My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Chapt. 2 - Politics of Education

1.1. Four purposes of education

1.1.1. 1.Intellectual  - "The difficulties of schooling do not change. It will always be difficult to teach well; to teach accurately; to read, write and count readily and competently' to acquire a sense of history; to develop a taste for literature and the arts. No school is ever just right. It is only by the constant efforts of its etchers that it can be called satisfactory" - Jacques Barzum

1.1.2. 2.Political & Civic - "even under the best forms of government those entrusted with power have in time have perverted it into tyranny; and it is believed that the most eddectual means of preventing this would be to illuminate the minds of the people at large." - Thomas Jefferson

1.1.3. 3.Economic - " Realistic expectations that education will make a substantial positive difference in the lives of their students may also motivate teachers and other school staff to a higher level of performance." - Jean Anyon

1.1.4. 4.Social - It is up to the state to remind the teacher constantly of the ideas; the sentiments; that must be impressed upon the child to adjust him into the milieu in which he must live." - Emile Durkheim

1.2. The role of the school

1.2.1. School provides a structured education and promotes a child’s mental and psychological growth. Aside from learning academics, a child will also learn other important life skills such as teamwork, good manners, unity, sharing, and responsibility. Children are like sponges that will absorb almost everything that is taught to them. By allowing them to learn in a school setting while they are young, they can be molded into good, responsible, and hardworking individuals. The role of school in child development begins as early as pre-school and continues through childhood.

1.3. Explanations of unequal performance

1.3.1. Unequal performance usually stems from inequitable opportunities. In order to expect an equal outcome or performance, we must first ensure that our students are receiving a 100% equitable chance.

1.4. Definition of educational problems

1.4.1. Educational problems can vary from something as simple as not having all the needed materials for a cut out sheet all the way up to biased curriculum. I believe an educational problem is anything that interferes in any way with the learning process.

2. Chapt. 3 - History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. No Child Left Behind - It began with honest intentions to not let students fall behind, but as a whole it held classes back and prevented teachers from achieving their most creative and beneficial potential for student excelling.

2.2. Historical Interpretations of U.S. Education

2.2.1. People of color weren't granted an education, women were teachers, and boys only attended  school when it wasn't harvest/planting season.

3. Chapt. 4 - Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society:

3.1.1. Functionalism - Education serves several functions for society. These include (a) socialization, (b) social integration, (c) social placement, and (d) social and cultural innovation. Latent functions include child care, the establishment of peer relationships, and lowering unemployment by keeping high school students out of the full-time labor force. Problems in the educational institution harm society because all these functions cannot be completely fulfilled.

3.1.2. Conflict theory - Education promotes social inequality through the use of tracking and standardized testing and the impact of its “hidden curriculum.” Schools differ widely in their funding and learning conditions, and this type of inequality leads to learning disparities that reinforce social inequality.

3.1.3. Interactionalism - This perspective focuses on social interaction in the classroom, on the playground, and in other school venues. Specific research finds that social interaction in schools affects the development of gender roles and that teachers’ expectations of pupils’ intellectual abilities affect how much pupils learn. Certain educational problems have their basis in social interaction and expectations.

3.2. 5 effects of schooling

3.2.1. Knowledge

3.2.2. Better job opportunities

3.2.3. Attitudes

3.2.4. Mobility

3.2.5. Social Class

4. Chapt. 5 - Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. Generic notions: For pragmatists, only those things that are experienced or observed are real.

4.1.2. Key researchers: Pragmatism is derived from the teaching of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), who believed that thought must produce action, rather than linger in the mind and lead to indecisiveness. John Dewey (1859-1952) applied pragmatist philosophy in his progressive approaches.

4.1.3. Goal of education: Prepare students for citizenship, daily living, and future careers.

4.1.4. Method of instruction: For Pragmatists, teaching methods focus on hands-on problem solving, experimenting, and projects, often having students work in groups.

4.1.5. Curriculum:  Bringing the disciplines together to focus on solving problems in an interdisciplinary way. Rather than passing down organized bodies of knowledge to new learners, Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their knowledge to real situations through experimental inquiry.

5. Chapt. 6 - Schools as Organizations

5.1. Senators

5.1.1. Richard Shelby

5.1.2. Jefferson “Jeff” Sessions

5.2. House of Representatives

5.2.1. Gary Palmer

5.3. Alabama State Board of Education

5.3.1. State Superintendent of Education - Michael Sentance

5.3.2. District 6 - Cynthia McCarty, Ph.D.

5.4. Superintendent - Dr. Frederic Ayer

5.5. Albertville City Board of Education:

5.5.1. President - Mr. Bobby Stewart

5.5.2. Vice President - Mrs. Sandy Elkins

5.5.3. Mrs. Rory Colvin

5.5.4. Mr. Lee Fleming

5.5.5. Mr. Mike Price

5.6. Change in the educational system requires approval from many of the branches listed and takes time to be put into effect rather than being able to make instant changes strictly by one person's judgement.

