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Physics by Mind Map: Physics

1. 2 kinds of circuits

1.1. series

1.2. parallel

2. Induction

2.1. Within a substance caused by a nearby  charged object, without direct contact between the substance and the object and the subject

3. Efficiency

3.1. Is the ratio of the useful energy that comes out of the device to the total energy that went in. Percent of efficiency= E out/ E in x 100

4. Renewable resource

4.1. One that can be reused more than once (eg. Sun and wind)

5. Generators

5.1. Transform the energy of motion into electric current, the magnets inside the generator are rotated by a turbine

6. Conductor And insulator

6.1. conductor

6.1.1. Material that allows electrons to change position (Eg. Copper wire)

6.2. insulator

6.2.1. Solid, liquid, or gas that blocks movement of electrons (Eg. Rubber)

7. Non-renewable resource

7.1. Non renewable: One that can't be replaced once it's used up (coal, Oil)

8. Potential energy

8.1. Measured by a voltmeter

8.2. Energy stored in an object

8.3. Also known as Voltage or Volt

8.4. The difference in electrical potential energy between 2 points in a circle

9. Safety device for electricity

9.1. Fuse: is a safety device that has a low melting point. If the electrical gets dangerously hot the fuse melts on to the circuit stopping the flow

9.2. Circuit breaker: Same thing as a fuse but instead of melting it has a a spring mechanism that turns off the electric flow when the wires get to hot

9.3. Three-Prong Plug: The third prong connects the device to the ground wire of the building, this sends any unwanted current flow directly to the ground

9.4. GFCI: Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter  is a device that when it detects a change in current it opens the circuit which stops the current flow.

10. kw*h

10.1. Means Kilowatt per hour

10.2. Measures the amount of electrical energy consumption

10.3. 1kW= 1000W

11. Calculating unknown quantity of volts, current and resistance

11.1. Known: V, I  Unknown: R

11.1.1. R=V/I

11.2. Known: I   Unknown: R

11.2.1. V=IR

11.3. Known: V  Unknown: I

11.3.1. I=V/R

12. Static electricity rules

12.1. Opposite charges attract

12.2. Similar charges repel

12.3. Only electrons move from one object to another

13. Electrochemical cell

13.1. Made out of 2 parts, 1 electrolyte and 2 electrodes

13.1.1. Electrolyte:                                                         Is a liquid or a paste that conducts electricity because it contains chemicals that form ions

13.1.2. Electrodes:                                                       Are metal strips that react with the electrolyte

14. Law of attraction And repulsion

14.1. Law of attraction

14.1.1. Particle with opposite charge attract

14.2. Law of repulsion

14.2.1. Particles with the same charges repel

15. Static

15.1. it's an Electric charge that  builds On the surface of the object

15.2. Static electricity

16. Low and high  resistance

16.1. Low: Metals

16.2. High: All substances resist electrons

16.2.1. When a current resist electrons it causes it to heat up and produce light

16.3. Resistance

16.3.1. Measured in Ohms and by an Ohmmeter

16.3.2. Example: Light bulb filament

17. Factors that affect resistance

17.1. Length: Longer wires offer more resistance

17.2. Temperature: If it increases so does the resistance

17.3. Material: Copper has low resistance rubber has high resistance

17.4. Cross sectional wires:Wider wires offer less resistance

18. Alternate sustainable to generate energy

18.1. Solar farm: Mirrors that focus sunlight onto a liquid that is heated and used water into steam to drive the turbines

18.2. Tidal: uses the energy of the powerful tides from the bay to spin the turbine

18.3. Wind: Uses the energy of moving air to spin the  generator

18.4. Solar cell: has 6 layers to capture electrons

19. Short circuit

19.1. An accidental low resistance  connection between 2 points In a circuit

19.2. Short circuits are dangerous because the conduction wires can be very hot

19.3. But It can be useful by allowing technicians to work on the device without interrupting the circuit

20. AC/DC

20.1. Current is measured in Amps by a device called an ammeter

20.2. Alternate current (AC) : Flows back and forth at regular intervals called cycles

20.3. Direct current(DC) : A current that flows in one direction

21. Wet cells, dry cells, and fuel cells

21.1. Dry cell: An electrochemical that uses a paste  Instead of a liquid electrolyte

21.2. Wet cell: An electro chemical cell that has a liquid electrolyte

21.3. Fuel cell: Is an electro chemical cell that generates electricity directly from a chemical  with a fuel