Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The Four Purposes of School

1.1.1. Political

1.1.1.1. to teach patriotism and the basic laws of society

1.1.2. Social

1.1.2.1. to teach socialization and help solve social problems

1.1.3. Economic

1.1.3.1. to prepare students for future occupational roles

1.1.4. Intellectual

1.1.4.1. to teach basic cognitive skills

1.2. Two visions of Education

1.2.1. Traditional

1.2.1.1. School are a needed to communicate the classic values of society.

1.2.1.1.1. Ex: Hard Work

1.2.1.1.2. Ex: Family Unity

1.2.1.1.3. Ex: Individual initiative

1.2.1.2. Visions encompass the right liberal to conservative spectrums

1.2.2. Progressive

1.2.2.1. Schools are mandatory to solving social problems.

1.2.2.2. Visions encompass the left liberal to radical spectrum

1.3. The Four Perspectives of Education

1.3.1. Conservative

1.3.1.1. Based around Social Darwinism

1.3.1.2. Roles of school are:

1.3.1.2.1. providing necessary educational training to insure students receive necessary tools to maximize economic and social effectiveness

1.3.1.2.2. socialize children into roles necessary for social order

1.3.1.2.3. express cultural traditions through curriculum taught

1.3.1.3. Unequal Performance

1.3.1.3.1. Students rise and or fall due to their own  intelligence, hard work, sacrifise and initiative

1.3.1.3.2. Schools are designed to allow students to succeed

1.3.1.4. Definition of Education Problems

1.3.1.4.1. Decline of standards

1.3.1.4.2. Decline of cultural literacy

1.3.1.4.3. Decline of values or of civilization

1.3.1.4.4. Decline of authority

1.3.2. Liberal

1.3.2.1. Based around John Dewey and Progressive

1.3.2.2. Roles of School

1.3.2.2.1. stresses the necessary education to all students equally to socially succeed

1.3.2.3. Definition of Education Problems

1.3.2.3.1. Underachievement in poor or minority children

1.3.2.3.2. Emphasize too much on discipline and authority and limit time to help students develop themselves

1.3.3. Radical

1.3.3.1. Based around Karl Marx and Communism

1.3.3.2. Definition of Educational Problems

1.3.3.2.1. School system has  failed society through classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic  policies against women, the poor, and the minorities

1.3.3.2.2. Promotes inequality of both opportunity and results

1.3.3.3. Roles of Schools

1.3.3.3.1. preserve  the society and to serve the interests of those with economic wealth and political power

1.3.3.3.2. Should reduce inequality of educational results and provide upward social mobility

1.3.4. Neo-Liberal

1.3.4.1. Based around the combo of both Conservative and Liberal Views

1.3.4.2. Stress  five areas for educational policy

1.3.4.2.1. Austerity

1.3.4.2.2. The market Model

1.3.4.2.3. Individualism

1.3.4.2.4. State interventtion

1.3.4.2.5. Economic prosperity, race and class

2. History of Education

2.1. Historical interpretation

2.1.1. Democratic Liberal views

2.1.1.1. History of US education involves the progressive evolution of a school providing equal oppertunity

2.1.2. Radical- Revolutionist

2.1.2.1. History of US education is the story of expanded success for different reasons and with different results

2.1.3. Concervative

2.1.3.1. The historical pursuit of  social and political objectives resulted in significant harm to the traditional academic goals of schooling

2.2. Reform Movement

2.2.1. Equality of Oppertunity

2.2.1.1. Plessy v. Ferguson

2.2.1.1.1. Helped "start" the equal opportunity  but education was so far way  to the idea of separate but equal.

2.2.1.2. Brown v. Board of Education

2.2.1.2.1. This court case made the idea of "separate but equal" unconstitutional and started to advance the equal opportunity

