Categories of Disability Under IDEA

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Categories of Disability Under IDEA by Mind Map: Categories of Disability Under IDEA

1. Visual impairment including blindness

1.1. Accommodations/Modifications

1.1.1. Notetaking technology that takes notes in Braille

1.1.2. Use a lightbox to help develop awareness of light, color, and objects

1.1.3. Use audio books

1.1.4. Use screen magnification software like Aladdin Apex

1.1.5. Use descriptive video services (DVS), which provide narrative verbal descriptions of visual elements

2. Austism

2.1. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

2.1.1. Rett syndrome

2.1.2. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (often referred to as PDDNOS)

2.1.3. Childhood disintegrative disorder

2.1.4. Asbergers

2.1.5. Autism

2.2. Accommodations/Modifications

2.2.1. Design the classroom and all instructional materials to contain visual supports and cues

2.2.2. Use instructional goals in the daily routines of the student

3. Deaf-Blindness

3.1. Accommodations/Modifications

3.1.1. Convert prints into large print, Braille or audiotape

3.1.2. Make sure classroom has adequate lightning to eliminate glare or allow space for a guide dog or interpreter

3.1.3. Student may need an interpreter to relay communication

3.1.4. Wear a microphone to increase volume and clarity during instruction

3.1.5. Extended time on tests, students may need to answer using notetaker, proctor, computer- typed answers, Braille-typed answers

4. Hearing impairment

4.1. Accommodations/Modifications

4.1.1. Assistive technology Hearing aids Computers for sign language, reading, language instruction (TDD) telecommunication device for the deaf to communicate over telephone

4.1.2. Modify writing or reading assignments

4.1.3. Use visual supplements in the classroom, such as videos, charts, word walls

4.1.4. ASL interpreter

4.1.5. Specialized seating arrangements

4.1.6. Allow extra time for processing information

5. Intellectual disability

5.1. Accomodations/Modifications

5.1.1. Teach one step at a time to help support memorization and sequencing

5.1.2. Breakdown larger tasks into their specific component parts

5.1.3. Use physical and verbal prompting to guide correct responses, and provide specific verbal praise to reinforce these responses

5.1.4. Teach students in small groups, or one-on-one, if possible

5.1.5. Using the"Prelinguistic milieu teaching" approach--tie instruction to specific abilities and interests of the child

6. Multiple disabilities

6.1. Accommodations/Modifications

6.1.1. Use an iPad or computer for typing if student has difficulty writing

6.1.2. Use adapted materials, such as large grip pencils

6.1.3. Use audio books instead of paper books for reading

6.1.4. Use adaptation switches with technology, so student can manipulate with their foot, elbow, or knee

6.1.5. Familiarize yourself with the student's communication board if they have one

7. Orthopedic Impairment

7.1. Accomodations/Modifications

7.1.1. Arrange classroom space so students have mobility around classroom

7.1.2. Use software such as speech recognition, screen reading, communication boards

7.1.3. Increase awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly)

7.1.4. Develop instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

7.2. neuromotor impairments

7.2.1. cerebral palsy

7.2.2. spina bifida

7.3. degenerative diseases

7.3.1. Muscular dystrophy

7.4. musculoskeletal disorders

7.4.1. juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

8. Other health Impairment

8.1. Leukemia


8.3. Tourettes

8.4. Epilepsy

8.5. Diabetes

8.6. Case study

8.6.1. Simon is a bright 8 year old who loves school. When he was 6 years old he was diagnosed with ADHD. His teachers noticed that Simon had a lack of focus, had trouble staying on topic while talking, and was always in constant motion. He was impulsive and this often came out through negative interactions with peers. His reading level was below grade level. Simon's ADHD qualified as a disability because of his"heightened alertness to environmental stimuli... resulting in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment." Simon's teacher tried the following accommodations: Preferential seating, such as near the teacher or on an assigned seat when the other students are on the rug Extra time for tests and assesments Breaking assignments into smaller parts Using a timer for Simon to visualize work periods Providing opportunity for movement breaks such as running errands or standing in the back of the room

8.7. Accomodations/Modifications

8.7.1. ADD/ADHD Allow extra time for finishing assignments or for testing Incorporate movement breaks Post a daily and weekly schedule that clearly delineates each activity Keep the student close to the teacher and away from any peers that might be distracting Allow extra time for these students to shift from one activity or environment to the next

