Types of Assessment, by Matt Locker, Grade 4 Classroom Teacher.

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Types of Assessment, by Matt Locker, Grade 4 Classroom Teacher. by Mind Map: Types of Assessment, by Matt Locker, Grade 4 Classroom Teacher.

1. Diagnostic

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. Also called pre-assessments

1.1.2. A diagnostic assessment or pre-assessment often focuses on one area or domain of knowledge. It can provide educators with information about each student’s prior knowledge before beginning instruction.

1.2. Purpose

1.2.1. Like formative assessment, diagnostic assessment is intended to improve the learner’s experience and their level of achievement. However, diagnostic assessment looks backwards rather than forwards. It assesses what the learner already knows and/or the nature of difficulties that the learner might have, which, if undiagnosed, might limit their engagement in new learning. It is often used before teaching or when a problem arises.

1.3. Advantages and disadvantages

1.3.1. Advantages Teachers can quickly get a picture of students prior knowledge.

1.3.2. Disadvantages. It is possible that the teacher misinterpret the information garnered from this assessment and care should be taken to actually react to the infornation and adjust your lesson plans.

1.4. An assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

1.4.1. Diagnostic assessments are assessment of learning, at the commencement of a unit of work they help the teacher direct the learning by diagnosing what the students does or does not understand and can or cannot do.

1.5. Example from my subject and grade

1.5.1. In Maths class on addition and subtraction of decimals, student will carry out either a do it now activity or a more standard short quiz on the topic. This allows me to get a picture of all the students individual prior knowledge so I can tailor my instruction.

1.5.2. Short assessments that focus on key knowledge and concepts such as ConcepTests and Minute Papers

1.5.3. Conceptests link

1.5.4. Minute Papers link

2. Summative

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Summative Assessments are given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know. Many associate summative assessments only with standardized tests such as state assessments, but they are also used at and are an important part of district and classroom programs. Summative assessment at the district/classroom level is an accountability measure that is generally used as part of the grading process.

2.2. Purpose

2.2.1. Provide information to parents, schools or school districts.

2.2.2. They help school target where resources and supportare most needed.

2.3. Advantages and disadvantages

2.3.1. Advantages Summative assessment is a great way for students to show all they have learned from a  unit of work. When students are given the choice (whichever suits there learning styles) of how they show their knowledge and skills, this type of assessment is improved further. Because they are spread out and occur after instruction every few weeks, months, or once a year, summative assessments are tools to help evaluate the effectiveness of programs, school improvement goals, alignment of curriculum, or student placement in specific programs.

2.3.2. Disadvantages. As a teacher in a PYP School, it is important that the teacher facilitates the students inquiry. However, the teachers have role of assessing the students too. By planning a detailed summative assessment the teacher may in fact be directing the students inquiry too much. Also as summative assessment are ver y visible and can be thought of as a reflection of how good the teacher` performance, many instructors are accused of “teaching to the test.” Summative assessments happen too far down the learning path to provide information at the classroom level and to make instructional adjustments and interventions during the learning process. Although the information that is gleaned from this type of assessment is important, it can only help in evaluating certain aspects of the learning process.

2.4. An assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

2.4.1. Summative assessment is often assessment of learning as it occurs after a body of study ( a unit or a topic). They are designed to demonstrate what the student does and does not understand.

2.5. Example from my subject and grade

2.5.1. Scores that are used for students report card grades for Maths and English at Grade 4.

3. High-Stakes

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts.

3.2. Purpose

3.2.1. Most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers.

3.3. Advantages and disadvantages

3.3.1. Advantages. The students can develop mental strength by being put in a pressure situation with high stakes.

3.3.2. Diasadvantages - State or area tests can often not be connected to the school`s curriculum or what the students are actually studying at the time. The students can face a great deal of anxiety which will affect their test performance and therefore the test imay not be an accurate indication of a student`s ability.High-stakes testing can create more incentive for cheating. Tests can penalize test takers that do not have the necessary skills through no fault of their own.

3.4. Assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

3.4.1. High Stakes assessment is generally assessment of Learning as it involves testing of mastery of grade level standards.

3.5. Example from my subject and grade

3.5.1. Grade 4 students have to take the Eiken test of English Proficiency, which is used, in part, to determine Junior High School entrance.

4. Formative

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. "An ongoing assessment with checkpoints along the way" (Wormelli, 2010)

4.1.2. Click the link to Rick Wormeli video on formative assessment.

4.1.3. Identifying and responding to the students’ learning needs.

4.2. Purpose

4.2.1. Checking for understanding.

4.2.2. So the teachewr can change the way they are teaching when they see students need to be retaught or that they understand and can go further.