2.3. Historical Education Timeline

2.3.1. 17th Century

2.3.1.1. 1636 Harvard University Founded

2.3.1.1.1. 1st College in Colonies Founded

2.3.1.2. 1693 College of William and Mary Founded

2.3.2. 18th Century

2.3.2.1. 1701 Yale University Founded

2.3.2.2. 1740 University of Pennsylvania Founded

2.3.2.3. 1746 Princeton University Founded

2.3.2.4. 1751 Franklin Academy Opened

2.3.2.5. 1754  Columbia University Founded

2.3.2.6. 1764 Brown University Founded

2.3.2.7. 1766 Rutgers University Founded

2.3.2.8. 1769 Dartmouth College Founded

2.3.3. 19th Century

2.3.3.1. 1821 First secondary school for girls Opened

2.3.3.2. 1821 First public school opened

2.3.3.3. 1855 First Kindergarten Opened

2.3.3.4. 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson

2.3.3.4.1. Court Case resulting in Separate but Equal

2.3.4. 20th-21st Century

2.3.4.1. 1901 First Jr High School opened

2.3.4.2. 1932 New Deal Education  Program

2.3.4.3. 1944 G.I. Bill of Rights

2.3.4.4. 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education

2.3.4.4.1. Court Case regarding Separate but Equal unconstitutional

2.3.4.5. 1964-1965 HEad Start

2.3.4.6. 1983 A Nation at Risk

2.3.4.7. 2002 No Child Left Behind

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical perspecitve

3.1.1. Functionalism

3.1.1.1. First Sociologist views on school and society -Emile Durkheim.

3.1.1.2. Education is critical in creating the moral unity for social cohesion and harmony.

3.1.1.3. Society is a machine with different parts that come together as a whole and works.

3.1.1.3.1. Change society and then you can change the schools .

3.1.1.4. Educational reform is supposed to create structures,  programs and curricula that advance and encourage social unity.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory

3.1.2.1. Explain school as a social battle field; Students against teachers, teachers against administration, etc.

3.1.2.2. There is a direct correspondence between organization of schools  and society.

3.1.2.3. Schools have the ability to use their power to enhance students social status.

3.1.2.3.1. Ex: A prep school diploma is looked at higher quality  than  a public school diplome due to the prep school's reputation and not their quality of teaching.

3.1.3. Interactionism

3.1.3.1. A microsociological view of activities (or interactions) with in schools

3.1.3.1.1. The process of labeling  special or gifted students are important  to analyze. These process carry implicit assumptions about teaching and  children.

3.2. Effects of Schooling

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge

3.2.1.1. The actual amount of  time students spend in schools is directly related to how much they learn

3.2.2. 2. Teacher Behavior

3.2.2.1. Teachers are models for their students and set standards

3.2.3. 3. Student Peer Groups

3.2.3.1. 4  major types of college students: careerists, intellectuals, strivers and unconnected

3.2.3.2. Student culture plays a large role in shaping a students educational experience.

3.2.3.3. Schools are mini versions of society;

3.2.4. 4. Employment

3.2.4.1. Schools are gate keepers in determining which students can get upper class jobs.

3.2.4.2. One third of income is directly related  to the level of education

3.2.5. 5. Moblility

3.2.5.1. Educational Route Versus Educational Ammount

3.2.5.1.1. Route is where the students went whether private or public school. Ammount is how many years a student attended college or high school

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Teacher Centered Learning

4.1.1. Essentialism

4.1.1.1. Key Researchers

4.1.1.1.1. Bagley

4.1.1.1.2. Hurshe

4.1.1.2. Reject Platonic notion which states that ideas are only real

4.1.1.3. Matter exists independent of ideas

4.1.1.4. Help individuals understand and then apply the principles of science to help solve the problems plaguing  the modern world

4.1.1.5. to enable students to learn objective methods of evaluating such works

4.1.1.6. Believe lecture and questions with answers are the best way to teach

4.1.1.7. Believe that learning should be centered around the basics which are : science and  math, reading and writing, and the humanities

4.1.1.8. Rooted in Realism

4.1.2. Perenialism

4.1.2.1. Plato

4.1.2.2. Idealists are interested in the search for truth through ideas rather than through the examination of matter .

4.1.2.3. Idealism is a transformation; Ideas can change lives

4.1.2.4. Teacher plays active role in classroom

4.1.2.4.1. supports moral education as a means of linking ideas to action

4.1.2.4.2. Sees him or herself as a role model in classroom setting

4.1.2.4.3. poses questions, selecting material, establish environment- all to ensure their  desired outcome

