Indigenous Perspectives

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Indigenous Perspectives by Mind Map: Indigenous Perspectives

1. Learning Teach in the Primary School by Peter Hudson

1.1. CH 13

1.1.1. Understand and respect Aboriginal and Torre Straiit Islander people to promote reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians Ex. Indigenous symbolism, concept and use of numbers Ex. Fire stick farming

1.1.2. Classroom Strategies Indigenous resources selection Wall displays

2. History Geography and Civics - Teaching and Learning in the Primary Years by John Buchanan

2.1. Notes

2.1.1. It is easy to devise or choose an educational goal or outcomes, activities and assessment is referred to as cognitive alignment (Biggs,1996)

2.1.2. Vital to determine the students’ understandings at a given point in time. - Knowledge - Skill and Like

2.1.3. Important to determine where the students should be at the end of a certain period of time, then determine the best ways to help them progress from their current place to the desired one.

2.1.4. It is fundamental to choose or devise an outcome, and work from there by a process known as ‘backward mapping’ (Walker & Dimmock, 2005).’

2.1.5. Must determine how much prior experience and knowledge student bring to the topic or investigation.

2.1.6. Norm-referenced: students are measured according to how they achieve and can demonstrate a certain understanding or skill. Norm-referenced: assessment compares and ranks learners against each other. Criterion-based assessment: each student is aiming for a ‘personal goal’ in the chosen endeavour or field of knowledge. (competing against themselves rather than their peers)

2.1.7. Starting with an outcome is fundamental, as the means of getting there is vital.

2.1.8. Activities - The federation speed dating game (introduces students to some of the concerns of the various colonies) - Reverse referendum (Involve students individually and anonymously voting on issues. In addition to, developing, in groups, an Australian Electoral Commission)

2.1.9. Assessment is the most complex and most costly aspect of the ‘pedagogical contract’ between teachers and learners.

2.1.10. Gilbert (2011) states, assessment suffers from ‘bad press’. It seams to be a weapon of shame and punish students, teachers, school systems and nations that are seen to be ‘underperforming’.

2.1.11. ‘Assess’ derives from the latin expression ‘to sit beside’. Which strikes a more collaborative than adversarial image.

2.1.12. Some teaching approaches become favourable and overused, and others are avoided. This means some students won’t have the opportunity to learn or demonstrate their understandings, in ways that suit or extend them.

2.1.13. An assessment task should reveal what has been achieved and/or what needs to be achieved. This informs the learner about how they are progressing.

2.1.14. Not all assessment needs to be formal in nature

2.1.15. Number of thinking frameworks such as; - Bloom’s Taxonomy - De Bono’s Thinking Hats - Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (ALL outlined in Chapter 1)

2.1.16. Teachers act like; - Archaeologists - Historians - Detectives - Doctors - Psychiatrists in assessing Gathering evidence, interpreting a students cognitive, affective and behaviour regarding the topics at hand.

2.1.17. Essential to become familiar with some creative teaching approaches and ideas.

2.1.18. The world offers itself to your imagination. (Oliver, 1986, p. 14)

3. Aitsl

3.1. Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students (1.4)

3.1.1. community engagement symbolism in story and art print walk ways of learning

3.1.2. Learning style (through culture) Visual multi-lingual (incl. community elders) Narrative story telling

3.1.3. Seek professional advice and development counter stereotypes, misconceptions, generalisations KNOWLEDGE ABOUT INDIGENOUS CULTURES AND HISTORIES source and modify resources Show respect community engagement

3.1.4. learn local languages

3.1.5. Curriculum Content Local environment dreamtime stories Indigenous Science Ex. medicine , traditional classification systems Community input and prioritisation Local histories

3.1.6. Multi lingual express their knowledge in local traditional language and in SAE EAL/D - Build vocabulary Teaching style Cultural activities Community links Links to land Ex. culural units (sound, art, fire)

4. National Declaration on the Educational Goals for young Australians (2008)

4.1. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy (1989) long term goals

4.2. Involvement of aboriginal people in educational decision making

4.3. Quality of access to educational services

4.4. Equitable and appropriate educational outcomes

4.5. Commitment to action

4.5.1. Improving educational outcomes for Indigenous youth and disadvantaged young Australians, especially those form low socio-economic backgrounds.

