Special Education Categories and Accommodations

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Special Education Categories and Accommodations by Mind Map: Special Education Categories and Accommodations

1. Autism

1.1. A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally present before age three that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

1.1.1. Interventions: Structured teaching that addresses challenging behaviors in a proactive manner by creating appropriate and meaningful environments that reduce the stress, anxiety and frustration which may be experienced by children with autism Assistive technology: have the students use educational games/apps that are fun for them and then have them use their dedicated communication device (even if it is another iPad used exclusively for communication) to tell you about it.

2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. Simultaneous (occurring at the same time) hearing and visual impairments, which cause such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be served in special education programs solely for children with deafness, or children with blindness.

2.1.1. Interventions: Use the same teaching strategies used to instruct children who do not have a disability would be appropriate for the child with a hearing impairment. This child will learn from what he sees and what he does (action). He learns a great deal incidentally by watching others. Instruction in a large group can be very beneficial for this child because he can prepare for his response while waiting for his turn. Assistive technology: A laptop computer is connected to the BrailleNote.

3. Emotional disturbance

3.1. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.

3.1.1. Interventions: Develop and maintain an active schedule with evenly intermixed direction instruction, individual seatwork, and cooperative learning activities; Provide time for the student to catch up on missed work or to review concepts that they are struggling with; Break assignments into “chunks” to avoid overwhelming the student; Seat student in close proximity to teacher, towards front of the room. Assistive technology: Using devices and apps that would calm down a restless and stressed child.

4. Deafness

4.1. A hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing language through hearing, with or without amplification (aids) that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

4.1.1. Interventions: Specialized seating arrangements; Obtain student’s attention prior to speaking; Clearly enunciate speech; Allow extra time for processing information; Repeat or rephrase information when necessary; Frequently check for understanding Assistive technology: Test-driven development; Personal hearing device

5. Hearing impairment

5.1. An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or changing, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance, but is not included under the definition of "deafness."

5.1.1. Interventions: Allow hearing-impaired students to sit where they think best, as sitting close to the teacher will help the child to better understand the context of your words by observing your facial expressions; Don’t shout. If the child is already wearing an FM device, your voice will be amplified, as it is; Give interpreters copies of lessons in advice. This will help the interpreter prep the student for the vocabulary used in the lesson; Focus on the child, not the interpreter. Teachers do not need to give interpreters directions to give to the child. The interpreter will relay your words without being asked; Only speak while facing forward. Do not speak with your back to hearing impaired children. They need to see your face for context and visual cues. Assistive technology: Hearing aids; Telecommunication device for the deaf

6. Intellectual disability

6.1. a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills.

6.1.1. Interventions: Use short and simple sentences to ensure understanding. Repeat instructions or directions frequently. Ask student if further clarification is necessary. Keep distractions and transitions to a minimum. Teach specific skills whenever necessary. Provide an encouraging and supportive learning environment. Assistive technology: Educational videos.

7. Multiple disabilities

7.1. Simultaneous impairments such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc., the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be served in a special education program solely for one of the impairments.

7.1.1. Interventions: Peer tutoring has been proven to have positive results for students with multiple disabilities in a number of separate research studies. Assistive technology: Using software such as the Visual Assistant, teachers and service providers can program a number of different skill sets and instructions to be accessible to the student at any time.

8. Other health impairment (including ADHD)

8.1. Having limited strength, vitality (endurance), or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental causes, that results in limited alertness in school

8.1.1. Interventions should include Individual educational Plan, placement considerations, and necessary modifications and adaptations. Assistive technology: In the classroom and elsewhere, assistive devices, such as automatic page-turners, book holders, and adapted pencil grips, allow learners with disabilities to participate in educational activities.

9. Speech or language impairment

9.1. A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

9.1.1. Interventions: Helping children with articulation disorders to learn proper production of speech sounds; Helping children who stutter to speak more fluently Assisting children with voice disorders to improve their voice quality. Assistive technology: use of language program that has a number of applications for teaching those who are developing or reacquiring language functions; Use of symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques to enhance the communication process.

10. Traumatic brain injury

10.1. An injury to the brain caused by an outside physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

10.1.1. Assistive technology: Use the simplest, least expensive and most usable system that will fill the need. Develop routines around the use of the technology and teach the student the routines over time. Provide support for the student, but fade the support to prevent dependence on the external support system and environment. Interventions: Classroom structure should also include a predictable and consistent routine. Consideration should also be given to the length of school day that students can tolerate, their nutritional needs, and their fatigue levels and need for rest breaks; classes should be scheduled to capitalize on optimal attention periods.

11. Visual impairment, including blindness

11.1. An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

11.1.1. Interventions: Seat or encourage the visually impaired student to come to the front of the classroom or presentation area in order to be certain that s/he hears all instruction/explanation correctly; Encourage the student's use of proper posture, eye contact as much as possible and proper social etiquette. Discourage any inappropriate mannerisms to maximize the student's physical and emotional health, as well as the student's social, educational and career potential. Assistive technology: Audiovisual presentations and demonstrations are made accessible to severely visually impaired students by providing verbal explanations. Read what is being written on the board and/or describe what is pictured in the presentation.

12. Specific learning disability

12.1. dyscalculia

12.2. dysgraphia

12.3. dyspraxia

12.4. dyslexia

12.5. A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may show itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.

12.5.1. Interventions: Use graphic organizers to support understanding of relationships between ideas. Use adaptive equipment if appropriate (books on tape, laptop computers, etc.). Ask questions in a clarifying manner, then have student describe understanding of the questions. Use an overhead projector with an outline of the lesson or unit of the day. Reduce course load. Provide clear photocopies of notes and overhead transparencies. Provide a detailed course outline before class begins. Assistive technology: tools that will let kids use their abilities to work on areas of weakness. For example, if your child has reading issues but has good listening skills, audiobooks might be useful.

13. Developmental delay

13.1. Developmental Delay is when your child does not reach their developmental milestones at the expected times.

13.1.1. Interventions: Give students blocks, clay, paper, pencils, crayons, safety scissors, play dough, and manipulatives to use. Plan daily physical activities, and take students outside to run, climb and jump around. Have students practice buttoning and unbuttoning, zipping clothes, and opening and closing a door. Use activities that involve cutting, pasting, drawing and writing. Assistive technology: introduce devices a child might need to grow, learn and meet individual goals.

14. Orthopedic impairment

14.1. impairments caused by a congenital (present at birth) anomaly, and impairments caused by disease and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns).

14.1.1. Interventions: Seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements Instruction that is focused on development of gross and fine motor skills Ensuring suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices Adequate awareness of the student's medical condition and its affect on the student Assistive technology: Augmentative and alternative communication devices Academic software packages for students with disabilities