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1. Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

1.1. The Roman Republic

1.1.1. Republic

1.1.1.1. Form of government in which Power rests with citizens who elect their leaders, only free-born male Romans can vote.

1.1.2. Patrician

1.1.2.1. Powerful, wealthy landowners whom Inherited power and social status, citing their ancestors as why they can make laws.

1.1.3. Plebeian

1.1.3.1. Roman Citizens such as farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the population. They could voteBarred by law from holding most important government positions.

1.1.4. Tribune

1.1.4.1. Tribunes Roman leaders allowed the Plebeians to form their own assembly and elect representatives called . Tribunes protected the rights of the Plebeians from unfair acts of Patrician officials.

1.1.5. Consul

1.1.5.1. Kings who commanded army and directed government. Limited Power = 1 Year Long Term. The same person could not be elected consul again for 10 years. One consul could always overrule or veto the other consul’s decision. Two consuls.

1.1.6. Senate

1.1.6.1. The aristocratic branch or Rome’s government. Both legislative and administrative functions. 300 members from the upper class of Roman society. Great influence over foreign and domestic policy. Plebeians were later allowed in the Senate.

1.1.7. Dictator

1.1.7.1. A leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army. Lasted only for six months. Chosen by the consuls and then elected by the Senate in time of crisis

1.1.8. Legion

1.1.8.1. Roman soldiers were organized into military units called legions. Divided into smaller groups (called century) of 80 men each Citizens who owned land must serve in the army. Seekers of certain public offices had to perform 10 years of military services.

1.1.9. Punic Wars

1.1.9.1. War between Rome and Carthage between 264-146 BC. 3 wars. The first, for Sicily and the western Mediterranean. 23 years and defeat of Carthage.

1.1.10. Hannibal

1.1.10.1. A brilliant military strategist who wanted to end Carthage’s earlier defeat. The second Punic War begins in 218 BC. Hannibal lead Carthage for it.

1.2. The Roman Empire

1.2.1. Civil War

1.2.1.1. Conflict between groups within the same country.

1.2.2. Julius Caesar

1.2.2.1. A military leader who joined forces with Crassus, a wealthy Roman, and Pompey, a popular general. With their help, Caesar was elected consul in 59 BC. Caesar was a strong leader and a genius at military strategy.

1.2.3. Triumvirate

1.2.3.1. After Caesar was elected consul in 59 BC, for the next 10 years, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey dominated Rome as a triumvirate, a group of 3 rulers.

1.2.4. Pax Romana

1.2.4.1. Rome in peace. A period of peace and prosperity. Rome was at the peak of its power from Augustus’ rule from 27 BC to AD 180. For 207 years, peace reigned throughout the Roman Empire, which was known as Pax Romana.

1.2.5. Augustus

1.2.5.1. After Caesar’s death, Caesar’s 18 year old grand-nephew and adopted son named Octavian, joined with an experienced General, Mark Anthony and a powerful politician, Lepidus and to take control of Rome in 43 BC and ruled for 10 years as the second triumvirate. Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of Rome and accepted the title of Augustus (exalted one). He also kept the title, Imperator (supreme military commander), a term from which Emperor is derived. Rome was now an empire ruled by one man.

1.3. The Rise of Christianity

1.3.1. Jesus

1.3.1.1. A Jew who was born in Bethlehem in Judea. He was raised in the village of Nazareth in Northern Judea. He was baptized by a prophet named John the Baptist. At age 30, he began his public ministry. For the next 3 years, he preached, taught, did good works, and reportedly performed miracles. His teachings contained the belief that there is only one God, to love others and the principles of the 10 Commandments.

1.3.2. Apostle

1.3.2.1. The 12 men who were Jesus’ disciples or pupils who might have written some of the Gospels.

1.3.3. Paul

1.3.3.1. One man, the apostle Paul had an enormous influence on Christianity’s development. He was a Jew who had never met Jesus and at first was an enemy of Christianity. While travelling to Damascus in Syria, he reportedly had a vision of Christ. He spent the rest of his life spreading and interpreting Christ’s teachings. He wrote influential letters, Epistles, to group of believers. In his teaching, he stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for the People’s Sins. He also declared that Christian converts were not obligated to follow Jewish law. He enabled Christianity to become more than just a local religion.

1.3.4. Diaspora

1.3.4.1. When Jews were driven from their homeland into exile, this dispersal of the Jews is called Diaspora. Centuries of Jewish exile followed the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70. In AD 1100s, many European Jews were expelled from their home. Some moved to Turkey, Palestine and Syria. Others went to Poland and neighboring areas. The statelessness of the Jews did not end until the creation of Israel in 1948.

1.3.5. Constantine

1.3.5.1. A critical moment in Christianity occurred in AD 312 when the Roman emperor, Constantine was fighting three rivals for leadership of Rome. On the day before the battle of Milvian Bridge, he prayed for divine help. He reported seeing an image of a cross-a symbol of Christianity. He ordered Artisans to put the Christian symbols on his soldier’s shields. He and the troops were victorious in battle. He credited his success to the Christian God. In the next year, AD 313, he announced an end into the persecution of Christians. In the Edict of Milan, he declared Christianity to be one of the religions approved by the emperor.

1.3.6. Bishop

1.3.6.1. Also a priest who supervised several local churches.

1.3.7. Peter

1.3.7.1. An apostle who traveled to Rome from Jerusalem and became the first bishop of Jerusalem. Jesus referred to Peter as the “rock” on which the Christian church would be built. All priests and bishops traced their authority to Peter.Peter was the first Pope.