4.5.2. development of partnerships between schools and Indigenous communities based on cross-cultural respect, is the focus of achieving highly effective schooling for Indigenous students.

4.6. Learning outcomes of Indigenous students improve to match other students

4.6.1. 1) Australian Schooling promotes equity and excellence schools build on local cultural knowledge and experience of Indigenous students as a foundation for learning and work in partnership with local communities on all aspects of the schooling process, including to promote high expectations for the learning outcomes of Indigenous students.

4.6.2. 2)all young Australians become successful learners, confident and creative individuals and active informed citizens understanding and acknowledging the value of Indigenous cultures and possess the knowledge, skills and understanding to contribute to and benefit from, reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians

5. National Indigenous Reform Agreement 'Closing the Gap' (2011)

5.1. year 12 attainment target

5.2. literacy and numeracy target

5.3. School attendance target

6. National Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander Education Strategy (2015)

6.1. Partnerships

6.2. Leadership, quality teaching, workforce development

6.3. Culture and identity

6.4. School and child readiness

6.5. Tradition points including pathways to post-school options

6.6. School attendance

6.7. Literacy and Numeracy

7. Hass

7.1. long and continuous strong connections with Country/Place and their economic, cultural, spiritual and aesthetic value of place, including the ideas of custodianship

7.1.1. examine the influence of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples on the environmental characteristics of Australian places, and diverse ways in which places are represented. experiences before, during and after European settlement, including the nature of contact with other peoples and their progress towards recognition and equality exploration of how groups express their particular identities and come t understand how group belonging influences perceptions of others. ethically consider the investigation, preservation and conservation of sites of significance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People.

7.2. Use of primary and secondary sources

8. Education

8.1. English

8.1.1. develop an awareness and application of and respect for Aboriginal and Torres Stait Islander literatures develop respectful, critical understandings of the social, historical and cultural contexts associated with different uses of language features and text structures including images and visual language.

8.2. Mathematics

8.3. Science

8.3.1. observation using the senses explore connections between representations of number and pattern and how they relate to aspects of counting and relationships of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture Investigate time, place, relationships and measurement concepts within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts making generalisations within specific contexts such as the use of food, natural materials, navigation and sustainability of the environment

8.3.2. prediction and hypothesis trial and error

8.4. ICT

8.4.1. identify the interconnectedness between technologies and Identity, People, Culture and Country Place.

8.4.2. explore, understand and evaluate how this intrinsic link guides Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in sustaining environments, histories, cultures and identities through creating appropriate and sustainable solutions.

8.5. Art

8.5.1. exploration of traditional and contemporary artworks by Australian and Torres Strait Islander Peoples provides insight into the way the relationships between People, Culture and Country for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Peoples can be conveyed through art (communities, identity)

9. organising ideas

9.1. Country/Place

9.1.1. two distinct Indigenous groups within them there is significant diversiy

9.1.2. maintain a special connection to and responsibility for Country/Place

9.1.3. have holistic belief systems and are spiritually and intellectually connected to the land, sea, sky and waterways

9.2. Culture

9.2.1. have many Language groups

9.2.2. ways of life are uniquely expressed through ways of being, knowing thinking and doing

9.2.3. live in Australia as first peoples of Country or Place and demonstrate resilience in responding to historic and contemporary impacts of colonisation

9.3. People

9.3.1. encompass a diversity of nations across Australia

9.3.2. family and kingship structures are strong and sophisticated

9.3.3. in the present and past are acknowledged locally, nationally and globally

10. Teaching

10.1. Learn and teach authentic unbiased Australian history

10.1.1. Ex. - Nature walk with Indigenous elder - bilingual tabled, dreamtime art thematic mapping of intangible property concepts -indigenous economics incl, trading routes, ideas, belief systems - Vincent Lingiari's stockman strike leading to indigenous workplace and land rights