4.1.2.4.4. Lecturing & Questioning

4.1.2.4.5. students are encouraged to work individually or in groups

4.1.2.5. Great importance of study on classics (literature from past civilizations)

4.1.2.5.1. Ex: Plato's Writings, Iliad, Odyssey, Bible`

4.1.2.6. Rooted in Idealism

4.2. Student Centered Learning

4.2.1. Existentialism

4.2.1.1. Emphasizes individualism

4.2.1.2. Learning is self paced and self directed

4.2.1.3. Open learning focus on individual growth

4.2.1.4. Key Researchers

4.2.1.4.1. Greene

4.2.1.4.2. A.S. Neil

4.2.2. Social Reconition

4.2.2.1. Also know as Neo-Marx

4.2.2.2. Focuses on Societal Reform

4.2.2.3. Key Researchers

4.2.2.3.1. Bameld

4.2.2.3.2. Counts

4.2.2.3.3. Freire

4.2.2.3.4. Hooks

4.2.2.4. Rooted in Pragmatism

4.2.3. Progressive

4.2.3.1. Rooted in Pragmatism

4.2.3.2. Teach problem solving, cooperation, self discipline

4.2.3.3. Uses Scientific Method & Scientific Inquiry

4.2.3.4. Key Researcher:

4.2.3.4.1. Dewey

4.2.3.4.2. William James

5. Schools of Organization

5.1. Governance in Alabama

5.1.1. State Senator

5.1.1.1. State Level

5.1.1.1.1. Richard Shelby

5.1.1.1.2. Jefferson Sessions

5.1.2. House

5.1.2.1. State Level

5.1.2.1.1. Mo Brooks

5.1.3. Members of: Alabama State Board of Education

5.1.3.1. Governor Bentley

5.1.3.1.1. The President of the  Alabama State Board of Education

5.1.3.2. Micheal Sentance

5.1.3.2.1. Alabama State Superintendent of Education

5.1.3.3. Mary Scott Hunter

5.1.3.3.1. Representative of the 8th District of Alabama for Education Board

5.1.4. Matthew A. Massey

5.1.4.1. Madison County School Superintendent

5.1.5. Members of: Madison County School Board of Education

5.1.5.1. Distrtict 1

5.1.5.1.1. Nathan Curry

5.1.5.2. District 2

5.1.5.2.1. Angie Bates

5.1.5.3. District 3

5.1.5.3.1. Mary Stowe

5.1.5.4. District 4

5.1.5.4.1. Dave Weis

5.1.5.5. District 5

5.1.5.5.1. Shere Rucker

5.2. Four Elements of Change within Schools.

5.2.1. 1. Conflict is a necessary part of change

5.2.2. 2. New behaviors must be learned.

5.2.3. 3. Team building must extend to the entire school.

5.2.4. 4. Process and content are interrelated

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Traditions of Teaching

6.1.1. Mimetic

6.1.1.1. This tradition of education is loosely tied to the traditional (conservative) model

6.1.1.2. Based around the idea  that the reason behind education is to communicate and spread knowledge to students.

6.1.1.3. Uses the didactic method to reach the goals and purposes behind education.

6.1.1.3.1. Didactic Method is a idea that the education process is to spread the teachable information from teacher to the student via a process of goals and assements

6.1.2. Transformative

6.1.2.1. This tradition of education is loosely tied to the progressive model

6.1.2.2. Based around the idea that the reason behind education is to  change the student in a minimum of four ways such as creatively, intellectually, spiritually, and emotionally.

6.1.2.3. Use a multi-dimensional theory of education.

6.2. Curriculum Theory

6.2.1. Humanist

6.2.1.1. Reflects the idealist philosophy of education in the idea that liberal arts is the foundation to educated society. Also believe purpose of education is to present the best.

6.2.2. Social Efficiency

6.2.2.1. Reflects the pragmatist philosophy of education in that every students needs are different. They believe that different students deserve different learning opportunities to help them learn to their best ability

6.2.3. Developmentalist

6.2.3.1. They believe that the needs and wants of each and every student are above any of needs of the society

6.2.4. Social Meliorist

6.2.4.1. Reflects the social reconstructionist philosophy of education in that the concern with the role of school in society.

7. Equality of Oppertunity

7.1. Coleman Study of 1982

7.1.1. Response to Coleman's study was the fact the people rejected his facts and even use his study to make their own study and use their facts to prove him wrong.

7.1.2. Years later researches said that the backgroud of a student had less effect on their academic achievement than the actual racial and socioeconomic composition of the school that the student went to.