9. Specific Learning Disability

9.1. Case study

9.1.1. When Sara was in the first grade, her teacher started teaching the students how to read. Sara’s parents were really surprised when Sara had a lot of trouble. She was bright and eager, so they thought that reading would come easily to her. It didn’t. She couldn’t match the letters to their sounds or combine the letters to create words. Sara’s problems continued into second grade. She still wasn’t reading, and she was having trouble with writing, too. The school asked Sara’s mom for permission to evaluate Sara to find out what was causing her problems. Sara’s mom gave permission for the evaluation. The school conducted an evaluation and learned that Sara has a learning disability. She started getting special help in school right away. Sara’s still getting that special help. She works with a reading specialist and a resource room teacher every day. She’s in the fourth grade now, and she’s made real progress! She is working hard to bring her reading and writing up to grade level. With help from the school, she’ll keep learning and doing well.

9.2. Accomodations/Modifications

9.2.1. Allow for verbal responses during testing

9.2.2. Provide preferential seating

9.2.3. Letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech

9.2.4. Allow extra time

9.2.5. Letting the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities

10. Deafness

10.1. Congenital

10.2. Acquired

10.3. Accomodations/Modifications

10.3.1. Assistive technology (TDD) telecommunication device for the deaf to communicate over telephone Computers for sign language, reading, language instruction Hearing Aids Alerting Devices to alert student of bells and alarms using vibrations

10.3.2. Using a classroom interpreter

10.3.3. Favorable seating in the class to facilitate speechreading

10.3.4. Regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist

10.3.5. Captioned videos

11. Developmental delay

11.1. Accomodations/Modifications

11.1.1. Use a visual timer so student knows when an activity will be over and they can transition to the next task

11.1.2. Repeat instructions or directions frequently

11.1.3. Establish routines to ensure predictability

11.1.4. Provide daily opportunities and activities for children to use handheld tools and objects

11.1.5. Provide a visual schedule of activities that can be understood by the student

11.1.6. Explicitly teach life skills related to daily living and self-care

12. Emotional disturbance

12.1. Anxiety Disorders

12.1.1. Generalized anxiety disorder

12.1.2. Posttraumatic stress disorder

12.1.3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

12.2. Psychotic disorders

12.3. Eating disorder

12.4. Bipolar Disorder

12.5. Conduct Disorder

12.6. Accomodations/Modifications

12.6.1. Develop behavioral contracts with students

12.6.2. Adapt the physical environment by considering seating arrangements and by keeping potentially harmful objects or substances away from easy access. Consider the degree of proximity to teachers, aides, and students with whom the target student interacts negatively.

12.6.3. Give consistent and supportive praise

12.6.4. Provide opportunities for students with emotional disabilities to assume class responsibilities, such as distributing papers

12.6.5. Teach social skills

13. Speech, Language Impairment

13.1. dysarthria

13.2. stutter

13.3. apraxia

13.4. Accomodations/modifications

13.4.1. Speech-language pathologist services Evaluating, selecting, and developing augmentative and alternative communication systems Helping children who stutter to speak more fluently Helping individuals with aphasia to relearn speech and language skills

13.4.2. Use augmentative or alternative communication technology (AAC), either manual or electronic to help students communicate choices and concepts. One example is Cheap Talk.

13.4.3. Computer software such as First Words, a language program that has develop language

14. Traumatic Brain Injury

14.1. Accomodations/modifications

14.1.1. Demonstrate new tasks, state instructions, and provide examples to illustrate ideas and concepts

14.1.2. Provide repetition and consistency

14.1.3. Be prepared for students' reduced stamina and increased fatigue and provide rest breaks as needed

14.1.4. Probe skill acquisition frequently and provide repeated practice

14.1.5. Reinforce lengthening periods of attention to appropriate tasks

14.1.6. Use devices for memory such as calendar boards, schedule organizers, specialized watches, reminders, and speech recognition software

14.1.7. Case Study Kevin is a 5th grader who uses a wheelchair. When he was in second grade he was car crash and thrown 30 feet into the air. Because of his injury he experienced traumatic brain injury, which is apparent in his memory, motor skills, and academics. He receives weekly occupational therapy to strengthen his core muscles. During school, Kevin's has received the following support: An iPad with educational apps and software set with reminders A 10 minute timed break in between classes or lessons that go longer than 40 minutes A personalized calendar and daily schedule at his desk to remind him of daily goals and events Rearranging the classroom so that Kevin can move freely in his wheelchair. A weekly visit to the school occupational therapist to work on fine motor skills Increased time for assessments and testing