into the classroom and with his peers. Daily, intensive instruction for: Reading, using a mosaic of reading approaches including Preventing Academic Failure (PAF) and Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) methods. Writing, based on research-supported Judith Hochman’s Basic Writing Skills for struggling writers. Outcome: Jason earned academic honors and played in the band at JCOS. He now attends a Catholic high school where he remains an honor roll student and actively participates in school sports.