1.3.8. Pope

1.3.8.1. Father or head of the Christian church. Peter was the first Pope. Whoever was the bishop of Rome was also the leader of the whole Church. Rome was the capital of the empire and the center of the church.

1.4. The Fall of the Roman Empire

1.4.1. Inflation

1.4.1.1. A drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices.

1.4.2. Mercenary

1.4.2.1. Foreign soldiers who fought for money.

1.4.3. Diocletian

1.4.3.1. In AD 284, a strong willed army leader who became the new emperor. He ruled with an iron fist and limited personal freedoms. He restored order to the empire and increased its strength. He doubled the size of the Roman army and controlled inflation by setting fixed prices for goods. He divided the empire into the Greek-Speaking East and the Latin-Speaking West. He took the Eastern half and appointed Co-Ruler for the West.

1.4.4. Constantinople

1.4.4.1. The city named after Constantine.

1.4.5. Attila

1.4.5.1. When the Huns united under a powerful chieftain named Attila who terrorized both halves with his 100,000 soldiers Germanic Invasion Continued by the Hans.

2. Cleisthenes

2.1. Reorganized Athens into tribes based on geographic divisions

2.2. Established the Council (drawn by lot from the tribes) and the Assembly (all citizens) to govern Athens

2.3. Reform in Athens concludes with the adoption of a system of direct democracy.

2.4. Citizens of the polis (city-state) gather as an assembly to make major decisions by voting.

3. Ch5_Classical Greece

3.1. Cultures of the Mountains and the Seas

3.1.1. Mycenaean

3.1.1.1. A large group of Indo-Europeans who migrated from the Eurasian steppes to Europe, India, and Southeast Asia. The people who settled on the Greek mainland (in the city of Mycenae) around 2000 B.C.

3.1.2. Dorian

3.1.2.1. The Greek sea raiders who attacked and burned many Mycenaean cities and moved into the war-torn countryside. They were far less advanced and their economy and trade collapsed and lost the art of writing.

3.1.3. Homer

3.1.3.1. A blind man who was known as the greatest storyteller.

3.1.4. Epic

3.1.4.1. Narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds between 750-700 B.C. ie Iliad.

3.1.5. Myth

3.1.5.1. Traditional stories about Greek gods. Greeks understood the mysteries of nature and the power of human passions.

3.2. Warring City-States

3.2.1. Polis

3.2.1.1. The city state that was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece. Made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, which included numerous villages.

3.2.2. Acropolis

3.2.2.1. A fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to discuss city government.

3.2.3. Aristocracy

3.2.3.1. A government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning rich families who gained political power after serving in a king's military cavalry.

3.2.4. Oligarchy

3.2.4.1. A government ruled by a few powerful people.

3.2.5. Tyrant

3.2.5.1. Powerful individuals usually nobles or other wealthy citizens who seized control of the government by appealing to the common people for support.

3.2.6. Democracy

3.2.6.1. A government ruled by the people where citizens participate directly in political decision making.

3.2.7. Helot

3.2.7.1. Peasants who were forced to stay on the land they worked.

3.2.8. Phalanx

3.2.8.1. A fearsome formation were foot soldiers (hoplites) of an army stand side by side each holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other hand.

3.2.9. Persian Wars

3.2.9.1. Between Greece and Persian Empire where Persians conquered Ionia on the coast of Anatolia and the Ionian Greeks revolt and Athens sent ships and soldiers to their aid. The Persian king Darius defeats the rebels and vows to destroy Athens.

3.3. Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age

3.3.1. Direct Democracy

3.3.1.1. A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives (Periclean Athens).

3.3.2. Classical Art

3.3.2.1. Sculptures that were graceful, strong and perfectly formed which portrayed ideal beauty not realism. The values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion became the standard.

3.3.3. Tragedy

3.3.3.1. A serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal.

3.3.4. Comedy

3.3.4.1. A drama that contained scenes filled with slapstick situation and crude humor. Playwrights made fun of politics and respected people and ideas of the time which showed the freedom and openness of public discussion that existed in democratic Athens.

3.3.5. Peloponnesian War

3.3.5.1. Between the two city states where Athens had the strong navy and Sparta had the stronger army.

3.3.6. Philosopher

3.3.6.1. Great Greek thinkers (lovers of wisdom) who were determined to seek the truth, no matter where the search led them.

3.3.7. Plato

3.3.7.1. A student of Socrates who wrote the Republic which set forth his vision of a perfectly governed society where all citizens fall naturally into three groups: farmers and artisans, warriors and the ruling class.

3.3.8. Aristotle

3.3.8.1. The philosopher who questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought and knowledge.

3.4. Alexander’s Empire

3.4.1. Philip II

3.4.1.1. Became king of Macedonia who proved to be a brilliant general and a ruthless politician. Transformed rugged peasants into a well trained professional army. He dreamed of taking control of Greece and move against Persia to seize its vast wealth.

3.4.2. Macedonia

3.4.2.1. Kingdom north of Greece with hardy people who had no great philosophers, sculptors, or writers. Greeks thought of them as uncivilized who had a fearless king.

3.4.3. Alexander the Great

3.4.3.1. Son of Philip II who proclaimed himself king of Macedonia who conquered the lands from Greece to Indus Valley.

3.4.4. Darius III

3.4.4.1. The Persian king who raised a huge army between 50,000 to 75,000 men and vowed to crush the Macedonians invaders in Issus.

