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Translation by Mind Map: Translation

1. the synthesis of a protein from an mRNA template

2. molecules involved

2.1. mRNA

2.1.1. job: to carry the genes message from the DNA out of the nucleus to a ribosome for the production of the particular protein that the genes codes for

2.2. small unit of ribosome

2.2.1. positions the mRNA so that it can be read in triplets, known as codons

2.3. large unit of ribosome

2.3.1. removes each of the amino acids and joins it onto the growing protein chain

2.4. tRNA

2.4.1. contains a anticodon that is complementary to the mRNA codon to which it binds

2.4.2. charged with amino acid that corresponds to the codon

2.5. release factor

3. Stages of Translation

3.1. Initiation

3.1.1. beings when the small ribosomal subunit makes its way to the initiation site

3.2. Elongation

3.2.1. After the tRNA for the start codon (Met or fMet in prokaryotes) bonds, the large ribosomal subunit binds to create the P and A site

3.2.1.1. P site- peptidyl site

3.2.1.2. A site- aminoacyl site

3.2.2. First tRNA occupies P-site, the second enters the A site and is complementary to the 2nd mRNA codon

3.2.3. Then, the methionine is transferred to the A site amino acid, the first tRNA exits, the ribsome moves along the mRNA and the next tRNA enters

3.2.3.1. They keep repeating this and eventually form a long chain of amino acids (protein synthesis)

3.3. Termination

3.3.1. When a stop codon is encountered in the A site, a RF enters the A site and translation is terminated

3.3.2. when termination is reached, the ribosome dissociates and the newly formed protein is released

4. Substrate for Translation

4.1. Eukaryotic mRNA

4.1.1. Has poly A tail

4.1.2. Has codons that encode for specific amino acids

4.1.3. Methylated cap at 5' end