6. Chapt. 7 - Curriculum, Pedegogy

6.1. I find myself most compatible with Social Meliorists. They believe that education is a tool to reform society and create change of the better. This socialization goal was based on the power of the individual's intelligence, and the ability to improve on intelligence through education. An individual’s future was not predetermined by gender, race, socio-economic status, heredity or any other factors.

6.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Scientific - The scientific approach of data collection/hypothesis testing and field enquiry extend the learning opportunities available and promote the application of learning objectives to the planning of fieldwork.

6.2.2. Traditional - sometimes termed 'fieldwork excursions' have aims rooted in the development of content knowledge.

7. Chapt. 8 - Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational inequality is essentially the difference in educational experiences and learning results that students have based on their social class, race, gender, etc. Educational inequality is most often correlated to social class because of the large role it plays in the education system. A growing inequality, especially in the city I live in, is language barriers. In my opinion, educational inequality is a major issue in the United States. Not only is it a major issue, but I believe that it is an issue that is way too often overlooked. I believe that we, as educators, should help the general public not only be aware of this issue, but also aid in solving it.The public has the right to be aware and the ability to challenge those inequalities. Educational inequality can effect students from reaching their highest potential simply because they “fell through the cracks,” or weren’t given the same chances as some of the other students in their class. I understand that there are many factors that we cannot change, for example, we cannot simply make money appear in a poor school system and expect it to be on the same level as a wealthier community. My biggest issue with educational inequality is what I have seen first hand which is politics within a smaller school system. In a small town, it seems like it does not matter how smart you are, or how great or terrible of an athlete you are, as long your parents are “boosters”, school employees, or even someone well known, you’ll get to start every game or even receive local scholarships that you did not necessarily earn. This may not be the largest issue correlated with educational inequality, but it all has to start somewhere. If we allow things to slide by or give students special treatment just because of their parent’s role in the community, how many students do you think we are letting slide right through the cracks and miss out on opportunities they could have had and probably even deserved more than the person that just got it handed to them? Every students deserves an equal opportunity to learn and succeed based on their own abilities and hard work, not their race, gender, or social class.

7.2. Coleman Study 1982 Responses

7.2.1. "Washington--Several researchers have developed evidence that they say refutes the findings of sociologist James S. Coleman that minority students perform better academically in private schools than they do in public schools. Reporting on two separate studies at a recent meeting here of the American Psychological Association, the researchers explained that their analyses of the same data used by Mr. Coleman show that black students enrolled in Catholic schools do not necessarily perform better on achievement tests simply because those schools do a better job of educating, as the controversial sociologist has suggested."

8. Chapt. 9 - Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation

8.1.1. Working class parents may show a lack of interest in their children’s education

8.1.2. Lower class parents are less able to help their children with homework

8.1.3. Lower class children are more likely to speak in a restricted speech code. Rather than the elaborated speech code- Basil Bernstein argued this.

8.1.4. Working class children are more concerned with Immediate Gratification rather than deferred gratification – Barry Sugarman argued this.

8.1.5. The underclass has a higher than average percentage of single parent families. Melanie Philips argued this.

8.2. School-Centered inequality

8.2.1. Teachers being biased can be a very large issue when it comes to school-centered inequality. If a teacher picks favorites, it divides the class and causes some students to not try because they feel as if their efforts would go unnoticed either way.

8.2.2. Teaching methods can change a lot in a classroom. For example, you can't teach every lesson the same way for every student because each student has a different learning style and we must do our best to accommodate those in order to give our students an opportunity to succeed.

8.2.3. Ability grouping can be unfair to students that are grouped with those that are less likely to succeed and causes them to fall back even more rather than grouping children together so that each group has an equal skill set in each.

8.2.4. Curriculum can also sometimes be biased causing discord in a classroom or school system.

9. Chapt. 10 - Educational Reform

9.1. Educational Reforms: http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/SER/index.html

9.1.1. "During the past decade, the federal government has expanded funding for child care, Head Start, family support efforts, and programs for young children with special needs. Many states and communities have developed new early childhood and family support initiatives. This early childhood study, conducted by National Association of State Boards of Education, focused on three types of innovative programs: (1) Parent education programs which provide information and support to parents on how to help their children's learning and development; (2) Child care programs which provide educational and social experiences to young children whose parents work; (3) Community-based partnerships which bring together health, human service, and early childhood agencies to provide more convenient, comprehensive and sustained services to young children and families."

9.1.2. "The study on curriculum reform, conducted by the University of Colorado, Boulder, aimed to learn from pioneering curricular reform efforts in science, mathematics, and higher order thinking skills across the disciplines. Specifically the study focused on which reforms worked; which incentives for change were effective; and, which means of overcoming barriers to change were successful."

9.2. Progressive Era Reforms: https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/politics-reform/resources/reform-movements-progressive-era

9.2.1. Civil Rights - W.E.B. Du Bois published "The Souls of Black Folk" in 1903, calling for a more proactive approach to civil rights. The NAACP was founded in 1909 by a group of black and white activists.

9.2.2. Conservation - Millions of acres of land and mineral sites were set aside as national property during Theodore Roosevelt's presidency for conservation and reclamation. The National Park Service was founded by the Organic Act of 1916.