3.5. The Spread of Hellenistic Culture

3.5.1. Hellenistic

3.5.1.1. Greek culture blending with Egyptian, Persian and Indian influence.

3.5.2. Alexandria

3.5.2.1. Egyptian city which became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization. Trade ships from all around the Mediterranean docked at its harbor. It became an international community, with a rich mixture of customs and traditions from Egypt and from the Aegean.

3.5.3. Euclid

3.5.3.1. A highly regarded mathematician who taught in Alexandria. His work is still the basis for courses for geometry. (Elements- his book contains 465 geometry propositions and proofs)

3.5.4. Archimedes

3.5.4.1. Hellenistic scientist who accurately estimated the value of pi - the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. He also explained the law of the lever.

3.5.5. Colossus of Rhodes

3.5.5.1. The largest known Hellenistic statue ever created on the island of Rhodes. A bronze statue that stood more than 100 feet high and was called one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The sculpture was toppled by an earthquake in 225 B.C.

4. Sparta: Tyranny over Fear

4.1. Code of Lycurgus (Legendary figure of Lycurgus)

4.2. Structured/ Ordered Society

4.2.1. Military life of males

4.2.2. Society’s goals supersede that of the individual

4.2.3. Duty-Strength-Discipline

4.3. Tyrannical Rule via an Oligarchy

5. The Greek Golden Age- The Artistic Spark of Western Civilization.

5.1. Description

5.1.1. Significant contributions by ancient Greek scholars, politicians, and philosophers have sustained an ancient world-view for thousands of years.

5.1.2. So influential is that world-view that we see it in our architecture, political system, visual and theatrical arts, and education system.

5.1.3. This world-view is representative of what Greeks believed were essential values of a civilized society.

5.1.4. These values were fostered by ancient Greek contextual issues, defined by its scholars, applied and enforced by its leaders, and representative of the human condition by its artists.

5.1.5. I. The Arts

5.1.5.1. Visual Arts:Viewing in Nature and Man that which is beautiful and then expressing it in on paper, canvas, in stone, etc.

5.1.5.1.1. Sculpture

5.1.5.2. Architecture (Parthenon)

5.1.5.2.1. Doric

5.1.5.2.2. Ionic

5.1.5.3. Performing Arts: Theatre and Sophocles (~497 – 406 BCE)

5.1.5.3.1. The ‘Tragedy’ becomes a popular form thanks to Sophocles’ masterful handling of the values that define the Greek world-view.

5.1.5.3.2. In a Sophoclean tragedy the downfall of a hero is usually at the hands of a god (a quality of some myths).

5.1.5.3.3. The source of the hero’s difficulties is often the very qualities that make him heroic.

5.1.5.4. Literary Arts: Epics of Homer

5.1.5.4.1. During the Greek ‘Dark Ages’ the literary arts were nearly extinct as literacy became a victim of the Dorian Invasions.

5.1.5.4.2. The oral tradition was the method of choice to preserve the past.

5.1.5.4.3. ‘Bards’ were the repositories of epic accounts of past events.

5.1.5.4.4. They would disperse the information to anyone who would listen as they traveled throughout the region.

5.1.5.4.5. Among the great Bards of all human history was Homer.

5.1.5.4.6. Bards devised methods of storing vast amounts of information for later recall.

5.1.5.4.7. Myths, legends, and stories are among the forms a Bard’s information may be delivered.

5.1.5.4.8. Over time, the details and accuracy of the original accounts may ‘evolve’ into an oral presentation with less fact and more fiction.

5.1.5.4.9. We are now blessed with The Iliad and The Odyssey thanks to this great Grecian Bard.

5.1.5.4.10. In both these epics (long stories) the Trojan War is a central event.

5.2. The Greek world-view, to which Homer contributed significantly, manifested itself throughout the society in cultural and political form:

5.2.1. The Heroic Ideal: The Hero. Personification of what is best in Man. Often best exhibited in the service of the polis (ex: war).

5.2.2. Olympic Games: A non-war demonstration of the heroic ideal. Initially, the competitive events focused on five military skills/ arts (pentathlon).

5.2.3. Arete: The qualities of the heroic ideal. Striving for excellence (mental as well as physical), courage, honor and glory.

5.3. Historiography (The Recording of History)

5.3.1. Classical Greece increasingly turns to the written word to record events of the past.

5.3.2. Unlike Homer, Herodotus is credited with employing techniques that are part of the scholarly standards we take for granted today.

5.3.3. Like Sima Qian of the Han dynasty (China), Herodotus is considered the first ‘True’ ‘Western’ historian.

5.3.4. As in the case of Sima Qian, Herodotus searched for ‘Truth’ and wanted to record it

5.3.5. Along the way, he would find sources, cite them, and often preserve data that eventually disappears when the original source is lost.

5.3.6. Like Homer, the central event of Herodotus’ greatest work is a war.

5.3.7. The History of the Persian War may adhere to the developing standards of Western historiography, but it reinforced Arete by recording exploits of Greek soldiers (Ex. Thermopylae and Marathon).

5.3.8. Thucydides (~458 – 400 BCE)

5.3.8.1. Athenian aristocrat probably in his late twenties at the time the Peloponnesean War began;

5.3.8.2. he realized its importance to plan to write its history.

