Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

1.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences.

1.3. Social stratification

1.3.1. caste- a person's social level is determined by race or relgion

1.3.2. estate systems- a person's social level is determined by family value and worth

1.3.3. class systems- a person's worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement

1.4. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation.

1.5. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

1.6. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success.

1.7. Schools represent the middle and upper class

1.8. parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance

1.9. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves

1.10. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans

1.11. In the last 20 years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment

1.12. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries

1.13. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success

1.14. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students

1.15. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA Eeducation of Handicapped 1975

1.16. IDEA 1996

1.17. REI Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming

1.18. The Coleman Study

1.18.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools

1.18.2. As a result, lower class

1.18.3. Private school students outperform public school students

1.18.4. Differences in schools do make a difference.

1.18.5. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students

1.18.6. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. Sociology- Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

2.2. An understanding of society is essential if teachers are to develop as reflective practitioners.

2.3. Persell's Analysis Model

2.3.1. Societal- Includes most general structures of a society, including its political and economic systems, its level of development, and its system of social stratification.

2.3.2. Intrapsychic

2.3.3. Interpersonal

2.3.4. Institutional-

2.4. How can people create schools that are more effective environments in which children can grow and learn?

2.5. What is the relation between school and the larger society?

2.6. Can schools produce more social and economic equality?

2.7. How does teacher interaction with students determine student success?

2.8. Characteristics of Highly Effective Schools

2.8.1. Strong Leadership

2.8.2. Safe Environment

2.8.3. Teachers Believe All Students Can Learn

2.8.4. Constant Review of Student Progress

2.8.5. Instruction that Focus on Student Achievement

2.9. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.9.1. Employment

2.9.2. Income

2.9.3. Mobility

2.9.4. Job Performance

2.9.5. How People Learn

2.10. De Facto Segregation

2.10.1. People segregate themselves into their comfort areas

2.10.2. Racial integration benefits minorities more than majority

2.10.3. Integration does not seem to harm the majority

2.11. Gender Biases

2.11.1. Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs

2.11.2. Academics are leveling between the sexes

2.11.3. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities

2.12. The Current Educational Crisis

2.12.1. One third of children are at risk of failing

2.12.2. One fourth of preschool children livein poverty

2.12.3. Fifteen million are reared by single parents

3. Schools as Organizations

3.1. Constitution does not provide for education

3.1.1. Each state is responsible for education

3.2. Centralization: 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion

3.3. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

3.4. Schools are separate social organizations because:

3.4.1. They have definitive populations

3.4.2. They have political structures

3.4.3. They represent a multitude of social groups

3.4.4. They are prevailed by the "we feeling"

3.4.5. They have their own special culture

3.5. Teachers are in conflict with students

3.6. Curriculum v. social goals of students

3.7. Administrators and teachers are in conflict

3.8. Structure v. teaching

3.9. Communities are in conflict with administration

3.10. Studies show that the principal establishes

3.11. Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum

3.12. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity

3.13. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity

3.14. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill, and good will

3.15. "Schools of Tomorrow... Today Project" in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching

4. Educational Inequality

4.1. Fuctionalist theorists support the idea that each student's success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed

4.2. Conflict theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment

4.3. Interactionists theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors

4.4. other factors that influence students success:

4.4.1. student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student

4.4.2. school-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations

4.5. Student centered explanations p. 421

4.6. Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422

4.7. Cultural Deprivation Explanations p. 423

4.8. Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

4.9. School Centered Explanations

4.9.1. School Financing p. 428

4.9.2. Effective Schools p. 431

4.9.3. Between School Differences p. 433

4.9.4. Curriculum and Pedagogical

4.9.5. Within School Differences p. 434

4.9.6. Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

4.10. The BIG Question? Do schools reproduce inequality?

4.11. Answer: yes and no

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Students in teacher education programs often look at the curriculum from an objectivist perspective and seldom question critically the central component of what they do on a daily basis: transmit knowledge and values to students.

5.2. Social Meliorist Curriculum

5.2.1. Developed in the 1930's, from Dewey, concerned with the role of schools in reforming society, and as a response to the growing dominance of the societal efficiency curriculum.

5.2.2. This theory was radicalized into an explicit theory that the schools should change society, or, at the least, help solve its fundamental problems.

5.2.3. Counts's and Rugg's writings on curriculum propose that the school curriculum should teach students to think and help solve problems, if not to change the society itself.

5.3. Functionalist Theory

5.3.1. School curriculum should represent the codification of the knowledge that students need to become competent members of society.

5.3.2. The role is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability.

5.4. What is taught and how do we teach it?

5.4.1. social influences

5.4.2. political influences

5.4.3. societies' influences

5.4.4. cultural influences

5.4.5. special interests

5.5. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

5.6. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum.