7.2. Educational outcomes

7.2.1. Race

7.2.1.1. Individual's race  has a direct impact on the amount of education the student is to obtain

7.2.1.2. Minority students receive lesser valued and fewer educational oppertunities

7.2.1.3. Drop out rate by race:

7.2.1.3.1. 5.2%  of all White students

7.2.1.3.2. 9.3% of all African American students

7.2.1.3.3. 17.6% of all Hispanic American students

7.2.2. Gender

7.2.2.1. Female

7.2.2.1.1. Less likely to drop out

7.2.2.1.2. More likely to have a higher reading level

7.2.2.1.3. More Females are attending post secondary institutions

7.2.2.2. Male

7.2.2.2.1. More likely to do better with mathamatics

7.2.2.2.2. More likely to score higher on the SAT

7.2.2.3. Gender differences in regards to educational attainment has been reduced in the past 20 years

7.2.3. Class

7.2.3.1. Education is expensive

7.2.3.2. Students from lower class or working class are more likely to drop out, underachieve, resist currciculm

7.2.3.3. Students from upper class or middle class are more likely to go to college

7.2.3.4. Social class and level of education attainment are highly corralated

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.1.1. 1.Suggest that working class and non white families do not have the proper resources for their kids to be fully stimulated educationally.

8.1.2. 2. The poor have a deprived culture. One that eschews delayed gratification for immediate rewards, rejecting hard work, and initiative to be successful and lastly do not believe that school is a factor that can change their children's social mobility.

8.2. Reasons for Inequality

8.2.1. 1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, or federal sources

8.2.1.2. Most of the income funding for schools is collected from local property tax from the certain community which is a tax based on the value of property.

8.2.1.2.1. Since property is of more value in affluent communities than lower valued communities, the schools of affluent communities receive more funding and can provide students with well rounded education in comparison to those schools in low valued communities which must work twice as hard with less money to provide the same education

8.2.1.3. There have been many legal issues and court cases in regards to "equal education" due to this unequal funding process for schools in lower privileged communities

8.2.2. 2. Curriculum

8.2.2.1. One reason more affluent schools are more successful and have better education is due to their humanistic liberal arts college preparatory curriculum and their student centered pedagogical practices compared to the lower less affluent schools with vocational curriculum and teacher centered pedagogical practises

8.2.3. 3.  Ability Grouping

8.2.3.1. Also known as tracking by ability

8.2.3.2. Elementary students are separated into classes by their reading level or experience, standardized test scores, potentially even by race, gender, or class.

8.2.3.2.1. All curriculum is the same between the groups. Some assistance such as slower pace may differ

8.2.3.3. Secondary students are separated into groups or classes by ability and curriculum.

8.2.3.3.1. Different groups may be offered considerably different types of education  within the same school.

8.2.4. 4. Gender

8.2.4.1. Females believe that educational opportunities limt woman in many ways

8.2.4.1.1. Curriculum  stereotypes male and female life roles.

8.2.4.1.2. Curriculum omits portions of women's history from the main topics discussed in text books

8.2.4.1.3. Stereotypes of gender roles are shown within the school due to organization of it with Females teach elementary children while males teach secondary topics and ideas. Also men are show as having roles of authority through schools as mainly administration are males.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Educational Reform with in Schools

9.1.1. Charter Schools

9.1.1.1. Pubic schools which are funded via the same method of tax dollars but have the freedom from regulations that are applied to the many normal public schools.

9.1.1.2. Believed to have the ability that they can provide more effective and efficient alternatives to low income children and also can provide a better education at a lower cost.

9.1.2. Teacher Quality

9.1.2.1. One of the most important areas of education is keeping and hiring the best quality teachers.

9.1.2.2. 1/5 of the core classes in the secondary level of schooling is taught by someone who is uncertified or trained for that specific field such as math, english, science, or social studies.

9.1.2.2.1. Urban schools have the more "out of field" teachers than other schools.

9.1.2.3. Ingersoll's research along with Educational reform leaders have pinpointed teacher tenure and layoff provisions as a primary factor in improving teacher quality with in schools

9.2. Educational Reform Outside of Schools

9.2.1. Economic

9.2.1.1. Through court cases and legislature, urban schools have received extra funding through the years to help create other supplemental program such as preschools, summer programs

9.2.1.2. Economic reform such as equal funding for lower income, minority or urban schools can help the achievement gap but only to a small degree unless the schools and community help fix factors outside the school like assisting families to be better capable to move up in social mobility

9.2.2. Community Reform

9.2.2.1. One way to defeat educational inequality with in communities is to educate the whole community not just the individual student through an idea of a "full service school"

9.2.2.2. These schools are aimed to help students and families have their educational, psychological, emotional, physical, and social needs met

9.2.2.2.1. Full Service Schools are modeled as a community center which has the potential to use any or all activities listed: adult education, recreational facility, health clinics, after school care, drug or alcohol programs, job training and placement, and tutoring services