5.3.8.3. In 424 BCE he was elected one of the Athenian generals, and for failing to prevent the loss of an important city to the Spartans, was exiled from Athens.

5.3.8.4. He spent the rest of the war collecting evidence and talking with participants in the various actions

5.3.8.5. Herodotus, writing a few decades earlier than Thucydides, recorded almost all he heard, whether he believed it himself or not.

5.3.8.6. Thucydides stands at the other pole; he gathers all available evidence, decides what he thinks is the truth, then shapes his presentation to emphasize that truth.

5.3.8.7. We see everything through his eyes, and his views on the forces which shape human events emerge on every page.

5.4. The Sciences: Philosophy (Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Nature of Man) Socrates & the Socratic Method (469 BCE)

5.4.1. Formerly a soldier during the Peloponnese War, he appeared to some as a ‘homely’ individual.

5.4.2. He would lure you into a conversation by first asking a question that could easily be answered. Then he would extend his questioning to achieve a point.

5.4.3. The Socratic Method was born from this ritual which he used often with his students so they could substantively investigate an issue. If ‘Truth’ is Socrates’ goal, then ‘Reason’ would be the vehicle to reach it.

5.4.4. Socrates was sentenced to death on a charge of corrupting the minds of Athenian youth, particularly as it related to Athenian religious beliefs.

5.4.5. Myth indicates that Socrates chose death rather than the option of exile on a matter of principle.

5.4.6. Plato (427 – 347 BCE)

5.4.6.1. Student of Socrates for 10 years.

5.4.6.2. Chronicler of Socrates later life and teaching.

5.4.6.3. The first ‘true’ political scientist.

5.4.6.4. Established the ‘Academy’.

5.4.6.5. Most famous work: The Republic (his vision of a perfectly governed society ruled by Philosopher-Kings).

5.4.6.6. He was an idealist.

5.4.6.7. Significant Philosophical Conclusions

5.4.6.8. The State shapes and nurtures man by emphasizing education.

5.4.6.9. The State ensures that justice thrives shaping ‘Right’ behavior in the individual (the Quality of Excellence in each).

5.4.6.10. ‘DO NO HARM’ = A concept evident in Plato’s understanding of medical science and political science.

5.4.6.11. In this State, men & women should participate in communal life (no ‘nuclear family’) so both can equally develop their respective ‘qualities of excellence’. The community would care for the children.

5.4.7. Aristotle (384 – 322 BCE)

5.4.7.1. Student of Plato for 20 years.

5.4.7.2. Quest for knowledge extended to numerous fields of study, not just political science.

5.4.7.3. His contributions in the field of logic (Syllogism) became a foundation for further advances in mathematics.

5.4.7.4. Personal tutor of Alexander (The Great).

5.4.8. Archimedes (~287 – 212 BCE)

5.4.8.1. Mathematician and inventor.

5.4.8.2. Employed by Rome at one point to devise a distance calculating device to setup mile markers on Roman roads.

5.4.9. Haran’ of Alexandria (~10 – 70 CE)

5.4.9.1. Inventor closely associated with the Library of Alexandria.

5.4.9.2. Many of his inventions, to include plans for the earliest vending machine, were stored and/ or developed there.

6. Ch6_Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

6.1. The Roman Republic

6.1.1. Republic

6.1.1.1. A form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born male citizens.

6.1.2. Patrician

6.1.2.1. The wealthy landowners who held most of the power. They inherited their power and social status. They claimed that their ancestors gave their authority to make laws in Rome.

6.1.3. Plebeian

6.1.3.1. The common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the population. They were citizens of Rome with the right to vote. They were barred by law from holding most important government positions.

6.1.4. Tribune

6.1.4.1. Roman leaders allowed the Plebeians to form their own assembly and elect representatives called Tribunes. Tribunes protected the rights of the Plebeians from unfair acts of Patrician officials.

6.1.5. Consul

6.1.5.1. They were like kings who commanded the army and directed the government. Their power was limited. Their term was only one year long. The same person could not be elected consul again for 10 years. One consul could always overrule or veto the other consul’s decision. In Rome, they had two consuls.

6.1.6. Senate

6.1.6.1. The aristocratic branch or Rome’s government. It had both legislative and administrative functions in the Republic. Its 300 members were chosen from the upper class of Roman society. It exercised great influence over foreign and domestic policy. Plebeians were later allowed in the Senate.

6.1.7. Dictator

6.1.7.1. A leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army. A dictator’s power lasted only for six months. Dictators were chosen by the consuls and then elected by the Senate. In time of crisis, the Republic could appoint a dictator.

6.1.8. Legion

6.1.8.1. Roman soldiers were organized into large military units called legions. They were divided into smaller groups of 80 men each of which was called a century. All citizens who owned land were required to serve in the army. Seekers of certain public offices had to perform 10 years of military services.

6.1.9. Punic Wars

6.1.9.1. War between Rome and Carthage between 264-146 BC. Rome and Carthage fought 3 wars. The first, for control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean. It lasted for 23 years and ended in the defeat of Carthage.

6.1.10. Hannibal

6.1.10.1. A brilliant military strategist who wanted to end Carthage’s earlier defeat. The second Punic War begins in 218 BC. The mastermind behind the war was the 29 year old Carthaginian general named Hannibal.

6.2. The Roman Empire

6.2.1. Civil War

6.2.1.1. Conflict between groups within the same country.

6.2.2. Julius Caesar

6.2.2.1. A military leader who joined forces with Crassus, a wealthy Roman, and Pompey, a popular general. With their help, Caesar was elected consul in 59 BC. Caesar was a strong leader and a genius at military strategy.