5.7. Social meliorists- reform society through

5.8. Political influences of the curriculum have determine and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught.

5.9. Other influences on the curriculum

5.9.1. evolutionists

5.9.2. creationists

5.9.3. science and math

5.9.4. Nation at Risk

5.9.5. NCLB

5.9.6. RTT

5.10. Formal curriculum: What is cognitively taught

5.11. Informal or Hidden curriculum: taught but not obvious to sight

5.12. Null curriculum: what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

5.13. Social order determines the curriculum.

5.14. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order

5.15. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom

5.16. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They saw we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

5.17. Academic gap: between what we are teaching and what the students are actually learning.

6. Philosophy of Education

6.1. Teacher Centered

6.2. Student Centered

6.3. Love-Centered

6.4. A philosophical approach aids teachers in:

6.5. A philosophical approach aids teachers in understanding:

6.6. Idealism

6.6.1. Perenialism

6.7. Modern Realism

6.7.1. Essentialism

6.8. Pragmatism

6.8.1. Progressivism Goal of Education: provide students with the knowledge to improve society Role of the Teacher: facilitator of learning activities Methods of Instruction: learn individually as well as in groups Curriculum: integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum students learn by doing as well as from textbooks emphasis on natural and social sciences experiential learning grouping by interest and abilities

6.9. Pragmatism

6.9.1. Social Reconstructionism

6.10. Existentialism/Phenomenology

6.10.1. Existentialism

6.11. Post-modernism

6.11.1. Critical Pedagogy

7. Politics of Education

7.1. Conservative Perspective

7.1.1. Human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive

7.1.2. Places primary emphasis on the individual and suggests that individuals have the capacity to earn or not earn their place within a market economy

7.1.3. Solutions to problems should be addressed at the individual level

7.1.4. Have the belief that free market or market economy of capitalism is both the most economically productive economic system and the system that is most respectful of human needs.

7.2. Traditional Vision of Education

7.2.1. Views schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of US society, such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative, etc.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. Horace Mann of Massachusetts: lead the struggle for free public education

8.1.1. Mann became first secretary of Massachusetts board of education created in 1837. This was the first BOE.

8.2. Normal schools were created for teacher education

8.2.1. Alabama A&M and Tuskeegee were normal schools

8.3. Nation At Risk- Reagan

8.4. Goals 2000- Clinton

8.5. NCLB- Bush

8.6. RTT- Obama

8.7. Teaching to the Test to Survive

8.8. Failing Schools

8.9. Charter Schools

8.10. Privatization of Schools

8.11. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

8.11.1. A calling for the profession

8.11.2. professional knowledge

8.11.3. personal qualitities

8.11.4. with-it-ness

8.11.5. instructional effectiveness

8.11.6. good communicator

8.11.7. street smart

8.11.8. willing to go the extra mile

8.11.9. lifelong learner

8.12. Reform in education 1980's to 2016

8.12.1. Two Waves of Attack The first was concerned with accountability and achievement The second was concerned with the processes of the school

8.13. Top down management from the federal government

8.14. John Goodlad "A Place Called School"

8.15. Federal Involvement

8.15.1. America 2000

8.15.2. Goals 2000

8.15.3. No Child Left Behind

8.15.4. Race To The Top

8.16. Approaches to Reform

8.16.1. Neo Liberal Approach

8.16.2. Societal and Community Approach

8.17. School Based Reforms

8.17.1. school choice

8.17.2. scharter schools

8.17.3. tuition vouchers

8.17.4. intersectional choice plans (public to private)

8.17.5. intrasectional choice plans (any public school in district)

8.18. School-Business Partnerships

8.18.1. Privatization of Schools

8.18.2. School to Work Programs

8.19. Teacher Education Programs

8.20. Three Major Points

8.20.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

8.20.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

8.20.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development

8.21. Teacher Quality

8.22. The Effective School Movement p. 531

8.23. Plan on p. 532

8.24. Highly Effective School Characteristics p. 533

8.25. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms p.535

8.26. State Takeovers Pros and Cons p. 536

8.27. School Finance Reforms p. 538

8.28. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

8.29. Full Service Schools p. 539

8.30. Repair and educate the community

8.31. Connecting School Community and Societal Reforms p. 540

8.32. A theory of educational problems and reforms p. 541

8.33. Solutions and proposals p. 543-545

8.34. Integrative Realm p. 542- basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement.

8.35. Developmental Realm- focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

8.36. Conclusion: Do the best with what you have that is within your control.

9. History of US Education

9.1. The Old Deluder Satan Law 1647: Had to learn to read the bible

9.2. Massachusetts School Law 1647: provided everyone education

9.3. Meritocracy provided fro higher education

9.4. Morrill Act land grants in each county and state fro public education

9.5. John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society

9.6. Embryonic Society: miniature community

9.7. John Dewey: Progressivism

9.8. The Committee of Ten 1893: created by the National Education Association which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliot

9.8.1. recommendation for high school was: health, command and fundamental processes, worthy home-membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, ethical character

9.9. The Dilemma

9.9.1. Four themes for high school purposes in 1875

9.10. Progressive v. Traditional

9.11. Impact of GI Bill

9.12. Civil Rights Act 1963

9.13. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896

9.14. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954

9.14.1. Desegregation was the main focus

9.14.2. Schools and Colleges opened doors for all

9.15. Space race was a major influence on education

9.16. 1957-1960s emphasis on excellence

9.17. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students

9.18. Mid 1960s emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Act 1963

9.19. FAPE- Free Appropriate Public Education

9.20. Historic Perspectives

9.20.1. Democratic- Liberal School

9.20.2. Radical- Revisionist School

9.20.3. Conservative School