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chemistry by Mind Map: chemistry

1. alloy

1.1. A mixture of 2 or more metals (Gold and silver are mixed together to make gold stronger

2. 4 points of particle theroy

2.1. The particles in a substance attract each other

2.2. Particles present in matter are always in motion

2.3. All particles have spaces between them

2.4. All matter is composed to very tiny objects called particles

3. Combustibility

3.1. Ability of a substance to quickly react with heat and light

3.1.1. Chemical property

4. 4 points about atoms John Dalton used to explain the nature of matter

4.1. All matter is made up of small, indivisible particles called atoms

4.2. All the atoms of an element are identical in properties

4.3. Atoms of different elements have different properties

4.4. Atoms have different elements that can combine in specific ways to form new substances such as size and mass

5. Chemical change

5.1. Gas produced

5.2. Odour

5.3. Production of light

5.3.1. Chemical property

5.4. Results in the formation of a new substance(s)

6. Physical change

6.1. affecting the form of a chemical substance, but not its chemical composition

6.2. eg. water turns into ice which turns into water vapour

7. matter

7.1. 3 states

7.1.1. solid (Particles are close by a strong force)

7.1.2. liquid (Particles are farther apart with a weaker force)

7.1.3. gas (particles are really far apart with a weak force)

8. chemical reaction

8.1. Process in which chemical change occurs

8.1.1. Chemical property

9. matter changes between the 3 stages

9.1. Solid to liquid (Melting) o Liquid to gas (Evaporation) o Gas to liquid (Condensation) o Liquid to solid (Freezing) o Solid to Gas (Sublimation) o Gas to Solid (Deposition)

10. John Dalton

10.1. Matter is made of small indivisible atoms

10.2. Atoms of an element are identical in properties

10.3. Atoms of different elements have different properties

10.4. Atoms of different elements can combine to form new substances

11. J.J Thomson

11.1. Used a cathode ray

11.2. Discovered electrons

11.3. Reasoned that all elements contain electrons

11.4. Atoms were composed of smaller particles

11.5. Created Thomson’s model

12. Earnest Rutherford

12.1. Shot positively charged particles at pure gold

12.2. Discovered the Nucleus

12.3. Revised Thomson’s model

13. James Chadwick

13.1. Each neutron carries about the same mass as each proton

13.2. Discovered neutrons

13.3. Discovered protons

14. Niels Bohr

14.1. Created Bohr diagrams

14.2. Shows that electrons reside in shells and jump between each shell by gaining or losing energy

14.3. Shell 1 has 2 electrons

14.4. Every other shell has 8 electrons

15. Quantum Mechanical Model

15.1. the most recent model shows that electrons exist in specific energy levels as a cloud

16. protons

16.1. Resides in the nucleus

16.2. Has an electric charge of 1+

16.3. Has a relative mass of 1836

17. neutrons

17.1. Resides in the nucleus

17.2. Has an electric charge of 0

17.3. Has a relative mass of 1837

18. classification of matter

18.1. mixture

18.1.1. heterogeneous mixture meachanical mixtures suspensions

18.1.2. homogeneous mixtures solutions

18.2. pure substances

18.2.1. compounds

18.2.2. elements

19. Homogenous mixtures

19.1. look the same throughout

20. Heterogeneous mixtures

20.1. can be seen with different parts

21. physical properties

21.1. Colour and lustre

21.2. Conductivity

21.3. Density

21.4. Ductility

21.5. Hardness

21.6. Malleability

21.7. Viscosity

21.8. Transparency

22. electrons

22.1. Resides in energy levels surrounding the nucleus

22.2. Has an electric charge of 1-

22.3. Has a relative mass of 1

23. CFC’s

23.1. was a gas used in old refrigerators that destroys the ozone layer when leaked.

24. metals

24.1. Shiny

24.2. Silver or grey in colour

24.3. Excellent conductors

24.4. Malleable

24.5. Ductile

25. non-metals

25.1. Not shiny

25.2. Not silver/grey

25.3. Not shiny

25.4. Not malleable

25.5. Not ductile

26. metalloids

26.1. Has metallic and non-metallic properties

26.2. Semiconductors

27. element symbols

27.1. Each element has a special symbol

27.2. First letter is capitalised; second letter is not

28. atomic number

28.1. The number of protons in an atom of an element

29. Atomic mass

29.1. The average mass of an element’s atoms

29.2. Given in atomic mass uits

30. Ions

30.1. Becomes a positive ion when it loses electrons

30.2. Becomes a negative ion when it gains electrons

31. periods

31.1. Each horizontal row in the periodic table

32. groups

32.1. each column in the periodic table

32.2. noble gases, halogens, alkali metals.

33. Lewis structure

33.1. Shows the valence electrons of an atom

33.1.1. Valence electrons are the outermost electrons

34. Properties of ionic compounds

34.1. High melting points

34.2. Form crystals

34.3. Dissolve in water

34.4. Solids at room temperature

35. naming iconic compounds

35.1. First element (metal) stays the same

35.2. Second element (non-metal) changes suffix to “-ide”

36. Formulas for iconic compunds

36.1. Identify ions and their charges

36.2. Balance the number of each ion

36.3. Note the ratio as a subscript

37. Properties of molecular compounds

37.1. Formed when non-metals combine

37.2. Can be solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature

37.3. Good insulators but poor conductors

37.4. Relatively low boiling points

38. Naming molecular compounds

38.1. First element stays the same

38.2. Second element changes suffix to “-ide”

38.3. Prefix added to both elements to indicate amount     Mono (1)   Di (2)  Tri (3)  tetra (4) Penta (5)

39. Formulas for molecular compounds

39.1. Identify symbol of first element

39.2. Identify symbol of second element

39.3. Add subscripts to indicate amount