6.2.3. Triumvirate

6.2.3.1. After Caesar was elected consul in 59 BC, for the next 10 years, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey dominated Rome as a triumvirate, a group of 3 rulers.

6.2.4. Pax Romana

6.2.4.1. Rome in peace. A period of peace and prosperity. Rome was at the peak of its power from Augustus’ rule from 27 BC to AD 180. For 207 years, peace reigned throughout the Roman Empire, which was known as Pax Romana.

6.2.5. Augustus

6.2.5.1. After Caesar’s death, Caesar’s 18 year old grand-nephew and adopted son named Octavian, joined with an experienced General, Mark Anthony and a powerful politician, Lepidus and to take control of Rome in 43 BC and ruled for 10 years as the second triumvirate. Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of Rome and accepted the title of Augustus (exalted one). He also kept the title, Imperator (supreme military commander), a term from which Emperor is derived. Rome was now an empire ruled by one man.

6.3. The Rise of Christianity

6.3.1. Jesus

6.3.1.1. A Jew who was born in Bethlehem in Judea. He was raised in the village of Nazareth in Northern Judea. He was baptized by a prophet named John the Baptist. At age 30, he began his public ministry. For the next 3 years, he preached, taught, did good works, and reportedly performed miracles. His teachings contained the belief that there is only one God, to love others and the principles of the 10 Commandments.

6.3.2. Apostle

6.3.2.1. The 12 men who were Jesus’ disciples or pupils who might have written some of the Gospels.

6.3.3. Paul

6.3.3.1. One man, the apostle Paul had an enormous influence on Christianity’s development. He was a Jew who had never met Jesus and at first was an enemy of Christianity. While travelling to Damascus in Syria, he reportedly had a vision of Christ. He spent the rest of his life spreading and interpreting Christ’s teachings. He wrote influential letters, Epistles, to group of believers. In his teaching, he stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for the People’s Sins. He also declared that Christian converts were not obligated to follow Jewish law. He enabled Christianity to become more than just a local religion.

6.3.4. Diaspora

6.3.4.1. When Jews were driven from their homeland into exile, this dispersal of the Jews is called Diaspora. Centuries of Jewish exile followed the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70. In AD 1100s, many European Jews were expelled from their home. Some moved to Turkey, Palestine and Syria. Others went to Poland and neighboring areas. The statelessness of the Jews did not end until the creation of Israel in 1948.

6.3.5. Constantine

6.3.5.1. A critical moment in Christianity occurred in AD 312 when the Roman emperor, Constantine was fighting three rivals for leadership of Rome. On the day before the battle of Milvian Bridge, he prayed for divine help. He reported seeing an image of a cross-a symbol of Christianity. He ordered Artisans to put the Christian symbols on his soldier’s shields. He and the troops were victorious in battle. He credited his success to the Christian God. In the next year, AD 313, he announced an end into the persecution of Christians. In the Edict of Milan, he declared Christianity to be one of the religions approved by the emperor.

6.3.6. Bishop

6.3.6.1. Also a priest who supervised several local churches.

6.3.7. Peter

6.3.7.1. An apostle who traveled to Rome from Jerusalem and became the first bishop of Jerusalem. Jesus referred to Peter as the “rock” on which the Christian church would be built. All priests and bishops traced their authority to Peter.Peter was the first Pope.

6.3.8. Pope

6.3.8.1. Father or head of the Christian church. Peter was the first Pope. Whoever was the bishop of Rome was also the leader of the whole Church. Rome was the capital of the empire and the center of the church.

6.4. The Fall of the Roman Empire

6.4.1. Inflation

6.4.1.1. A drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices.

6.4.2. Mercenary

6.4.2.1. Foreign soldiers who fought for money.

6.4.3. Diocletian

6.4.3.1. In AD 284, a strong willed army leader who became the new emperor. He ruled with an iron fist and limited personal freedoms. He restored order to the empire and increased its strength. He doubled the size of the Roman army and controlled inflation by setting fixed prices for goods. He divided the empire into the Greek-Speaking East and the Latin-Speaking West. He took the Eastern half and appointed Co-Ruler for the West.

6.4.4. Constantinople

6.4.4.1. The city named after Constantine.

6.4.5. Attila

6.4.5.1. When the Huns united under a powerful chieftain named Attila who terrorized both halves with his 100,000 soldiers Germanic Invasion Continued by the Hans.

6.5. Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization

6.5.1. Greco-Roman Culture

6.5.1.1. The mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic and Roman Culture. It is also called the Classical Civilization. Roman art and literature conveyed the Roman ideals of strength, permanence and solidity.

6.5.2. Pompeii

6.5.2.1. Most wealthy Romans had bright, large murals called frescoes, painted directly on their walls. The best examples of Roman Painting are found in the Roman town of Pompeii and date from as early as the 2nd century BC. Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

6.5.3. Virgil

6.5.3.1. The poet who spent 10 years writing the most famous work of Latin literature, the Aeneid, the epic of the legendary Aeneas. He modeled the Aeneid after the Greek Epics of Homer, where he speaks of government as being Rome’s most important contribution to civilization.

6.5.4. Tacitus

6.5.4.1. A Roman historian who was concerned about Romans’ lack of morality. In his Annals and Histories, he wrote about the good and bad of Imperial Rome. He shows his disgust of Emperor Nero, who was considered to one of Rome’s cruelest ruler.