10.2. Learning

10.2.1. inclusive of cultural capital

10.2.2. teaching Indigenous language, law culture, history

10.2.3. mainstream curriculum

10.2.4. Explicit teaching on Indigenous history as their is not much of a shared migrant Australian history

10.2.5. cultural environmental conservation practices

10.2.6. develop working relationship with local Indigenous comunity

11. Country/Place

11.1. diversity

11.2. people

11.2.1. strong family and kinship relationships

11.3. culture

11.3.1. contemporary aspects of Indigenous cultures and self-representation

11.3.2. Identity aspect

11.4. traditional knowledge

11.5. culturally safe community space in school

12. Curriculum

12.1. Indigenous students are able to see themselves, their identities and cultures reflected in the curriculum of each of the learning areas.

12.2. cross-curriculum priority is designed for all students to engage in reconciliation, respect and recognition of the worlds oldest culture.

12.2.1. Builds a students elf-esteem

12.2.2. allows them to fully participate in the curriculum

12.3. Embedding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Perspectives in schools (QLD)

12.3.1. Professional and personal accountabilities know and understand local Indigenous knowledges, perspectives, beliefs and perceptions. How and where to retrieve information, strategies to combat inappropriate beliefs and stereotypes

12.3.2. organisational environment Indigenous involvement in school organisation, educators aware of sensitive issues, creating an inclusive school environment, support their professional development (employees), recognition and support of intellectual property rights.

12.3.3. community Active school partnerships with Indigenous communities, protocols for communication and collaboration, events, curriculum planning,

12.3.4. pedagogy curriculum units are culturally appropriate and conducted to the local areas and histories and where possible. All learning styles are and backgrounds are recognised. in curriculum delivery. verbal and visual resources are reviewed for distortions and stereotypes, local indigenous stories and oral traditions are celebrated, home languages are valued.

13. Lecture

13.1. Incorporate the cross curriculum priorities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures, Sustainability, and Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia into teaching programs. Country/Place • OI.1: Australia has two distinct Indigenous groups, Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. • OI.2:AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunitiesmaintainaspecialconnectiontoand responsibility for Country/Place throughout all of Australia. •  OI.3: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have unique belief systems and are spiritually connected to the land, sea, sky and waterways. Culture •  OI.4:AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandersocietieshavemanyLanguageGroups. • OI.5: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ ways of life are uniquely expressed through ways of being, knowing, thinking and doing. • OI.6: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have lived in Australia for tens of thousands of years & experiences can be viewed through historical, social and political lenses. People • OI.7: The broader Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies encompass a diversity of nations across Australia. • OI.8: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have sophisticated family and kinship structures. • OI.9: Australia acknowledges the significant contributions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people locally and globally.

13.2. ‘While you stand there immobilised, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are not getting an education. So move. Get yourself educated about this space.’ – Tracy Bunda

13.3. Professor Tracey Bunda – 2013 SEAQ Conference

13.3.1. Tracey used the headings of Location, Interrogation, Information and Transformation to frame the first part of her presentation. In terms of Location, she asked the audience if they could locate themselves in Aboriginal locations. Can we name whose land we are living on? She talked in terms of the multiple identities of Aboriginal people and that location is the main identifying factor. Students should know where their school is placed and who the people were who originally lived there.

13.3.2. Finally we need to think about how we can transform ourselves, the curriculum and the systems that we operate under to develop a more informed, more respectful approach to histories and cultures.  She suggests starting with commonalities between cultural groups and then recognising the many different backgrounds of Aboriginal people because of different contact histories, historically different political ideas, and events enacted in different locations within Australia. One way is to set up a reconciliation plan for the school. (Reconciliation Australia –  Another way is to get Aboriginal people (locals and educators) to help write lesson plans.  There is a great need to track the teaching of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures within the curriculum of a school to ensure there is no excessive repetition.

