# Science

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Science

## 1. Quarter 1

### 1.1. Unit 1: the nature of science

1.1.1. independent variable - Sometimes called the manipulated variable, this is the thing an experimenter changes during the course of a classic experiment. Usually this shows up as the x-axis of a graph. In the function machine analogy, this is the input.

1.1.2. dependent variable- Sometimes called the responding variable, this is the thing that may or may not change as a result of the scientist's choice of experimental manipulation. Usually this shows up as the y-axis of a graph. In the function machine analogy, this is the output.

1.1.3. Control variable - Sometimes (erroneously) called a constant, this is a thing which does not change from one trial to another (so as to eliminate sources of experimental error in measurements). In the function machine analogy, this is part of the machine itself.

1.1.4. law- A descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances, for example the conservation of energy or universal gravitation.

1.1.5. theory- A well-substantiated, time-tested, peer-reviewed explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences and tested hypotheses. It agrees with all reputable sources of data, and has the consensus of the vast majority of the scientific community.

### 1.2. Unit 2 : the laws of motion

1.2.1. scaler math

1.2.1.1. when adding and subtracting ... keep the most sig figs

1.2.1.2. when multiplying/dividing ....keep the least sig figs

1.2.1.3. m/s speed

1.2.2. waves

1.2.2.1. Nomenclature

1.2.2.1.1. crest

1.2.2.1.2. trough

1.2.2.1.3. amplitude

1.2.2.1.4. wavelength

1.2.2.1.5. frequency

1.2.2.1.6. speed

1.2.2.1.7. intensity

1.2.2.2. Types

1.2.2.2.1. electromagnetic

1.2.2.2.2. mechanical

1.2.3. vectors

1.2.3.1. vectores need to have at least two numbers to represent them but it can go up to infinity

1.2.3.2. Adding vectors together is commutative( means like 7+ 3 = 3+ 7)

1.2.3.3. an arrow starts tip to tail while a negative vector starts tail to tip

### 1.3. Unit 3: Newton's 1 law

1.3.1. If the vector sum of all forces acting on an object is equal to zero, then the object's acceleration is equal to zero. "Objects with constant speed or at rest will remain at constant speed or at rest unless acted upon by an outside unbalanced force."

### 1.4. Unit 4: Newton's 2 law

1.4.1. Force is equal to the product of mass and acceleration. Put another way, this states that applying a force to an object of a particular mass will create a change in motion (acceleration) in that mass, in the direction of and proportional to the magnitude of the net force (the vector sum of all forces). F=ma

### 1.5. Unit 5: Newtons 3 law

1.5.1. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

## 2. Quarter 2

### 2.1. Unit 6: Gravitational force

2.1.1. Light Energy - E = hf = Planck's Constant times frequency

2.1.2. Kinetic Energy- 1/2 mass * speed squared

2.1.3. Gravitational Potential Energy - GPE = mass times acceleration due to gravity times height

2.1.4. Heat Energy - mass times specific heat times change in temperature

2.1.5. Nuclear Energy - The energy released from interactions of atomic nuclei.

2.1.6. Work, Torque (other definitions of Energy) - Force times Distance

2.1.7. Elastic Potential Energy (Spring Potential Energy) - 1/2 times the spring constant times the draw distance squared.

2.1.8. Spring Constant - How easy or difficult it is to stretch or compress a spring, usually denoted by the letter 'k' in equations.

2.1.9. Hooke's Law -The stretch of a spring is proportionate to the force applied.

2.1.10. Joule - A force of 1 newton applied over a distance of 1 meter--the SI unit of energy

2.1.11. Mechanical Energy - The energy stored in a machine or moving part of a machine, for example the fly wheel in the front of this engine (the dark grey circular disc in the middle of the picture).

### 2.2. Unit 7: Electromagisim

2.2.1. Ohm's law - V=IR, voltage is equal to current times resistance. 1 volt is equal to 1 ampere times 1 ohm.

2.2.2. voltage - A measure of how much energy a charged particle has (measured in units of joules per coulomb). The amount of work that must be done to move a charge from one point to another in an electrical field. Voltage is related to electrostatic force somewhat similar to how acceleration is related to gravity

2.2.3. conductor - copper , silver ,salt water in a conductor electric current can flow

2.2.4. semiconductor - silicon a semiconductor do different things in different situations sometimes allow current sometimes don't

2.2.5. insulator - air rubber , amber plastic, glass in a conductor electric current can flow but in an insulator it can not

2.2.6. superconductor - zero resistance , YBCO superconductor has lot of electricity but also has zero resistance .

### 2.3. Unit 8: thermodynamic

2.3.1. kinetic theory of matter

2.3.1.1. heat

2.3.1.2. temperature

2.3.1.3. gas laws

2.3.1.4. modes of heat transfer

2.3.2. systems

2.3.2.1. open

2.3.2.2. closed

2.3.2.3. isolated

2.3.3. laws

2.3.3.1. law conservation of information

2.3.3.2. thermal equilibrium

2.3.3.3. law of conservation of energy

2.3.3.4. law of entropy

### 2.4. Unit 9: Intro to chemistry

2.4.1. http://www.ptable.com/

## 3. Quarter 3

### 3.1. Unit 10: The atom

3.1.1. electron - A subatomic particle that has -1 fundamental charge; discovered by J. J. Thomson in 1897. Found in the orbitals around an atom. Has a mass of ~1/1800 daltons.

3.1.2. atom- According to chemists, the most basic building block of all matter.

3.1.3. neutron - A subatomic particle that has no charge, found in the nucleus of an atom (except for an atom of hydrogen); the last nucleon to be discovered (by James Chadwick in 1932). Has a mass of 1 dalton.

3.1.4. proton- A subatomic particle that has +1 fundamental charge, found in the nucleus of an atom; formally discovered by Ernest Rutherford in 1919. Has a mass of 1 dalton.

### 3.2. Unit 11: atomic interactions

3.2.1. nucleons - particles in the nucleus of an atom, such as neutrons and protons

3.2.2. octet rule - The tendency for an atom to want to either empty its electron shell, or to fill its electron shell to a total of 8 electrons (except for helium).

3.2.3. mole - A unit of counting. Where a dozen is 12, one of these is 6.022 x 10^23.

3.2.4. ionization energy - The amount of energy required to completely strip an electron from the nucleus of an atom. Different electrons require different amounts of energy.

### 3.3. Unit 12: chemistry

3.3.1. limiting reagent stoichiometry (look at khan academy)

## 4. life science

### 4.1. Cells

4.1.1. cell processes

4.1.1.1. homeostasis

4.1.1.2. Reproduction

4.1.1.2.1. mitosis

4.1.1.2.2. meiosis

4.1.1.3. membrane biology

4.1.1.4. metabolism

4.1.1.4.1. cellular respiration

4.1.1.4.2. photosynthesis

4.1.1.4.3. catabolism

4.1.1.4.4. anabolism

4.1.2. types of cells

4.1.2.1. Eukaryotic cells

4.1.2.1.1. Animal cells

4.1.2.1.2. plant cells

4.1.2.1.3. Fungal cells

4.1.2.2. Prokaryotic cells

4.1.2.2.1. bacterial cells

4.1.2.2.2. archaea

### 4.2. Evolution

4.2.1. Natural Selection

4.2.2. predator

4.2.2.1. an animal that naturally preys on others.

4.2.3. prey

4.2.3.1. an animal that is hunted and killed by another for food.

4.2.4. trait

4.2.4.1. a trait or character is a feature of an organism.

4.2.5. evolution

4.2.5.1. the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.