(SNC2D1)CLIMATE: CLIMATE CHANGE

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
(SNC2D1)CLIMATE: CLIMATE CHANGE by Mind Map: (SNC2D1)CLIMATE: CLIMATE CHANGE

1. UNIT 13: EARTH'S CLIMATE

1.1. WEATHER & CLIMATE

1.1.1. WEATHER: the environmental conditions that occur at a particular place at a particular time; the effects are immediate and obvious

1.1.2. CLIMATE: the average conditions that occur in a region over a long period of time, usually a minimum of 30 years; studied by climatologists

1.1.2.1. FOUR MAIN CLIMATE FACTORS

1.1.2.1.1. latitude

1.1.2.1.2. elevation

1.1.2.1.3. the air masses that flow over the area

1.1.2.1.4. the area's proximity to large bodies of water

1.1.2.2. HOW CLIMATE AFFECTS US

1.1.2.2.1. it determines the basic needs of people who live in the area

1.2. LAYERS OF THE BIOSPHERE

1.2.1. BIOSPHERE: the living layer around the planet that is made up of the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere

1.2.1.1. ATMOSPHERE: the layer of gases that surround the lithosphere and hydrosphere; it extends about 300km from the surface of the Earth

1.2.1.1.1. TROPOSPHERE: 80% of the atmospheric gas by mass; where weather happens and can support life; contains most of the water, CO2, and atmospheric dust in the atmosphere; 0-10km, 20~-60 degrees celsius

1.2.1.1.2. STRATOSPHERE: contains most of the ozone; clumps of cells are found but no other life; air temperature increases with height as ozone gas absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation; 10-50km, 0~-60 degrees celsius

1.2.1.1.3. MESOSPHERE: very little gas and the air is this and pressure is low; fewer oxygen molecules; 50-80km, 0~-100 degrees celsius

1.2.1.1.4. THERMOSPHERE: gas particles are hot during the day and cold at night; 80-300km, 0~-100 degrees celsius

1.2.1.2. LITHOSPHERE: the solid portion of the crust and the upper mantle of the Earth; the rock layer around the planet

1.2.1.3. HYDROSPHERE: all the water on Earth; 97% salt, 3% fresh

1.3. THE GREENHOUSE GAS EFFECT

1.3.1. INSOLATION: the amount of solar radiation received by a region of the earth's surface that is dependent on the latitude

1.3.2. NET RADIATION BUDGET: the difference between the amount of incoming radiation and the amount of outgoing radiation

1.3.2.1. see unit and notes for diagrams on solar radiation

1.3.3. HEAT (THERMAL ENERGY) TRANSFER

1.3.3.1. RADIATION: the emission of energy as waves; may be reflected or absorbed

1.3.3.2. CONDUCTION: the transfer of thermal energy through direct contact between the particles of a substance without moving the particles to a new location

1.3.3.3. CONVECTION: the transfer of thermal energy through the movement of particles from one location to another

1.4. PATTERNS OF CIRCULATION

1.4.1. GLOBAL WINDS

1.4.1.1. The global winds transfer thermal energy to places with less thermal energy

1.4.1.2. The Earth's rotation causes the winds to move to the left or the right

1.4.1.3. [see page 9 of the unit for global wind diagram]

1.4.2. JET STREAMS

1.4.2.1. these occur in the stratosphere where there is less friction

1.4.2.2. they affect the formation of severe weather conditions (e.g. squalls and cyclones) and are important in predicting weather changes

1.4.3. OCEAN CURRENTS

1.4.3.1. SURFACE CURRENTS: driven by global winds; the winds push on the surface of the water to a depth of about 100 m; these reflect global wind patterns

1.4.3.2. DEEP OCEAN CURRENTS: this current is known as the global ocean conveyor belt and is a "constantly moving system of deep-ocean circulation driven by temperature and salinity. The great ocean conveyor moves water around the globe. This motion is due to thermohaline currents (thermo=temperature; haline=salinity) Cold, salty water is dense and sinks to the bottom of the ocean while warm water is less dense and rises to the surface"

1.4.3.2.1. "These currents get their start in the Norwegian Sea where warm water from the Gulf Stream heats the atmosphere in the cold northern latitudes"

2. UNIT 14: EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE

2.1. EARTH'S CLIMATE - PAST & PRESENT

2.1.1. the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is on a rise and has been on such for years