4.3. Advantages and disadvantages

4.3.1. Advantages. - OECD 200 FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT: IMPROVING LEARNING IN SECONDARY CLASSROOMS "Formative assessment has been shown to be highly effective in raising the level of student attainment, increasing equity of student outcomes, and improving students’ ability to learn."

4.3.2. Disadvantages. This type of assessment can be time consuming, to such an extent that it affects how well the students can achieve objectives of the summative assessment.

4.4. Example from my subject and grade

4.4.1. Specific targeted feedback,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1. Help  the student discover or the teacher points it out. 2. Restate the original goal or objective. 3. Describe where the student is in ration to the goal and what we will do to close that gap. e.g. "Look you are talking a lot to your friends about today`s topic, our goal today is to express our thoughts, ideas and opinions and listen to the contribution of others. You are talking very well, the next stage for you is to listen to your friends and ask them some questions when they have finished speaking. The traffic light At points when I want to be sure that students understand a concept, I ask students to hold up a green, amber or red sign to indicate whether they understand, think they understand but are not quite sure, or do not understand. I spend more time with students showing amber and red. Thinking time instead of hands up I frequently tell students “no hands up”. I ask a question,  pause, anywhere form a few seconds to several minutes, and then call upon a student. I have found that the quality of responses improves a great deal when students have time to think.

4.5. Assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

4.5.1. Formative assessment is assessment of learning. By carrying out formative assessments the teacher can quickly and correctly identify areas of need or misunderstanding and reteach any misconceptions.

5. Performance-based

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. Performance-based learning and assessment represent a set of strategies for the acquisition and application of knowledge, skills, and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to students.

5.2. Purpose

5.2.1. In the act of learning, people obtain content knowledge, acquire skills, and develop work habits—and practice the application of all three to “real world” situations.

5.3. Advantages and disadvantages

5.3.1. Adavantages Student carrying out a task have to collaborate and use their creativity to succeed.

5.3.2. Disadvantage Time-mangement and withitness are key as at times students can be engrossed in a a particular facet of the task. To ensure success teachers must help students keep the task criteria at the forefront.  If the students are to be graded the teacher must ensure that there are no "hiders" in the group work and everybody is learning and contributing well.

5.4. Assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

5.4.1. Performance based assessment can serve as both assessment of and for learning. It can be assessment of learning as it is a way for students to demonstrate the skills they have acquired to allow them to "perform"

5.5. Example from my subject and grade

5.5.1. In a science class on the study of light (the summative assessment was to make a Camera obscura) , the students were told to place a  stake in the ground and at various times through the day record what the shadow looked like and where it moved.

6. Portfolio

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. A student portfolio is a systematic collection of student work and related material that depicts a student's activities, accomplishments, and achievements in one or more school subjects.

6.2. Purpose

6.2.1. To help students assemble portfolios that illustrate their talents, represent their writing capabilities, and tell their stories of school achievement... (Venn, 2000, pp. 530-531)

6.3. Advantages and disadvantages

6.3.1. Advantages. This type of assessment shows what a student does very well and provides a picture of development over time.There is conscious effort by a student to generate quality output, which helps develop a sense of responsibility. Critical thinking skills, creative assessment, selectivity and reflective analysis are also enhanced. Promoting student self-evaluation, reflection, and critical thinking. Measuring performance based on genuine samples of student work. Providing flexibility in measuring how students accomplish their learning goals. Enabling teachers and students to share the responsibility for setting learning goals and for evaluating progress toward meeting those goals. Giving students the opportunity to have extensive input into the learning process. Facilitating cooperative learning activities, including peer evaluation and tutoring, cooperative learning groups, and peer conferencing. Providing a process for structuring learning in stages. Providing opportunities for students and teachers to discuss learning goals and the progress toward those goals in structured and unstructured conferences. Enabling measurement of multiple dimensions of student progress by including different types of data and materials. (Venn, 2000, p. 538)

6.3.2. Disadvantage It can be very demanding for students, parents, teachers and/or policymakers to execute. Additional time is vital for planning, identifying instructional goals, developing strategies, identifying suitable instructional approaches, conferring with involved parties, assisting students' generation of portfolios, and evaluating outputs.  Since outcomes are very personal, contents varying from one student to another, it would be very difficult to objectively assess the contents of portfolios. Disadvantages of Portfolio Assessment Requiring extra time to plan an assessment system and conduct the assessment. Gathering all of the necessary data and work samples can make portfolios bulky and difficult to manage. Developing a systematic and deliberate management system is difficult, but this step is necessary in order to make portfolios more than a random collection of student work. Scoring portfolios involves the extensive use of subjective evaluation procedures such as rating scales and professional judgment, and this limits reliability. Scheduling individual portfolio conferences is difficulty and the length of each conference may interfere with other instructional activities. (Venn, 2000, p. 538)

6.4. Assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

6.4.1. Portfolios are assessment of learning, as they often function as examples of what work the students has done and shows their achievement.

