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Science by Mind Map: Science

1. Cornell Notes Links

1.1. Body Systems l


1.2. Body Systems ll


1.3. Body Systems lll


1.4. Life Science (II) Cornell Notes


1.5. Earth/Space Science


1.6. Physical Science


2. Life Science

2.1. Genetics & Related Topics

2.1.1. Genetics DNA it is like a book every cell in your body contains the same DNA Chromosome is like a chapter Humans have 23 pairs Each copy is almost identical except in the 23rd pair Gene is like a sentence Genes encode proteins, which are the structural or functional unit of life Codon is like a a word Words are ideas, there are 20 words Nucleotide is like a letter There are 4 in DNA (A,T,C,G)

2.1.2. Cellular Reproduction meaning is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

2.1.3. Heredity meaning The combination of two alleles results in the phenome of the individual. Homozygous Dominant She sprinted to the store. + She sprinted to the store. = She sprinted to the store. Heterozygous (Complete Dominance) She sprinted to the store. + She walked to the store. = She sprinted to the store. Heterozygous (Incomplete Dominance She sprinted to the store. + She walked to the store. = She jogged to the store. Homozygous Recessive She walked to the store. + She walked to the store. = She walked to the store.

2.1.4. Evolution Fitness Be able to produce offspring (via attraction of a mate, or other reproduction strategy) Survive long enough to be able to have offspring Have offspring that can, themselves, live long enough to have offspring Alleles increase fitness, relative to an environment, become more common in a population, over a long time. If they decrease fitness, they disappear (and sometimes so do the species altogether--aka, extinction).

2.1.5. Ecology meaning The study of the interactions of organisms in and with their environments Mutualism both organisms benefit Commensalism one organism benefits, the other is not really affected Parasitism one organism benefits, the other suffers

2.2. Define

2.2.1. Natural Selection the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution.

2.2.2. Predator an animal that naturally preys on others.

2.2.3. Prey an animal that is hunted and killed by another for food.

2.2.4. Trait a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.

2.2.5. Evolution the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.

2.3. Cells & Body Systems

2.3.1. Cells Cell Processes Homeostasis Reproduction Membrance Biology Metabolism Type of Cells Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Cells Theories Cell Theory Central Dogma Endoymbiosis

2.3.2. Body Systems Musculoskeletal Relating to or denoting the musculature and skeleton together. It is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems. Nervous The network of nerve cells and fibers that transmit nerve impulsed between parts of the body. The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Endocrine The endocrine system is in contrast to the endocrine system, which secretes its hormones to the outside of the body using ducts. It influences almost every cell, organ and function of our bodies. It is instrumental in regulating mood and development. Digestive Is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. It breaks down your food Immune It is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, it must detect a wide variety of agents, know as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms. Integumentary is the organ system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside. The system comprises the skin and its appendages (including hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails). Excretory The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from the body fluids of an organism, so as to help maintain internal chemical homeostasis and prevent damage to the body. Circulatory The systemic circulation is the portion of the circulatory system is the network of veins, arteries and blood vessels that transports blood from heart, services the body's cells and then re-enters the heart, the Mayo Respiratory The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe.

3. Earth/Space Science

3.1. Measurements

3.1.1. Light Years In one year, light will travel about 9.5 trillion kilometers travels 299,792,458 meters per second Useful for measuring distances to stars, especially when parallax doesn’t work anymore due to accumulating errors in measurements

3.1.2. Astronomical Units (AU) 1AU = average distance from Earth to Sun, -93,000,000 miles, -150,000,000 kilometers and exactly 149,597,870,700 km Useful for measuring distances of objects in our neighbourhood Most distant man-made object: Voyager 2 Satellite, -110 AU away and carrying a golden record: data from Earth, a global ‘hello’ & map (music, greetings, scenes & sounds)

3.1.3. Parallax Only works when stars are close Useful for measuring distances to stars, especially when parallax doesn’t work anymore due to accumulating errors in measurements

3.2. Layers of Earth

3.2.1. Thermosphere/Exosphere edge of space molecules of oxygen and nitrogen are bombarded by radiation and energetic particles from the sun, causing the molecules to split into their component atoms and creating heat increases in temperature with altitude because the atomic oxygen and nitrogen cannot radiate the heat from this absorption

3.2.2. Mesosphere Long term Climate changes Studying the mesosphere is essential to understanding long term changes in the Earth’s atmosphere and how these changes affect climate. Is responsive to small changes in atmospheric chemistry and composition, it could provide clues for scientists such as how added greenhouse gases may contribute to a change in temperature or water composition in the atmosphere.

