My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative Perspective

1.1.1. Individuals and groups must complete in the social environment in order to survive and human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive

1.1.2. The belief that the free market or market economy of capitalism is both the most productive economic system and the most respectful of of human needs. Individuals are rational actors who make decisions on a cost benefit scale.

1.1.3. The view of social problems places its emphasis on the individual and suggest that individuals have the capacity to earn or not earn their place within a market economy, and that solutions to problems should also be addressed at the individual level.

1.2. Traditional

1.2.1. Views schools as necessary to the transmission of values of U.S. society, such as hard working, family unity, and individual initiative.

1.2.2. Schools pass on the best of what was and what is.

1.2.3. Encompass the right liberal to the conservative spectrums

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Education for all: The Emergence of the public High School

2.1.1. Diane Ravitch pointed out four themes that were troubling high school educations: tension between classical and modern subjects, meeting college entrance requirements, teaching life studies not traditional academics, and the course of study.

2.1.2. Committee of ten was formed by the National Education Association to clarify the purpose of high school education.

2.1.3. The Cardinal Principles, or main goals of secondary education were: health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home-membership, vacation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, ethical character.

2.1.4. The Cardinal Principles helped to resolve the difficulty of education students who were not college bound.

2.1.5. School was no longer voluntary for students 16 and under.

2.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

2.2.1. Democratic-liberals believe you should have equity and excellence without sacrificing one for the other.

2.2.2. Historians such as Ellwood Cobberly, Merle Curti,, and Lawrence A. Cremin are representatives  of this view.

2.2.3. Believe that history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution, and should provide equal opportunity for all.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. The Theoretical Perspective between school and society.

3.1.1. Functional Theories

3.1.1.1. Functional sociologist believe in the interdependence of social system.

3.1.1.2. Durkheim's emphasis on values and cohesion set the tone for how present day functionalists approach the study of education.

3.1.1.3. In 1983, a Nation at Risk was released.

3.1.2. Conflict Theories

3.1.2.1. Karl Marx i the founder of the conflict school in the sociology of education.

3.1.2.2. Randall Collins argued that college diplomas,educational credentials are just status symbols rather than actual achievement.

3.1.2.3. Max Weber believed that power relations between dominant and subordinate groups structured societies.

3.1.3. Interactional Theories

3.1.3.1. Schools and society are primarily critiques and extension of the functional and conflict perspectives.

3.1.3.2. International point of view is what labels students gifted or learning disability.

3.1.3.3. Bernstein believes that your speech pattern and you social status could put you at a disadvantage in school.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Employment

3.2.1.1. In 1986, about 54 percent of the 8 million college graduates entered a professional and technical job.

3.2.1.2. There is a relationship between educational level and income level.

3.2.1.3. Most large corporations require high levels of education

3.2.2. Teacher behavior

3.2.2.1. Teachers are models for student, and set standards for them.

3.2.2.2. Persell found that when teachers demand more form students and praised them more students learned.

3.2.2.3. Researchers told elementary teachers that their students were likely to have a mental growth spurt that year.

3.2.3. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

3.2.3.1. Stinchcombe found tha students in vocational programs and headed toward low-status jobs were the students most likely to join a rebellious subculture.

3.2.3.2. The crimes and assaults against teachers has become a national scandal, but does not compare to the crimes and assaults students face from one another.

3.2.3.3. Students face violence everyday at home , and on the streets.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1. Dewey believed that students should learn skills both experimentally and from books, and traditional information.

4.1.2. Pragmatism is also known as progressive, which allows students to be involved.

4.1.3. Dewey believe children are active organic beings,growing  and changing, that requires a course of study to grow and change with them.

4.1.4. Dewey believed schools should reflect the community in order to enable graduation students to assume societal roles.

4.1.5. It was believed that it could be realized through education that would continually reconstruct and reorganize society.

4.1.6. Dewey advocated both freedom and responsibility for students.

4.2. Key Researchers

4.2.1. George Sanders Peirce( 1839-1914)

4.2.2. William James(1842-1910)

4.2.3. John Dewey(1859-1952)

4.3. Goal of Education

4.3.1. Dewey's view was to intergrate children into a democratic society.

4.3.2. It was believed school should provide "conjoint, communicated experience"

4.3.3. Durkheim and Dewey saw the effects of modernization and urbanization on the social fabric of Western society.

4.4. Role of Teachers

4.4.1. No longer the authoritarian figure

4.4.2. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan.