6.5. Example from my subject and grade

6.5.1. There are a number of ways I have used Portfolio in my class, primarily in the Unit of Inquiry classes and primarily as a product portfolio, (as opposed to a process portfolio). We collate examples of students mastery in both English and Japanese and include students reflection on that work.

7. Authentic

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. "...Engaging and worthy problems or questions of importance, in which students must use knowledge to fashion performances effectively and creatively. The tasks are either replicas of or analogous to the kinds of problems faced by adult citizens and consumers or professionals in the field." -- Grant Wiggins -- (Wiggins, 1993, p. 229).

7.1.2. Authentic assessment, also called direct, alternative or performance-based assessment, gives students other opportunities to show what they know. Authentic classroom assessment tasks include creating posters or other artwork, keeping learning logs or journals, conducting experiments, working individually or in groups to complete projects, giving performances or presentations, building a portfolio, writing letters to authorities to address an issue, or organizing a solution to a community-based problem.

7.2. Purpose

7.2.1. We, of course, want them to be able to use the acquired knowledge and skills in the real world. So, our assessments have to also tell us if students can apply what they have learned in authentic situations.

7.3. Advantages and disadvantages

7.3.1. Advantages. In an authentic assessment a big advantage is that it makes students take their learning outside the classroom and apply it to a real world situation. As application, analysis and synthesis are higher order thinking skills this is another advantage to this type of assessment. It is especially helpful for special needs students because it incorporates social and behavioral skills necessary both inside and outside the classroom. Students learn how to work with others during group projects, for example, and must practice positive character traits such as honesty and perseverance while completing experiments or conducting research. Authentic assessments integrate higher-order thinking skills, since students must apply their knowledge in creative ways to solve problems. This helps children build connections with the world outside the classroom, and it builds self-worth as students learn that their contributions to society matter. In addition, learning tasks can be simplified to meet the child's abilities without losing the authentic nature of the assignment.

7.3.2. Disadvantages. This type of assessment cannot provide a quick way to assess student work. It can be difficult to evaluate core, state standards. It also may not be practical in a large class. Authentic assessments are advantageous to teachers for gauging a student's in-depth knowledge of a specific subject, but this type of assessment does not work as well when the instructor is attempting to assess a broad range of skills. Although most teachers use rubrics when grading authentic assessments, this type of assessment is much more subjective than a typical pencil and paper test. It also takes longer to complete an authentic assessment than a regular examination, which can take away from learning minutes.

7.4. Assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

7.4.1. Authentic assessment is generally of and for learning, as students show their understanding and knowledge in a real world context.

7.5. Example from my subject and grade

7.5.1. During a Unit "Who we are" with a theme on families in which students learned about being part of a family and about the structure and sequence of stories, students illustrated and wrote their own flap stories with several parts, telling a story about a family member or friend.

8. Self-assessment

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. Students assess their own learning, skills, contribution, attitude etc. using an established set of criteria.

8.2. Purpose

8.2.1. Self-assessment involves students in critical   reflection and develop in students a better understanding of their own subjectivity and judgement.

8.3. Advantages and disadvantages

8.3.1. Advantages. Students have an opportunity to think meta-cognitively about their learning By looking critically at their own work, students can objectively think about what improvements need to be made Encourages student involvement and responsibility. Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work. Allows students to see and reflect on their peers’ assessment of their contribution. Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills.

8.3.2. Disadvantages. At times the meaning of self-assessment can be lost on students and they will simply give themselves high marks. Another potential disadvantage is that unless the process of self-evaluation and the success criteria of the work are clearly explained, student may not actually understand how to self-assess. Potentially increases lecturer workload by needing to brief students on the process as well as on-going guidance on performing self evaluation. Self evaluation has a risk of being perceived as a process of presenting inflated grades and being unreliable. Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment.

8.4. Assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

8.4.1. Self assessment is generally assessment for learning. In an art focussed unit, students will critically assess their own work based on criteria and standards from the curriculum

8.5. Example from my subject and grade

8.5.1. At the end of term the students give themselves a reflection and a self-assessment (checklist) on the English learning outcomes, for this term (which were published in the classroom all term.)

9. Peer assessment

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Students individually assess each others contribution using a predetermined list of criteria. Grading is based on a predetermined process, but most commonly it is an average of the marks awarded by members of the group.