6.5.5. Aqueduct

6.5.5.1. Aqueducts are designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns. When the water channel spanned a river or ravine, the aqueduct was lifted high up on arches.

7. New Directions in Government and Society

7.1. Description

7.1.1. In the years following the Persian War, Athens entered a period in which it would achieve cultural heights that will become benchmarks of the Western World.

7.1.2. Athens will grow to be a military power in the region.

7.1.3. In some respects, our democracy was 2300 years in the making- but the debate over issues of rights & liberties continues.

7.2. I. Direct Democracy- Greek Style

7.2.1. Direct Democracy

7.2.1.1. Citizens of the polis (city-state) gather as an assembly to make decisions via a voting system.

7.2.1.2. All Citizens take part in the defense, leadership, and prosperity of the polis.

7.2.1.2.1. All of these accomplishments were consistently influenced by an Athenian institution that is dear to the hearts of Americans, the experiment with Democracy.

7.2.1.3. Citizens were those with voting (decision-making) rights and participated in an “Assembly of Citizens”.

7.2.1.4. Only Greek natives of the polis were citizens.

7.2.1.5. Other restrictions to citizenship included the exclusion of women, foreigners, slaves, and those without property. Approximately 80% of Athens’ population were not citizens.

7.2.2. Civil Duties

7.2.2.1. All citizens were responsible for upholding certain values of a democratic society.

7.2.2.2. All citizens were responsible to ensure that justice is served as part of their daily civic duties (Equality of Citizens before the Law).

7.2.2.3. This responsibility went beyond their own personal lives to include the lives of non-citizens, who could exercise few legal rights.

7.2.3. ‘Free Thinking’ Citizenry

7.2.3.1. Education was critically important.

7.2.3.2. This education would be different based on gender.

7.2.3.3. Male citizens would be expected learn History, philosophy, rhetoric, etc.

7.2.3.4. These, and other, disciplines contributed to an academic environment that encouraged investigation and discussion of topics from mathematics to drama.

7.2.4. Slavery

7.2.4.1. Not viewed as a failure of Democracy.

7.2.4.2. This institution was a representation of a ‘natural’ order.

7.2.4.3. A condition of enslavement could be brought about by warfare, debts, or punishment for crime.

7.2.4.4. The upper-class (Aristocracy) depended on this labor source.

7.2.4.5. Justified Philosophically- Slaves were often incapable of ‘full’ human reason.

7.2.4.6. Treatment varied from inclusion into the master’s family to service at hard labor.

7.2.4.7. Slavery was not necessarily a life-time condition. Manumission (granting of freedom by the owner/ master) was possible.

7.2.4.8. Many slaves attempted to escape Athens and travel to Sparta or other city-states.

7.2.4.9. The 8 – 1 (Slave – Freeman) ratio in Athens during the late 5th C. BCE heightened societal fears of a revolt (Roman Example: Spartacus, 73 BCE).

7.2.4.10. Extreme measures were often taken by these classical civilizations to control large slave populations.

7.3. II. Accomplishments of Athenian Democracy During the Golden Age ( Age of Pericles)

7.3.1. Description

7.3.1.1. For one hundred years Athens flourished and occasionally blundered under the direction of its democratic government.

7.3.1.2. Several key decisions that shaped the culture and prosperity of Athens were made by its citizens via a vote in the assembly.

7.3.2. Election of Generals

7.3.2.1. Besides duties such as making major laws and acting as a court, one of the main duties of the Athenians was to vote on the generals.

7.3.2.2. Some of the more famous Athenians to be elected as generals included Pericles, Themistocles, and Cleon.

7.3.3. The Persian Invasion

7.3.3.1. In 480 B.C., after a dispute over an Athenian colony, the Persian Empire sent two million soldiers and 1,000 Persian ships to Greece to crush the Athenians.

7.3.3.2. As the Persian army approached Athens, the Athenian assembly voted whether to stay in Athens and protect their city, or flee.

7.3.3.3. If they fled, their city would be destroyed, but they could then defeat the Persians at sea where the Athenians were more skillful.

7.3.4. The Delian League and building the Parthenon

7.3.4.1. Under the guidance of Pericles, Athens took a leading role in a Greek military alliance known as the Delian League.

7.3.4.2. In his enthusiasm for glorifying Athens, Pericles encouraged Athenians to use money from the other members of the Delian League to build a monument to Athens’ glory in the form of a temple known as the Parthenon.

7.3.5. War with Sparta

7.3.5.1. Athens’ imperialism brought the Delian League into conflict with the Spartan-led Peloponnesian League.

7.3.5.2. Sparta resented acts of aggression against its allies and war seemed inevitable if Athens did not cease aggressive acts, such as taking colonies, supporting revolts against Corinth, and issuing trade sanctions.

7.3.5.3. The Athenian Assembly had to decide whether to appease Sparta or go to war.

7.4. III. Pericles 5th C. BCE

7.4.1. Description

7.4.1.1. Pericles’ reforms were political and economic in nature as well.

7.4.1.2. The similarity with Solon didn’t end with the presence of a crisis.

7.4.1.3. Through the arts, he attempted to glorify in a public fashion the values and political uniqueness of Athens.

7.4.1.4. Pericles took advantage of Athens’ artistic explosion by pushing for a massive beautification project.

7.4.1.5. Pericles’ was immensely popular among Athenian citizens and thus able to use his influence to pursue many ends, usually for the glory and advancement of Athens and an Athenian empire.

