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Gerunds by Mind Map: Gerunds

1. 2. Gerunds as subject complements

1.1. My biggest problem at work now is having to deal with too many people every day.

2. 1. Gerunds as subject of a sentence

2.1. Note 1: Be careful about subject + verb agreement!

2.1.1. Reading a book for a while or listening to slow music provides relaxation.

2.2. Note 2: To form negative gerunds, use not + gerund!

2.2.1. Not speaking English well is one of my biggest problems in this country.


3.1. Active: I have been invited to the party. I appreciate this. Passive: I appreciate being invited to the party.

4. 3. Gerunds as direct object

4.1. 3. a ) Some certain verbs take ing and gerund becomes the direct object in these kinds of verbs.

4.1.1. Some certain verbs: Admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, can’t help, can’t stand, complete, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, detest, discuss, dislike, enjoy, excuse, finish, imagine, involve, keep, mean, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practice, quit, recall ( remember), recollect (remember), resent, resist, risk, suggest, understand. He admitted stealing his mother silver tray but denied selling it for drugs.

4.2. 3.b) The possessive + Gerund

4.2.1. Formal: I will never forgive Jack’s scolding me in public. I will never forgive his scolding me in public.

4.2.2. Informal: I will never forgive Jack scolding me in public. I will never forgive him scolding me in public.

4.2.3. **When we use a possessive before a gerund, there is a change in meaning. I admit being guilty. ( I admit and I am guilty.) I admit his being guilty. ( I admit, but he is guilty.)

5. 4. Gerunds as the object of a preposition

5.1. 4.1 Verb+ Preposition+ Gerund

5.1.1. Abstain from, apologize for, adjust to, approve / disapprove of / argue about Believe in, care about, comment on, complain about, concentrate on, consist of, deal with Dream of, forget about, insist on, look forward to, object to, participate in, plan on, refer to Talk about, think about / of, succeed in, worry about Do you approve of her staying out so late? She is thinking about spending a year in England.

5.2. 4.2 Verb+ Object+ Preposition+ Gerund

5.2.1. Accuse sb of, apologize to sb for, arrest sb for, blame sb for, charge sb with, complain to sb about, congratulate sb on, devote oneself to, discourage sb from, forgive sb for, involve sb in, keep sb from, prevent sb from, punish sb for, stop sb for, suspect sb of, thank sb for, warn sb about / against. They accused the man of robbing the bank. The man was accused of robbing the bank.

5.3. 4.3 Adjective+ Preposition+ Gerund

5.3.1. Accustomed to, afraid of, angry at, appropriate for, ashamed of, aware of, bored with, capable of, concerned about, content with, delighted at, different from / to / than, essential to / for / excellent at , excited about /,famous for , fond of ,generous about-in /good at, interested in, jealous of, keen on, lazy about, opposed to, proud of, responsible for, similar to, suitable for, worried about, surprised at She is very good at writing compositions in English but rather slow at speaking.

5.4. 4.4 Noun+ Preposition+ Gerund

5.4.1. On account of, in the case of, difficulty in, in addition to, in charge of, in danger of, in exchange for, excuse for, in favor of, in the habit of, for fear of, in return for, instead of, need for, reason for, for the sake of, in spite of, the point of, on the point of I am not in favour of your going abroad for education.

6. 5. Expressions + Gerund

6.1. There is no point / There is not any point doing sth: no purpose in doing sth

6.1.1. There is no point in waiting for him anymore

6.2. On the point of doing sth: be about to do sth

6.2.1. I was on the point of leaving home when the phone rang.

6.3. Have difficulty (in) doing sth

6.3.1. I have difficulty (in) finding a flat at a price I could afford.

6.4. Be accustomed to

6.4.1. I am accustomed to drinking Turkish coffee.

6.5. Be used to

6.5.1. I am not used to wearing heavy clothes.

6.6. Look forward to

6.6.1. I look forward to receiving a letter from you.

6.7. Be opposed to

6.7.1. I am opposed to spending excessively on cosmetics.

6.8. Object to / Have an objection to

6.8.1. I have an objection to carrying out the plan in this way.

6.9. It is worth/ It is not worth

6.9.1. This book is not worth reading. Its plot is nonsense.

6.10. A waste of time / energy / money

6.10.1. It is a waste of money buying more things than you need. It is a waste of time trying to do all this work bu yourself.

6.11. Without doing

6.11.1. Don’t go out without putting on your coat.

6.12. By doing

6.12.1. She passed the university exam by studying very hard.

6.13. Go + gerund

6.13.1. Go shopping, go swimming, go running, go camping, go skating, go skiing. I went shopping yesterday, so I was not at home in the afternoon.

6.14. Busy + doing sth / Busy with sth

6.14.1. I am busy writing an essay now. She is busy with her homework.

6.15. Have fun / Have a good time doing

6.15.1. We had fun telling each other our childhood memories.

6.16. Sit / Stand /Lie + expression of place+ gerund

6.16.1. After the guests left, I lay in bed reading until I got sleepy. After breakfast, my father usually sits in his armchair reading the newspaper.


7.1. The thief admitted stealing / having stolen the car.

7.2. I appreciate your helping / having helped me.