9.2. Purpose

9.2.1. Increase student responsibility and autonomy  and strive for a more advanced and deeper understanding of the subject matter, skills and processes. Change the role and status of the student from passive learner to active leaner and assessor, this also encourages a deeper approach to learning.

9.3. Advantages and disadvantages

9.3.1. Advantages Student have an opportunity to think meta-cognitively about their learning By having students peer assess they are given a chance to be more responsible and active in the learning process Agreed marking criteria means there can be little confusion about assignment outcomes and expectations. Encourages student involvement and responsibility. Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work. Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills. Students are involved in the process and are encouraged to take part ownership of this process. Provides more relevant feedback to students as it is generated by their peers. It is considered fair by some students, because each student is judged on their own contribution. When operating successfully can reduce a teacher's marking load. Can help reduce the ‘free rider’ problem as students are aware that their contribution will be graded by their peers

9.3.2. Diasadvantages. The is sometimes a tendency to give their friend a higher grade than their work actually merits. There is also a tendency to give very similar grades to multiple students, as they don`t want to hurt anybody`s feelings. Additional briefing time can increase a lecturer’s workload. The process has a degree of risk with respect to reliability of grades as peer pressure to apply elevated grades or friendships may influence the assessment, though this can be reduced if students can submit their assessments independent of the group. Students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark. Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment. Students may be reluctant to make judgements regarding their peers. At the other extreme students may be discriminated against if students ‘gang up’ against one group member.

9.4. Assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for my choice

9.4.1. Peer assessment is generally assessment for learning, students assess a peer group member (typically using a rubric) and by doing so it informs their understanding.

9.5. Example from my subject and grade

9.5.1. At the end of a unit a student will talk with their peer about the peer`s work. Typically students will use a rubric or a checklist, and discuss their work close to the end of a unit of work, but with enough time to edit based on the feedback. For example in a unit of inquiry on Natural disaster and preparedness the students peer assess their iMovie presentations.

10. References

10.1. References

10.2. (2016) (1st ed., pp. 1-2). Retrieved from https://sydney.edu.au/education_social_work/groupwork/docs/SelfPeerAssessment.pdf

10.3. (2016). Oureverydaylife.com. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://oureverydaylife.com/definition-authentic-assessment-useful-students-special-needs-6725.html

10.4. Cinnamon, C. (2015). Using Classroom Assessment to Improve Teaching - Christine Cinnamon.. Presentation, https://prezi.com/s8-ivtqvsn4i/using-classroom-assessment-to-improve-teaching/.

10.5. Concepts, L. (2013). High-Stakes Test Definition. The Glossary of Education Reform. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://edglossary.org/high-stakes-testing/

10.6. Diagnostic, Formative & Summative Assessments – What’s the difference?. (2012). Educational Technology Blog. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://thinkonline.smarttutor.com/diagnostic-formative-summative-assessments-whats-the-difference/

10.7. EDUC6040Fall10 - Authentic Assessment. (2016). Educ6040fall10.wikispaces.com. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from https://educ6040fall10.wikispaces.com/Authentic+Assessment

10.8. Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms. (2005) (1st ed.). Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/35661078.pdf

10.9. Garrison,, C. & Ehringhaus, PhD, M. (2016). Retrieved 17 September 2016, from https://www.amle.org/BrowsebyTopic/WhatsNew/WNDet/TabId/270/ArtMID/888/ArticleID/286/Formative-and-Summative-Assessments-in-the-Classroom.aspx

10.10. Plus, O. (2016). How Does High-Stakes Testing Benefits Students?. Teach-nology.com. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://www.teach-nology.com/litined/assessment/high_stakes/

10.11. Plus, O. (2016). The Pros and Cons of Assessing Students through Portfolios. Teach-nology.com. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://www.teach-nology.com/litined/assessment/alternative/portfolios/

10.12. Robinson, D. (2016). Types of assessment - definitions - Learning and Development - University of Exeter. Exeter.ac.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://www.exeter.ac.uk/staff/development/academic/resources/assessment/principles/types/

10.13. Sasser, D. (2016). Oureverydaylife.com. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://oureverydaylife.com/advantages-disadvantages-formative-assessment-28407.html

10.14. Scherba de Valenzuela, Ph.D., J. (2016). Defining Portfolio Assessment. Unm.edu. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/portfolio.html

10.15. What are Summative Assessments? Pros, Cons, Examples. (2016). Education.cu-portland.edu. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/teaching-strategies/summative-assessment-what-teachers-need-to-know/

10.16. What is Authentic Assessment? (Authentic Assessment Toolbox). (2016). Jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm