My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative Perspective

1.1.1. Human progress depends on drive and initiative Sees the school's role as essential to economic productivity and social stability Because Conservatives believe that success and achievement are based on hard work, they believe the school is designed to give individuals the opportunity to succeed. The school should allow students to compete in the educational marketplace, and individual merit should be rewarded and encouraged by the school system.

1.2. Traditional Vision of Education

1.2.1. Views the school as a necessary system to transmit the traditional values of U.S. society Hard work Family unity Individual intiative

1.2.2. This is a view held by Conservatives and some Liberals

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Educational Reform

2.1.1. Education for All- Public High School Number of students enrolled in secondary education jumped from less than 25,000 in 1875 to 2,383,542 between 1880 and 1920, then to 6.5 million by 1940. Before, high school attendance was voluntary, and then, is became necessary for those 16 and under. All students had the opportunity to further their education for free.

2.1.2. Meaning and Purpose of Education What is the true purpose? The purpose of high school was to prepare students for the "duties of life." What subjects should be taught? Should all students pursue the same course of study, or should they be able to choose based on their personal interests? Teach modern and traditional academic subjects All students should be taught in the same manner

2.2. Historical Interpretation of Education

2.2.1. Radical-Revisionists School - A pessimistic view Believe that the educational system expanded to meet the needs of the elite people of society Each period of reform led to stratification of the system, while the poor, and working class students got the short end of the stick Expansion of the schools in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was for the interests of social control for the elite, rather than the interest of equity

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Effects of Schooling

3.1.1. Knowledge and Attitudes Usually the higher the social class of the student, the higher level of achievement for that student Differences in schools are directly related to differences in student outcomes and achievements Research indicates that private schools, where students are taking more academic subjects and there is consistent discipline, have higher student achievement levels.

3.1.2. Employment Graduating from college will give students more employment opportunities.. Research shows that large organizations require high levels of education for managers or administration. Schools are "gate keepers" that determine who will get certain jobs even though they do not determine who will actually do a better job.

3.1.3. Education and Mobility Many Americans believe that schooling is the great equalizer. Middle Class Citizens Upper and Lower Class Citizens

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notions Philosophy that encourages individuals to find the processes that work for them to reach their desired ends. Schools should be a community where children learn from experience and from books. Everything in school is based off of the child's needs and interests, and the student is allowed to actively participate in planning their course of study. Group and Experiential learning Dewey advocated for freedom and responsibility for the students because this would prepare them to become successful in a democratic society.

4.1.2. Key Researchers John Dewey John Locke Francis Bacon Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.1.3. Goal of Education John Dewey stated that the primary role of education was growth. Education has to maintain balance between the social role of the school and the effects on the social, intellectual, and personal development of the student. Prepare students for life in a democratic society.

4.1.4. Role of the Teacher Facilitator The teacher should encourage, offer suggestions, and help plan the course of study.

4.1.5. Method of Instruction Children should learn individually and in groups. Start by asking questions about what they want to know (problem-solving method). Books, field trips, and projects are the basis for progressive schools.

4.1.6. Curriculum Integrated Curriculum No fixed curriculum, but the curriculum changes as the social order and student needs and interests change. This philosophy focuses on present-day problems.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Cullman County Schools

5.1.1. State Senators Richard Shelby Jeff Sessions

5.2. House of Representatives

5.2.1. Randall Shedd

5.3. State Superintendent

5.3.1. Dr. Tommy Bice

5.4. Representative on State School Board

5.4.1. Cynthia Sanders McCarty Ph.D.

5.5. Local Superintendent

5.5.1. Dr. Brandon Payne

5.6. Local School Board

5.6.1. Gene Sullins - President

5.6.2. Chris Carter

5.6.3. James Thompson

5.6.4. Kenny Brockman

5.6.5. Wendy Crider

5.6.6. Mike Graves

5.6.7. Jason Speegle

5.7. Chinese Vs American Education

5.7.1. Chinese students don't have freedom to choose their education

5.7.2. Like US - there are primary, middle, and secondary schools and colleges and universities

5.7.3. Nine-year compulsory education ensures that all attend school through middle school

5.7.4. Fees Many struggle with school fees, so students don't complete all nine years.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum

6.1.1. Developmentalist Curriculum related to the needs and interests of students Flexibility in what was taught and how it was taught Relate schools to life experiences Teacher is a facilitator of student growth

6.2. Sociological Curriculum

6.2.1. Functionalists Curriculum should give students knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability Content of WHAT students learn is less important than teaching students HOW to learn

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Response to Coleman Study

7.1.1. A group of minority scholars let by Ron Edmonds started to try to define the characteristics that made schools effective.

7.1.2. Edmonds argued that all could learn

7.1.3. Differences between schools did have an impact on student learning.

7.2. Educational achievement of Students with Special Needs

7.2.1. Education of all Handicapped Children Law-passed in 1975

7.2.2. Because of this law students were placed in appropriate classes- "the least restrictive environment"

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Explanations of unequal achievement

8.1.1. Sociological Cultural difference theories Cultural differences exist between white middle-class students and working-class and non-white students Working-class and non-white students come to school with different cultural dispositions Working-class and non-white students lack skills and attitudes required by schools. This is caused by being part of an oppressed minority. and a result of social forces like poverty, racism, discrimination, and unequal life chances.

8.1.2. School-centered School Financing Vast differences in funds for affluent and poor school districts The majority of funds for public schools come from local taxes, largely property taxes. Since property in affluent communities have a much higher value, these communities are able to raise more money for schools through taxes. Per-pupil spending in poor communities in very burdensome, unlike the affluent communities. This leads to the unequal funding of wealthy and poor school districts.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reform

9.1.1. School-Business Partnerships Leaders were concerned that the schools weren't producing graduates necessary for the growth of the US economy. School-business partnerships were formed to support schools and their students. Some involved management assistance and training to restructure and implement a site-based management plan in return for higher test scores and grade promotion rates. Others involved scholarships to college for poor students or programs in which a business "adopted" a school.

9.2. Societal, Economic, Community, or Political reform

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools A plan to educate the whole community, not just the whole child Full service schools focus on meeting students' and families' educational, physical, psychological, and social needs between school and community services. Schools serve as community centers that are open extended hours for multiple services such as adult education, health clinics, recreation facilities, after-school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placement and training programs, and tutoring services. These schools aim to prevent problems and support them in the community.