Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative- view is survival of the fittest. The strongest individuals/ groups survive. Human evolution is adaptation to changes in the environment. Individuals are responsible for their own success.

1.2. Liberal- (New Deal Era)-free market, if left unregulated, is prone to significant abuse, especially to those who are disadvantaged economically and politically. Capitalist market economy is prone to cycles of recession that must be addressed through government intervention.

1.3. Radical- does not believe that free market capitalism is the best form of economic organization, but rather prefers democratic socialism is a fairer political-economic system. Believes that the capital system produces fundamental contradictions that will lead to socialism. CENTER OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS. Blames everyone.

1.4. Neo-liberal Perspectives-

1.5. Purpose of Schooling

1.5.1. Intellectual-Cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language

1.5.2. Political- to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism

1.5.3. Social- to help people be sociable, productive members of society

1.5.4. Economic- prepare students for their occupation pg.22

1.5.5. Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, values

1.6. FAPE- Free Appropriate Public Education

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Brown v. Board of Education- What you have for whites you can have for blacks

2.2. Plessy v. Ferguson- can have separate facilities

2.3. A major reform movement that won widespread support was the effort to make education available to more children. The man who led this movement was Horace Mann, "the father of American public schools." Started the first board of education in 1837

2.4. High School students should be prepared for life not college. This interpretation is great. I believe life is far more important than college. College is studies, life is everyday.

2.5. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

2.6. Committee of Ten was created by the National Education Association which was chaired by Harvard  University President, Charles Elliot

2.7. 1965- Elementary/ Education Act provided for special needs students

2.7.1. 1983 IDID

2.8. Lee Vs. Macon - Filed in 1966 against Board of Education for putting his son in special education. for behavioral problems. 2001- case finally done.

2.8.1. How we are certified.

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Define each of the theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism.

3.1.1. Functionalism- stresses the interdependence of the social system; how well the parts are integrated with each other. View society as a machine, where one part works with another to to create the dynamic energy required to make society work.

3.1.2. Conflict theory- Social order is not  based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will through force, cooptation and manipulation. The glue is economic, political, cultural, and military power.

3.1.3. Interactionalism- primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.

3.2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book (there are 10  between pages 121-128).

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes- it states that the higher the students social background is, the higher his or her achievement level is. It is also proven that the amount of time a student spends in school, determines how much they learn. More highly educated people are more likely to liberal in their social and political attitudes.

3.2.2. Employment-graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities.

3.2.3. Education and Mobility- working class boys often reject the prevailing "attainment through education" ethos by emphasizing their relative lack of economic and social mobility; individuals rise and fall based on their merit.

3.2.4. Inadequate Schools- The way children are educated today will not prepare them for productivity and fulfilling lives in the future.

3.2.5. Teacher Behavior- Teachers have as many as 1,000 interpersonal contacts each day with children in their classroom. Teachers are models for students and set standards for students. Teacher's expectations were found to directly influence student achievement.

3.3. Effective Schools

3.3.1. strong leadership, safe and orderly environment, high expectations for everybody, continual review of student progress, clear mission.

3.4. Theoretical Perspectives for How School and Society Interact

3.4.1. Functional, Conflict, and Interactional

3.5. The number one reason why students misbehave

3.5.1. ATTENTION!!

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic Notions-Influenced by the theory of evolution and belief of in progress. Better society through education. Learn through experientially as well as from books.

4.1.2. Key Researchers-John Dewey

4.1.3. Goal of Education- Social order. Ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured, with the goal of providing students with the knowledge of how to improve social order.

4.1.4. Role of Teacher- teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure, the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. They encourage and offer suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study.

4.1.5. Method of instruction- both individually and in groups. Start by posing questions about what they want to know. The Problem-Solving Method.

4.1.6. Curriculum-core curriculum, or integrated curriclum

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Bentley 2013-passed a law that says "you can choose where your child goes to school, if declared failing, you can have money sent to private school"

5.2. the major stakeholders in YOUR district by name (state senators, House of Representatives, state superintendent, representative on state school board, local superintendent, and local school board)

5.3. identify and describe the elements of change within school processes and school cultures.

5.4. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind

6.2. student centered- assessments, lessons, and everything else is based off of the students and their needs. Teacher centered- teachers do all the talking and lecture to the students. Then give them tests.

6.3. Needs Assessment- what is learned and what is taught has a gap

6.4. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation

6.5. Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes for the fact that a certain type prospers. When it comes to class, Schools represent the middle and upper class. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. The more money you have the more academic resources you have and the better on eon one teaching you receive. Race has always been a major factor when it comes to educational impacts. For many years it took deaths, protest, and many other horrifying things for blacks to get the same education as whites. Today, i would personally say there is no racial discrimination for public schools. Gender has a role in educational outcomes depending on the school and teachers you have.In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.Disparities still exist in education and job salaries.

7.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982? Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success.Private school students outperform public school students. Differences in schools do make a difference. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

7.3. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead? OR Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead??

7.4. PL 94-142- First Special education law

7.5. IDEA 1996

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

8.2. Working class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources. And arrive at school at a disadvantage. Lacks the value system of middle class culture. Therefore, head-start was formed to help make up the gap. The failure of many of the compensatory educational programs assumptions that disadvantage children have lower level of achievement.

8.3. School Financing p. 428 Effective Schools p. 431 Between School Differences p. 433 Curriculum and Pedagogic Within School Differences p. 434 Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Teacher Education Programs p. 528 Three Major Points; More intellectual demands in education programs Attract and retain competent teachers Reorganize educational academic and professional development. No child left behind act- everyone deserves an equal right at education.

9.2. Full service and community schools- attack education inequality. Examine and plan to educate not only the whole child but the whole community. Harlem Children's Zone- Canada wanted other African Americans to be prepared. Not making them go to boarding schools, but staying where they are. Simultaneously changing them and their neighborhood. By involving them in at home high quality programs.

10. Limits and Promises

10.1. Achievement Gap- The difference between what is and what should be (what students should know vs. what they actually know) ** Needs assessment