relative strengths of these drivers
anticipate the changes in these drivers over time
(political, economic, social, technological, legal, environmental)
1. List external PESTLE factors for the organisation.
2. Identify the implications of each PESTLE factor for the organisation.
3. Decide the importance of the implications of the external factors – rank or rate them. Normally this involves assessing their impact over time, impact by type (positive or negative affects) and impact by dynamics (that is, is the significance/importance of the implication increasing, decreasing or remaining unchanged).
4. Rate the importance of the implication to the organisation. This may be further refined by ranking the likelihood of it happening.
5. Scenario building: to develop scenarios of different alternative futures for the organisation.
can identify changes that may affect the relative strengths of the forces acting on an industry, and may complement or inform a Five Forces analysis.
SW, Management and Organisation, Operations, Finance, Other factors important to Organisation
OT, Governmental Change, Economic Changes, Market Change, Competitive Change, Societal Changes, Supplier Change
Intangibility, branding, establilshing customer trust
Heterogeneous, control of offering at transaction point
Simultaneous production and consumprion, buy a service brand
Perishable, reusable, tradeable, optimal capacity utilisation
service monitoring and enhancement, feedback to product design
Scale, Geographic network, physical building or equipment, pucrahsing / supply, marketing, logistics and ditribution, technology / ICT, operationsl support
scope, ICT and shared information networks, shared knowledge and know-how effects, product or process innovation, shared R&D, Shared channels for multiple offerings, Shared investment and costs, Reproduction formula for service system, Range of services and service development, Brancding, Training, Goodwill and corporate identity, Culture, Privileged access to paretn services
inhouse knowledge of technology
employment of skilled personnel
provide access to wide variety of markets
significant contribution to customers' perceived benefit from final product
difficult to imitate
tacit , knowledge can be codified
context specificity , knowledge is dependent on local environment
dispersion - knowledge spread around the organisation or confiedm to few people