2.2. EVIDENCE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE

2.2.1. CARBON DIOXIDE: increasing CO2 levels are indicated by multiple sources

2.2.2. GLOBAL SURFACE AND WATER TEMPERATURE: the increase in both fields show an overall global warming trend

2.2.3. ARTIC SEA ICE: the melting sea ice shows that the poles are warming up

2.2.4. LAND ICE/GLACIERS: the retreat of these giant ice masses show that these masses are melting, and this melting indicates a warming pattern in the Earth's climate

2.2.5. SEA LEVELS: rising sea levels from the melting ice and warming water show that the Earth is indeed getting warmer and at an alarming rate

2.2.6. TREE RING DATA: the thicker the ring, the better growing conditions, the thinner the ring, the poorer conditions

2.2.7. 4 KEY FINDINGS OF THE IPCC

2.2.7.1. 1. there is a 95 % certainty that human activities are responsible for global warming

2.2.7.2. 2. carbon dioxide is at an "unprecedented" level not seen for at least the last 800,000 years

2.2.7.3. 3. sea level is set to continue to rise at a faster rate than over the past 40 years

2.2.7.4. 4. over the last two decades, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have been melting and glaciers have receded in most parts of the world

2.3. CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE

2.3.1. GREENHOUSE GASES

2.3.1.1. 4 MAIN

2.3.1.1.1. WATER VAPOUR

2.3.1.1.2. CO2

2.3.1.1.3. METHANE

2.3.1.1.4. GROUND LEVEL OZONE

2.3.1.2. NITROUS OXIDE

2.3.1.3. CFCs

2.3.2. CARBON SINKS & SOURCES

2.3.2.1. CARBON SOURCE: any process that releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere

2.3.2.2. CARBON SINK: any process that takes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and stores it

2.3.3. GREENHOUSE GAS EFFECT

2.3.3.1. GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL: a measure of the ability of a gas to trap thermal energy in the atmosphere over a specified time

2.3.3.2. PERSISTENCE: refers to the length of time that a gas remains in the atmosphere; it is an important contributing factor to global warming

2.3.3.3. APTHROPOGENIC AND NATURAL EFFECT

2.3.3.3.1. the anthropogenic effect in the human caused greenhouse gas effect

2.3.3.3.2. the natural greenhouse gas effect is the effect that would've naturally occurred regardless of human existence

3. UNIT 15: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

3.1. EFFECTS IN THE ATMOSPHERE (all are happening at increasing rates)

3.1.1. HEAT WAVES

3.1.2. DROUGHT

3.1.3. WILDFIRES

3.1.4. STORMS

3.1.5. FLOODS

3.2. EFFECTS IN THE HYDROSPHERE

3.2.1. MELTING ICE

3.2.1.1. The melting ice releases freshwater that mixes with the ocean's salt water, as a result, the ocean loses salinity which in turn slows down ocean currents

3.2.1.2. HOW MELTING ICE AFFECTS THE EARTH

3.2.1.2.1. flooding land that is currently just above sea level

3.2.1.2.2. changing habitats of shoreline plants, animals and micro-organisms

3.2.1.2.3. causing the loss of property

3.2.1.2.4. changing geographic coastlines and shapes of continental coasts

3.2.1.2.5. reducing the amount of freshwater available to communities

3.2.2. WARMING OCEANS

3.2.2.1. the expanding warm water causes rising sea levels

3.2.2.2. warm water absorbs less carbon dioxide, making it less effective as a carbon sink

3.2.2.3. not an ideal place for plankton growth and survival

3.2.2.4. produces more intense hurricanes

3.3. EFFECTS ON WILDLIFE

3.3.1. SHIFTING HABITAT RANGES

3.3.2. LOSS OF SPECIES AND EXTINCTION

3.3.3. THE INCREASE INPOPULATIONS FOR ORGANISMS THAT BENEFIT FROM CLIMATE CHANGE

3.4. EFFECTS ON HUMANKIND

3.4.1. AGRICULTURE/FOOD/FARMING

3.4.2. HEALTH

3.4.3. ENERGY

3.4.4. WATER SUPPLY

3.4.5. FORESTS

3.4.6. RECREATION/TOURISM

3.4.7. COASTAL AREAS

3.4.8. PLANTS, ANIMALS AND ECOSYSTEMS

4. UNIT 16: AQUARIUM TRIP