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chemistry by Mind Map: chemistry

1. alloy

1.1. A mixture of 2 or more metals (Gold and silver are mixed together to make gold stronger

2. 4 points of particle theroy

2.1. The particles in a substance attract each other

2.2. Particles present in matter are always in motion

2.3. All particles have spaces between them

2.4. All matter is composed to very tiny objects called particles

3. Combustibility

3.1. Ability of a substance to quickly react with heat and light

3.1.1. Chemical property

4. 4 points about atoms John Dalton used to explain the nature of matter

4.1. All matter is made up of small, indivisible particles called atoms

4.2. All the atoms of an element are identical in properties

4.3. Atoms of different elements have different properties

4.4. Atoms have different elements that can combine in specific ways to form new substances such as size and mass

5. Chemical change

5.1. Gas produced

5.2. Odour

5.3. Production of light

5.3.1. Chemical property

5.4. Results in the formation of a new substance(s)

6. Physical change

6.1. affecting the form of a chemical substance, but not its chemical composition

6.2. eg. water turns into ice which turns into water vapour

7. matter

7.1. 3 states

7.1.1. solid (Particles are close by a strong force)

7.1.2. liquid (Particles are farther apart with a weaker force)

7.1.3. gas (particles are really far apart with a weak force)

8. chemical reaction

8.1. Process in which chemical change occurs

8.1.1. Chemical property

9. matter changes between the 3 stages

9.1. Solid to liquid (Melting) o Liquid to gas (Evaporation) o Gas to liquid (Condensation) o Liquid to solid (Freezing) o Solid to Gas (Sublimation) o Gas to Solid (Deposition)

10. classification of matter

10.1. mixture

10.1.1. heterogeneous mixture

10.1.1.1. meachanical mixtures

10.1.1.2. suspensions

10.1.2. homogeneous mixtures

10.1.2.1. solutions

10.2. pure substances

10.2.1. compounds

10.2.2. elements

11. Homogenous mixtures

11.1. look the same throughout

12. Heterogeneous mixtures

12.1. can be seen with different parts

13. physical properties

13.1. Colour and lustre

13.2. Conductivity

13.3. Density

13.4. Ductility

13.5. Hardness

13.6. Malleability

13.7. Viscosity

13.8. Transparency

14. John Dalton

14.1. Matter is made of small indivisible atoms

14.2. Atoms of an element are identical in properties

14.3. Atoms of different elements have different properties

14.4. Atoms of different elements can combine to form new substances

15. J.J Thomson

15.1. Used a cathode ray

15.2. Discovered electrons

15.3. Reasoned that all elements contain electrons

15.4. Atoms were composed of smaller particles

15.5. Created Thomson’s model

16. Earnest Rutherford

16.1. Shot positively charged particles at pure gold

16.2. Discovered the Nucleus

16.3. Revised Thomson’s model

17. James Chadwick

17.1. Each neutron carries about the same mass as each proton

17.2. Discovered neutrons

17.3. Discovered protons

18. Niels Bohr

18.1. Created Bohr diagrams

18.2. Shows that electrons reside in shells and jump between each shell by gaining or losing energy

18.3. Shell 1 has 2 electrons

18.4. Every other shell has 8 electrons

19. Quantum Mechanical Model

19.1. the most recent model shows that electrons exist in specific energy levels as a cloud

20. protons

20.1. Resides in the nucleus

20.2. Has an electric charge of 1+

20.3. Has a relative mass of 1836

21. neutrons

21.1. Resides in the nucleus

21.2. Has an electric charge of 0

21.3. Has a relative mass of 1837

22. electrons

22.1. Resides in energy levels surrounding the nucleus

22.2. Has an electric charge of 1-

22.3. Has a relative mass of 1

23. CFC’s

23.1. was a gas used in old refrigerators that destroys the ozone layer when leaked.

24. metals

24.1. Shiny

24.2. Silver or grey in colour

24.3. Excellent conductors

24.4. Malleable

24.5. Ductile

25. non-metals

25.1. Not shiny

25.2. Not silver/grey

25.3. Not shiny

25.4. Not malleable

25.5. Not ductile

26. metalloids

26.1. Has metallic and non-metallic properties

26.2. Semiconductors

27. element symbols

27.1. Each element has a special symbol

27.2. First letter is capitalised; second letter is not

28. atomic number

28.1. The number of protons in an atom of an element

29. Atomic mass

29.1. The average mass of an element’s atoms

29.2. Given in atomic mass uits

30. Ions

30.1. Becomes a positive ion when it loses electrons

30.2. Becomes a negative ion when it gains electrons

31. periods

31.1. Each horizontal row in the periodic table

32. groups

32.1. each column in the periodic table

32.2. noble gases, halogens, alkali metals.

33. Lewis structure

33.1. Shows the valence electrons of an atom

33.1.1. Valence electrons are the outermost electrons

34. Properties of ionic compounds

34.1. High melting points

34.2. Form crystals

34.3. Dissolve in water

34.4. Solids at room temperature

35. naming iconic compounds

35.1. First element (metal) stays the same

35.2. Second element (non-metal) changes suffix to “-ide”

36. Formulas for iconic compunds

36.1. Identify ions and their charges

36.2. Balance the number of each ion

36.3. Note the ratio as a subscript

37. Properties of molecular compounds

37.1. Formed when non-metals combine

37.2. Can be solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature

37.3. Good insulators but poor conductors

37.4. Relatively low boiling points

38. Naming molecular compounds

38.1. First element stays the same

38.2. Second element changes suffix to “-ide”

38.3. Prefix added to both elements to indicate amount     Mono (1)   Di (2)  Tri (3)  tetra (4) Penta (5)

39. Formulas for molecular compounds

39.1. Identify symbol of first element

39.2. Identify symbol of second element

39.3. Add subscripts to indicate amount