4.4.3. Teachers write the curriculum and must have commands of discipline.

4.5. Method of Instruction

4.5.1. The practice of individually and in groups

4.5.2. Traditional schools was replaced with individualized study, problem solving, and project method.

4.5.3. Formal instruction was abandoned, and traditional blocks of time for specific discipline instruction were eliminated.

5. Educational Inequality

5.1. one sociological explanation of unequal achievement

5.1.1. Student-Centered Explanations

5.1.1.1. These student-centered explanations became dominant in the 1960s and 1970s, and are still highly controversial and politically charged.

5.1.1.2. The most controversial student-centered explanation is the genetic or biological argument is the human behavior is viewed as limited because social scientists believe that environmental and social factors are largely responsible for human behaviors.

5.1.1.3. Research suggest that there were far more significant differences in academic performance among students in the same school than among students in different schools.

5.2. one school-centered explanation

5.2.1. School Financing

5.2.1.1. Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources.

5.2.1.2. Jonathan Kozol documented the vast differences in funding between affluent and poor districts, and called for  equalization in school financing.

5.2.1.3. It is clear that present reliance on local property taxes and state aid has not reduced equalities of financing.

6. Educational Reform

6.1. at least one school-based reform (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality)

6.1.1. No Child Left Behind

6.1.1.1. The No Child Left Behind Act is a landmark and controversial piece of legislation that had fat-reaching consequences for education in the United States.

6.1.1.2. Represented a logical extension of a standards movement that tossed the left's critique of U.S. education back on itself.

6.1.1.3. Advocates of NCLB, including progressive organizations such as the Education Trust, argue that its annual testing and disaggregation requirements will force states to ensure that low-income students

6.2. one societal, economic, community, or political reform

6.2.1. Connecting School, Community, and Societal Reforms

6.2.1.1. Research at the University of Chicago demonstrates that a combination of school, community, and societal level reforms are necessary to reduce the achievement gap.

6.2.1.2. Research shows several essential supports like: leadership as the driver for change, parent-community ties, professional capacity, student-centered learning climate, and instructional guidance.

6.2.1.3. Five elements of reform based on a sound review of data are meaningful learning goals, intelligent, reciprocal accountability systems, equitable and adequate resources, strong professional standards and supports, and schools organized for student and teacher learning.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. educational achievement and attainment of one marginalized population(African-American, Hispanic-American, women, or special needs individuals)

7.1.1. Women

7.1.1.1. Females have outperformed males in reading since 1973

7.1.1.2. Female students outperform male students in most categories, with the exception of mathematics and science.

7.1.1.3. The Condition of Education does not include measures of socioeconomic social class and educational achievement and attainment

7.2. one response to the Coleman Study

7.2.1. One Responses to Coleman: Round One

7.2.1.1. Where an individual goes to school has little effect on his or her cognitive growth.

7.2.1.2. During this debate some researchers began to examine the effects of magnet schools on student learning, arguing that schools that ere innovative, learner centered, and mission driven could make a difference in what students learned and how they learned it.

7.2.1.3. These studies were intriguing and provided a ray of research hope for those optimists who still believed in the efficacy of education to provide equal opportunities for all students.

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. Major stockholders in your district by name

8.1.1. State Senators are Richard Shelby and Jefferson Sessions

8.1.2. Boaz local superintendent is Mark Isley

8.1.3. State superintendent is Tommy Bice

8.2. Comparison of another country's educational system

8.2.1. The US and Mexico are both divided in the following levels elementary,  middle or jr. High, high school, jr. college, and Universities

8.2.2. SMART boards are used in both school systems the US and Mexico

8.2.3. Both school systems the USA and Mexico have public and private school systems.

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. One historical curriculum theory that you would advocate

9.1.1. Social efficiency curriculum

9.1.1.1. Rooted in the belief that different groups of students, with different sets of needs and aspirations, should receive different types of schooling.

9.1.1.2. This perspective emerged from the progressive visions of Dewey about the need for individualized and flexible curriculum.

9.1.1.3. The development in the twentieth century was related to the scientific management of the schools.

9.2. One sociological curriculum theory that you would advocate

9.2.1. Modern Society curriculum

9.2.1.1. Modern society is a more cosmopolitan and tolerant one than traditional society, and schools teach students to respect others, to respect differences, and to base their opinions on knowledge rater than tradition.

9.2.1.2. Believe that schools teach the general values and norms essential to a modern society.

9.2.1.3. Individuals are rewarded based on achievement and competence.