Students are not engaged in collaboration learning in the classroom
Learning is Teacher-transmitted and directed
Autonomy, Teacher expects students to follow her rules/ methods of learning
Interaction, Students are distracted in class, Lack of Teacher-Student interaction at the intellectual level
Exploration, No constructivist style questioning, Teacher does not challenge them to think critically or rationalize knowledge given to them
Teacher and students have lack of respect for each other based on their prior experiences and knowledge of each other
Students do not have any reasons to motivate themselves as they don't find any value in doing so
Environmental Factors Affecting Students, Cognitive Load Theory, Teacher does not take into consideration the environment affecting her students cognitive load, Rote Learning, Practice, Teacher offers practice for Annie to do the sums but does not engage the rest of the class in it., Transfer, Minimal transfer in Miss Jia's teaching. Students are forced to just watch and hear to learn., Interference, Teaching a new topic without linking to previous or future topics leads to interference of learning new information., Organisation, Teacher-directed organisation for learning needs to take place. Miss Jia does not do this., Serial Position, Teacher must be aware of serial positioning of key words and elements in the lesson. Miss Jia is only focused on delivering the topic., State Dependence, Teacher needs to relate lessons to real-world contexts to build meaning for the lessons., Level of Processing Effect, Teacher needs to be aware that information needs to be processed at more than one level.
Internal Cognitive Development of Students, Solutions to Cognitive Development, Gagne Phases of Learning, Teacher needs to be aware of the phases of learning to help her students cognitively absorb the lesson., Teacher Directed: Dual Coding Theory, Miss Jia practices this to a certain extent but it is not used effectively., Teacher Directed: Schema Theory, Teacher needs to activate related prior knowledge., Teacher Directed: Bruner Learning Via Insight, Teacher needs to motivate her students to learn the information delivered. ie use of real-world contexts, Teacher Directed: Organisation Strategies, Teacher needs to direct organisation strategies to make the learning easier.
Intrinsic, driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, exists within the individual, high educational achievement and enjoyment by students., Examples, Bandura's work on self-efficacy, Deci and Ryan's cognitive evaluation theory, intrinsically motivated actions as performed out of interest and requiring no external prods, promises or threats, activities are experienced as wholly self-determined, as representative of and emanating from our sense of self, pursue them out of interest when we are free from external pressures, define intrinsic motivation in terms of the presence of subjective perceptions of self-determination rather than in terms of the absence of extrinsic incentives or pressures, if we feel self-determined, then for practical purposes we are self-determined, even if extrinsic incentives are in effect or if our behavior is constrained in various ways., self-determination theory, use of Intrinsic motivational strategies, students value (or can learn to value) participation in the activity itself, teachers should emphasise academic activities that students find inherently interesting and enjoyable, Recommendations for Miss Jia, iii. Modify the design of other learning activities to include features that will enhance the activities’ appeal, ii. Plan learning activities that students are likely to find enjoyable or intrinsically rewarding, i. Use classroom management and teaching styles that address students’ needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness
Extrinsic, comes from outside of the individual, Rewards, grades, Use of rewards to motivate students, effects of rewards dependent on what rewards are used and how they are presented, Decreases in performance and intrinsic motivation most likely when rewards have the following characteristics, Unusual/unnatural, Noncontingency, High salience, can be given for, engagement dependent, completion dependent, performance dependent, effects, does it lead to immediate task effort or performance, more effective for increasing the intensity or duration of effort, changes in attitudes towards the task ?, support learning more effectively when there is a clear goal and a clear strategy to follow, changes in subsequent intrinsic motivation to perform the task voluntarily when future opportunities arise?, strong negative effects on subsequent intrinsic motivation to engage in interesting tasks, significant effects in subsequent intrinsic motivation to engage in uninteresting tasks, better tasks where steady performance or quantity of output is of more concern than creativity, artistry or craftsmanship, better with specific intentional learning tasks than with incidental learning or discovery tasks, can act as motivators only for those students who believe that they have a chance to get the rewards if they put reasonable effort, praise/positive feedback, decreased intrinsic motivation when they were primarily controlling, enhanced intrinsic motivation when they were primarily informational, Case of Miss Jia, better to offer rewards to students as incentives for meeting performance improvement standards on skills that require a great deal of drill and practice than it is for work on a major research or demonstration project., rewards may be needed to motivate sustained effort., Definitely not for long term, rewards will be helpful when the initial level of interest in the activity is low, its value becomes apparent only through engaging in it for a long time, New node, only after the learner has reached a critical level of mastery., performed instrumentally to attain some separate consequence, would not occur spontaneously, must be prompted by incentives or other external pressures
Extrinsic, Reinforcement & Extinction
Intrinsic, Operant Conditioning, New node
Self-Efficacy (Stipek), Low, Preferential treatment to students, Explicitly informs class that she wishes all of them were like Annie, Insists that John was cheating though he said he did not, Feels ill-equipped in skills and does not perform well, Does not explain to Minah the rationale behind the math problem. Discouraged her from developing an inquiring mind, Unwilling to try out new teaching methods, High, Ensure every student is involved in the lesson, Willing to try out new teaching methods, Results in self-fulfilling prophecy, Students behave in a manner that the teacher expects them to behave
Solution: Develop good rapport with the students
Gender & Ethnic