3.2.3. Stratosphere Above the weather

3.2.4. Ozone Layer The ozone layer lies within the stratosphere and absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the Sun Absorbs UV radiation is created by oxygen molecules

3.2.5. Troposphere Weather & Human Activity is the layer of the Earth’s atmosphere where all human activity take place.

3.3. Plate Boundary

3.3.1. Convergent Plate Boundary also known as a destructive plate boundary (because of subduction), is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.

3.3.2. Transform Plate Boundary where plates slide past each other are called transform boundaries The fracture zone that forms a transform plate boundary is known as a transform fault Most transform faults are found in the ocean basin and connect offsets in the mid-ocean ridges.

3.3.3. Divergent Plate Boundary a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.

3.3.4. Continental Rift Zone young plant boundary was a theory that explained how continents shift position on Earth's surface. also explained why look-alike animal and plant fossils, and similar rock formations, are found on different continents.

3.4. Nuclear Dating

3.4.1. History ⇠ Chronometry

3.4.2. Chronometry means time measurement or the science of accurate time measurement

3.4.3. applies to electronic devices

4. Physical Science

4.1. Scientific Method

4.1.1. Type of Variables Independent Variable It is a variable that stands alone and isn’t changed by the other variable you are trying to measure. Dependent Variable It is a variable that depends on the independent variable. It’s what you measure in the experiment What is affected during the experiment Control Variable It is that one element that is not changed throughout an experiment.

4.1.2. Error Systematic Error An error having a nonzero mean, so that its effect is not reduced when observations are avveraged Human Error means that something has been done that was not intended by the actor, not desired by a set of rules or an external observer. Experimental Error Is the difference between measurement and the true value between two measured values. Is measured by its accuracy and precision.

4.1.3. Accuracy & Precision Accuracy The quality or state of being correct or precise or the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation or specification conforms to the correct value or a standard. Precision The quality condition or fact of being exact and accurate or marked by adapted for accuracy and exactness.

4.1.4. Steps of Scientific Method 1) Ask a question 2) Do background research 3) Construct a Hypothesis 4) Test your hypothesis by doing an Experiment 5) Analyze your data and draw a conclusion 6) Communicate your results

4.1.5. Hypotheses vs. Laws vs. Theories Hypotheses A supposition or proposed explanation made on basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. Laws a statement of fact, deduced from observation, to the effect that a particular natural scientific phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions are present Theories a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.

4.2. Motion

4.2.1. Speed-Time Graphs Slope Acceleration slowing down or speeding up in the opposite direction Area Under Curve Total Distance

4.2.2. Acceleration- Time Graphs Slope Total of change in acceleration triangle * a Area under Curve

4.2.3. Distance-TIme Graphs Slope Speed unit of speed is ms^-1 vector, velocity Area Under Curve Distance*Time...? MEANINGLESS

4.3. Forces and Motion

4.3.1. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them Inverse square relations

4.3.2. Newton’s First Law An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force

4.3.3. Newton’s Second Law The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

4.3.4. Newton’s Third Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The statement means that in every interaction there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The size of the forces on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object

4.4. Energy Types and Transformations

4.4.1. Kinetic Energy it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. 1/2mv^2

4.4.2. Potential Energy This potential energy is a result of gravity pulling downwards. The gravitational constant, g, is the acceleration of an object due to gravity. This acceleration is about 9.8 meters per second on earth. The formula for potential energy due to gravity is PE = mgh.

4.4.3. Gravitational/Spring Energy is the potential energy held by an object because of its high position compared to a lower position.

4.4.4. Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds (atoms and molecules). It is released in a chemical reaction, often producing heat as a by-product (exothermic reaction). Batteries, biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and coal are examples of stored chemical energy.

4.4.5. Thermal Energy is the energy that comes from heat. This heat is generated by the movement of tiny particles within an object The faster these particles move, the more heat is generated.

4.4.6. Nuclear Energy is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. The term includes nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion.

4.4.7. Law of Conservation of Energy is a law of science that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form into another