BIOLOGY UNIT 1

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BIOLOGY UNIT 1 by Mind Map: BIOLOGY UNIT 1

1. B1.1 - HEALTH

1.1. A balanced diet contains the right amount of each food group

1.1.1. Malnourishment means not having a balanced diet

1.1.2. It can lead to Obesity and Type 2 diabetes

1.2. Carbs & Fats provide energy/Protein provides growth/Vitamins and Minerals ensure healthy bodily function & Fibre ensures digestive health

1.3. An effective slimming plan must support that: Energy In = Energy Out

1.4. Cholesterol is made in the liver, found in the arteries and reduces the rate of blood flow

1.4.1. LDLs - line the arteries HDLs - take LDLs back to the liver

1.5. Metabolic rate is the rate at which chemical reactions take place in body cells

1.5.1. Genes, Diet, and Exercise affects the metabolic rate

2. B1.2 - DISEASE

2.1. Pathogens are micro-organisms that cause disease

2.1.1. Disease is caused when bacteria reproduce rapidly and produce toxins

2.1.1.1. Viruses produce toxins from inside host cells to cause disease

2.2. White Blood Cells produces antibodies, produce antitoxins and ingest microbes to destroy pathogens.

2.2.1. The antibodies can then also produce antitoxins or ingest the microbe

2.2.1.1. Antigens are shapes in the membrane of the pathogen which are used by antibodies

2.3. A vaccination is a dead or weakened pathogen

2.3.1. Vaccines trigger White Blood Cells to produce antibodies which kills the pathogen

2.3.1.1. The White Blood Cell remembers trhe shape of the antigen for when that pathogen enters again

2.3.1.2. ADVANTAGES - protects against fatal disease/prevents epidemics/ reduces deaths

2.3.1.3. DISADVANTAGES - links between autism and MMR/the reaction could be more dangerous/don't like needles

2.4. Semmelweiss introduced the importance of hand washing in the prevention of spreading disease

2.5. Antibiotics are medicines which cure bacterial disease by killing infective bacteria

2.5.1. MRSA have become resistant to antibiotics

2.5.1.1. Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics by mutations

2.5.1.2. Those best adapted to be resistant are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on their resistant genes

2.6. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach kills bacteria and Cilia lines the trachea to bring bacteria back to the mouth

3. B1.3 - NERVES

3.1. The nervous system is a network of nerve cells which transmit nerve impulses throughout the body

3.2. REFLEX ARC

3.2.1. Stimulus is detected by receptors in the skin

3.2.2. Impulses travel along the sensory neurone to the spinal cord

3.2.3. Chemicals travel across the synapse through the relay neueone

3.2.4. Impulses are sent to the effector via the motor neurone

3.2.5. The effector (muscle/gland) contracts, moving the hand away

3.3. HOMEOSTASIS

3.3.1. Temperature - for body cells and enzymes to work properly

3.3.2. Blood Sugar - provide cells with a constant supply of energy

3.3.3. Water - for the body to function efficiently

3.4. HORMONES

3.4.1. FSH - stimulates Oestrogen & egg maturation/Oestrogen - stimulates thickening of the lining and LH & inhibits FSH/ LH - stimulates ovulation & inhibits Oestrogen/ Progesterone - maintains lining & inhibits LH

3.4.1.1. Contraceptive Pills contain FSH or LH

3.4.1.1.1. ADVANTAGES - stops unwanted pregnancies /smaller families /less poverty

3.4.1.1.2. DISADVANTAGES - increases blood pressure /weight gain / could forget to take it

3.4.1.2. Fertility Drugs contain Oestrogen or Progesterone

3.4.1.2.1. ADVANTAGES - allows pregnancy

3.4.1.2.2. DISADVANTAGES - expensive/ health risks

3.5. TROPISM

3.5.1. Phototropism (light) - shoots towards/ Roots away

3.5.2. Hydrotropsim (water) - roots towards

3.5.3. Geotropism (gravity) - Shoots away/ Roots towards

4. B1.4 - DRUGS

4.1. DRUG TESTING

4.1.1. 1 - Volunteers - check side effects

4.1.2. 2 - Patients with the disease - is it effective?

4.1.3. 3 - Large Sample - to find the optimum dose

4.1.4. Placebo - a tablet/injection that doesn't contain the drug yet looks the same

4.1.5. Double Blind Trial - Neither the patient nor doctor know which is the drug

4.2. A drug is a chemical which alters the chemical process inside body cells

4.2.1. A gateway drug is a drug which leads to you taking another drug

4.2.2. Legal drugs are more available and far more people take them so they are more harmful

4.2.3. People may become dependant on the drug and may suffer withdrawal symptoms if they atop taking them.

4.3. Thalidomide was originally taken to prevent morning sickness. It caused deformities in babies and is now used to treat leprosy

4.4. STEROIDS

4.4.1. Steroids stimulate muscle growth

4.4.2. Physiological - builds muscle/ Psychological - competitiveness/ Social - money

4.5. ALCOHOL

4.5.1. slows down nerve impulses/ causes loss of self-control/ unconciousness

4.5.2. Mouth > Stomach > Bloodstream > Brain