7.4.1.6. The crisis during the late 6th C. to early 5th C. BCE was the Persian invasion.

7.4.1.7. His impact was so significant during this period that his time as a statesman is often referred to as ‘The Age of Pericles’.

7.4.1.8. Pericles was a statesman during the Golden Age of Greece.

7.4.2. A. Economic reforms included creation of a commercial empire by building a naval force to protect a growing merchant fleet.

7.4.3. B. Political reforms included the expansion of salaried public officials.

7.4.3.1. Salaried officials are now tied to the government financially and owe no allegiance to anyone other than the government.

7.4.4. C. Unfortunately for Athens, Pericles often elevated the city-state’s position on the Peloponnese peninsula by weakening or disregarding her allies (Delian League).

7.4.4.1. The Athenian experiment with democracy lasted about 100 years, gave rights to only 20% of the people in Athens, and was the last major experiment with democracy until 1776.

7.4.4.2. In both societies (Ancient Athens and Sparta) rights and privileges were never intended for everyone.

7.4.4.3. It was an accepted fact that certain groups of people were not entitled to the rights, privileges and duties of citizens of the polis.

7.4.4.4. Among these disenfranchised peoples you must includes

7.4.4.5. slaves--Slaves were usually war captives and numbered ~100,000 in 5th C BCE Athens

7.4.4.6. non-citizens,

7.4.4.7. and women (this latter group especially in Athens, less so in Sparta).

7.4.4.8. Women were generally confined to their homes and sequestered in a particular area of the home.

7.4.4.9. If they ventured outside the home they were often required to veil their faces

7.4.4.10. Consequently, they were often educated at home.

7.4.4.11. They had no jury appeal and no right to inheritance or own property.

8. Ch7_India and China Establish Empires

8.1. South Asia's First Empires

8.1.1. Mauryan Empire

8.1.1.1. Chandragupta Maurya gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda King, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. The Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000 miles, uniting north India politically for the first time. He raised a vast army: 60,000 soldiers on foot, 30,000 soldiers on horseback, and 9,000 elephants.

8.1.2. Asoka

8.1.2.1. Chandragupta grandson who brought the Mauryran Empire to its greatest heights. He became king in 269 B.C. and waged wars to expand his empire. After slaughtering King Kalinga he decided to rule by the Buddhist’s teaching of "peace to all beings." He erected huge stone pillars and build extensive roads to so that he can visit far corners of India.

8.1.3. Religious Toleration

8.1.3.1. Acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs. Ashoka treated his subjects fairly and humanely and preached nonviolence.

8.1.4. Gupta Empire

8.1.4.1. India's second empire ruled by Chandra Gupta. The empire oversaw a great flowering of Indian civilization, especially Indian culture. Chandra Gupta married the daughter of an influential family and took the title "Great Kings of King in A.D. 320. Empire included Magadha and area north of it and his power bases along Ganges River. His son Samudra Gupta became king in 335 A.D. He loved arts and expanded the empire through 40 years of conquest.

8.1.5. Patriarchal

8.1.5.1. Headed by the eldest male in Indian families.

8.1.6. Matriarchal

8.1.6.1. Headed by the mother rather than the father in South India (Tamil). Property and throne passed through the female line.

8.2. Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture

8.2.1. Mahayana

8.2.1.1. People accepted the new doctrines that many people can become Buddhist. They could choose to give up Nirvana and work to save humanity through good works and self-sacrifice. The new ideas changed Buddhism from a religion that emphasized individual discipline to a mass religion that offered salvation to all and allowed popular worship.

8.2.2. Theravada

8.2.2.1. Those who held to the Buddha's stricter, original teachings who through the teachings of Buddha stressed that each person could reach a state of peace called nirvana. Nirvana was achieved by rejecting the sensory world and embracing spiritual discipline.

8.2.3. Brahma

8.2.3.1. Hindu God "creator of the world".

8.2.4. Vishnu

8.2.4.1. Hindu God "preserver of the world". Most favorite.

8.2.5. Shiva

8.2.5.1. Hindu God "destroyer of the world". Most favorite.

8.2.6. Kalidasa

8.2.6.1. One of India's greatest writer who wrote the famous play Shakunttala. His plays are skillfully written and emotionally stirring. About a beautiful Indian girl who marries a middle aged king when separated the king cannot recognize his wife when they meet again.

8.2.7. Silk Roads

8.2.7.1. Traders used them to bring silk from China to Western Europe and then on to Rome. Indian traders would buy Chinese goods and sell them to traders travelling to Rome.

8.3. Han Emperors in China

8.3.1. Han Dynasty

8.3.1.1. Ruled China for more than 400 years, is divided in two periods. The former Han ruled for almost two centuries until A.D. 9. The later Han ruled for another two centuries. The Han Dynasty influenced China that even today many Chinese call themselves "people of the Han."

8.3.2. Centralized Government

8.3.2.1. A central authority controls the running of the state.

8.3.3. Civil Service

8.3.3.1. Government jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations.

8.3.4. Monopoly

8.3.4.1. Occurs when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of central goods.

8.3.5. Assimilation

8.3.5.1. The process of making conquered people part of Chinese culture. Encouraged by the Chinese government to unify the empire.

