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Tissues by Mind Map: Tissues

1. Plant tissues

1.1. Meristematic cells

1.1.1. Small

1.1.2. Thin walled

1.1.3. Cubical

1.1.4. Produce new cells by cell-division

1.1.5. Packed with protoplasm

1.1.6. Top tips of roots and stems , between the water and food conducting

1.2. Permanent tissues

1.2.1. Parenchyma cells Most abundant Alive Lack secondary Thin primary Photosynthesis , storage

1.2.2. Don't become changed

1.2.3. Collenchyma cells Unevenly thickened primary Flexible support Lack secondary Alive

1.2.4. Sclerenchyma cells Thick secondary Lignin Rigid support Dead Type of it Fibers : long , thin , in boundles Sclereids : shorter than fibers

1.2.5. Water conducting cells ( tracheids and vessel elements ) Thick secondary Dead Chains of tracheids and vessel elements form xylem

1.2.6. Food conducting cells ( sieve tube members ) No secondary Alive , lack most organelles Companion cells Organelles Control operation of sieve tube members Chains of seive tube members separated by porous form phloem

1.3. Tissue ystems that make up the plant body

1.3.1. Dermal tissue : outer protective covering Epidermis: layer of tightly packed cells On top of it there is a waxy layer ( cuticle ) that reduces water loss First line of defense against damage and infection

1.3.2. Vascular tissue : support and transport Xylem / الخشب Water ( H2O) Phloem / اللحاء Food In bundles

1.3.3. Ground : bulk of the plant body , food production, storage , support Between dermal and vascular tissue Eudicot stem ground tissue is divided into pith and cortex Mesophyll : leaf ground tissue

1.4. Structure that distinguish plant cells from animal cells

1.4.1. 1- chloroplasts

1.4.2. 2- A large fluid-filled vacuole

1.4.3. 3- A cell wall composed of cellulose

1.5. Plant cell walls

1.5.1. There is two walls Primary cell walls - outer most layer Secondary cell walls Tough layer inside primary wall

1.5.2. Middle lamella : a sticky layer lies between adjacent plant cells

1.5.3. Plasmodesmata : opining in cell walls allow cells to communicate and exchange material

2. Animal tissues

2.1. - Epithelial tissue

2.1.1. Simple squamous epithelium Air sacs of the lung

2.1.2. Simple cuboidal epithelium Kidney

2.1.3. Simple columnar epithelium / Intestine /

2.1.4. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Respiratory tract

2.1.5. Stratified squamous epithelium Esophagus /

2.2. - Cconnective tissue

2.2.1. Loose connective tissue / Under the skin

2.2.2. Fibrous connective tissue Forming a tendon

2.2.3. Adipose tissue

2.2.4. Cartilage At the end of a bone

2.2.5. Bone

2.2.6. Blood

2.3. - Muscle tissue

2.3.1. Skeletal muscle Voluntary movements

2.3.2. Cardiac muscle / Pumps blood

2.4. - Nervous tissue

2.4.1. Neurons Carry signals

2.4.2. Supporting cells insulate axons and nourish neurons

2.4.3. Smooth muscle Moves walls of internal organs Intestines

3. Bio map - tissues - from ch4 - eng