9. Ch8_African Civilization

9.1. Diverse Societies in Africa

9.1.1. Sahara

9.1.1.1. The largest deserts in the north in Africa stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea and roughly the size of the US. Mostly a flat, gray wasteland of scattered rocks and gravel.

9.1.2. Sahel

9.1.2.1. Each year the deserts take over more and more of the land at the southern edge of the Sahara desert.

9.1.3. Savanna

9.1.3.1. Grassy plains that covers 40 percent of the continent. Includes mountainous highlands and swampy tropical stretches. Covered with tall grass and dotted trees. It supports abundant agricultural production.

9.1.4. Animism

9.1.4.1. A belief in one God, one creator. A religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life. Animists believe that spirits are present in animals, plants and other natural forces and also take the form of the souls of their ancestors.

9.1.5. Griot

9.1.5.1. West African storytellers who shared orally the history and literature of a culture kept history alive passing it from parent to child.

9.1.6. Nok

9.1.6.1. Africa's earliest West African culture known to smelt iron. The iron was fashioned into tools farming and weapons for hunting. Lived in area known as Nigeria between 500 B.C. and A.D 200. Some of the tools made their way to trade routes.

9.2. Migration

9.2.1. Push-Pull Factors

9.2.1.1. The factors can either push people out of area or pull people into an area. Pull factors abundant land that attracts people or Pull factors the depletion of natural resources forces people away from a location. (environmental) Employment or lack of it. Political freedom or persecution.

9.2.2. Bantu-Speaking Peoples

9.2.2.1. Starting in the first few centuries A.D. and continuing over 1500 years small groups of Africans moved southward throughout Africa spreading their language and culture. They originally lived in the savanna south of the Sahara, in the area that is now southeastern Nigeria.

9.3. The Kingdom of Aksum

9.3.1. Aksum

9.3.1.1. Located south of Kush on a rugged plateau on the Red Sea, what is now the countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia. This area was called Horn of Africa. Arab traders were seeking ivory to trade in Persia and in the Indian Ocean trade. They brought silk, textiles, spices from eastern trade routes. Trading settlements became colonies of farmers and traders.

9.3.2. Terraces

9.3.2.1. Step like ridges constructed on mountain slopes, helped the soil retain water and prevented it from being washed downhill in heavy rains.

10. The roots of Greek culture can be traced to the interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures. Interaction among these cultures, a unique environment, and the circumstances of daily life shaped what was to become the seed of ‘Western’ civilization. “Western” refers to those cultures that are significantly influenced by the civilization of ancient Greece and Rome. Among Western societies today, we would include much of Europe, portions of the Mediterranean basin, the Americas, and Australia, among others.

11. Geography

11.1. Seafaring People (Easy Access to Water)

11.1.1. Maritime Fleet Develops.

11.1.2. Communication expands beyond Greek lands.

11.1.3. External Commerce Thrives.

11.1.4. Military Expansion is Possible.

11.2. Mountains keep Greeks Divided

11.2.1. Many politically independent City-States.

11.2.2. Limited arable land can only support relatively small population densities.

11.3. Moderate Climate

11.3.1. Increased Outdoors Activities

11.3.2. Increased interpersonal communication and interaction.

11.3.3. Public/ Civic life is immensely important.

11.4. Lack of Mineral and Agricultural Resources

12. The Dark Age

12.1. On the island of Crete, the Minoans built palaces and traded with other islands between 2000 and 1400 B.C.E.

12.2. After Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations flourished in Greece for hundreds of years,

12.3. Greece entered a Dark Age during which nobles and the aristocracy dominated politics and society.

12.4. After invaders (Dorians and others) put an end to the Mycenaean civilization, the region entered a dark age that would last for 400 years.

12.4.1. On mainland Greece, warrior kings ruled the fortress city of Mycenae from 1600 until 1200 B.C.E.

12.5. During this ‘Dark Age’, the recording of data was significantly reduced. Information about the period is limited, but augmented by the tales that survived in the oral tradition (Ex. Bards like Homer).

12.6. However at the end of this Dark Age social and political upheaval threatened the aristocracy and brought about crucial changes that defined Greece into its classical period.

13. Reactions to the Threat of Rebellion

13.1. Description

13.1.1. The advent of the phalanx and cheaper, more abundant iron weapons exacerbate the threat posed by peasant unrest.

13.1.2. Peasants, faced with debt slavery, begin to rebel.

13.1.3. Civil war and tyranny threaten the Polis.

13.1.4. Emerging from the Dark Age, many Greek city-states faced problems.

13.1.5. However at the end of this Dark Age social and political upheaval threatened the aristocracy and brought about crucial changes that defined Greece into its classical period.

13.2. Reactions

13.2.1. The Rise of Tyrants

13.2.1.1. In several Greek City-States disaffected members of the nobility utilize peasant unrest to lead rebellions against their rivals and establish tyrannical rule.

13.2.2. Reforms in Athens

13.2.2.1. Tyrants in other city-states is a worrying development for powerful Athenian aristocrats.

13.2.2.2. Political reform seems inevitable.

13.2.2.3. Solon: (6th C. BCE) and later Cleisthenes initiate political reforms that stave off tyranny and eventually lead Athens to democracy.

13.2.2.4. Canceled debts and freed those imprisoned for having outstanding debts

13.2.2.5. Encouraged the cultivation of commercially profitable crops like grapes and olives.

13.2.2.6. Encouraged the expansion of industry (trades and wares)

14. The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations flourished in the Aegean region during the Bronze Age.