13.4. Tracey talked about the necessity of ensuring that we use quality resources. She and the other indigenous educators made the following suggestions about resources: • Do not let children do dot paintings – for respect for the symbols used and because it is not a generic style used by all painters • Use materials developed by Aboriginal and islander writers where possible; local communities may have some resources they have developed • EducationQldandBrisbaneCatholicEducationhavelistsofregionalAboriginaleducatorsand EQ has an Indigenous Schooling Support Unit, and a resources centre at Inala • The Kuril Daghun unit at State Library of Qld also has materials and knowledgeable people available and links to indigenous knowledge centres around the state; State Library of Queensland • YugambehDreamingCentre( competency and indigenous engagement

13.5. In many ways, race is more important and the intersection must be confronted. Students need to understand that race is a social construction and leads to unconscious stereotypes. Social justice and Citizenship for indigenous people in this country depend on the first two above – knowledge of Aboriginal cultures and their histories, along with the history of treatment according to race. Based on these, a necessary conversation can perhaps be had about Sovereignty and land. Ethical practice starts with acknowledgement of our commonalities. What and how can we decide on these?

14. • ICT also feeds into civics and citizenship – the idea of digital citizenship is becoming particularly important for young people in their dealings with the online world • ICT and software can also support the notion of direct participation and contribution • Mind mapping and google earth sound examples of using ICT in HASS

14.1. • ICT also feeds into civics and citizenship – the idea of digital citizenship is becoming particularly important for young people in their dealings with the online world • ICT and software can also support the notion of direct participation and contribution • Mind mapping and google earth sound examples of using ICT in HASS

14.2. • Useful sources for using ICT in HASS include: Web 2.0… Social bookmarking sites i.e. Pinterest… Wikis i.e. Wikipedia… Blogs… software i.e. educational apps… simulation games (model complex quantitative relationships in a lifelike context so that students can see how changes to one part of a system can lead to changes in another part) i.e. Minecraft… electronic portfolios and web quests

14.3. • Distribution of professional development and support materials is becoming one of the most valuable assets provided by ICT • Netiquette – guideline for appropriate practice when using the internet – dissuades cyberbullying and encourages students to think before they post • ICT provides HASS with a dual opportunity – HASS a context where ICT has a valuable role, but is also a key context for addressing the social impact of technology.

15. Teaching Humanities and Social Sciences by Rob Gilbert and Brian Hoepper

15.1. CH 8

15.1.1. Focuses on opportunities for studying HASS provided by the rapid growth of ICT – relates these opportunities to the idea of connectives (model of learning providing theoretical context for thinking about ICT & education)

15.1.2. • Reviews wealth of practices & resources made possible by ICT & issues surrounding appropriate use of them. • ICT major feature of contemporary education • One belief – ICT increases the motivation of children to learn providing unprecedented opportunities for engaging students

15.1.3. • Internet provides relationships with inanimate objects and real or virtual people – young people are intensively engaged in this world • Studies show that 94% of young Australians aged 6-15 play computer games (brand, 2012) and Australian children spend more time on the internet than the international average (green et al., 2011)

15.1.4. • In a connectives approach students learn how to use technology to navigate their futures • Through inquiry, creation and communication, ICT can enable, empower and enhance learning • Inquiry through the internet offers valuable resources for Indigenous perspectives – it enables students to access, create and communicate information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively at school, and in their lives beyond school

15.1.5. • Internet major resource for schools and students – interactivity and connectedness through simulation, communication and collaboration most valuable • Growth of ICT having profound effects on social political and economic activity – can improve quality of life

15.1.6. • Frequent computer use at home has a positive effect on educational performance • Technology connects people – it helps construct, organize and share knowledge – this provides new learning opportunities beyond the class. • Underlying principle of connectivism is that learning occurs socially, a view which has its roots in social constructivism

15.1.7. • Siemens (2004) identifies principles of connectivism as follows – learning and knowledge rest in diversity of opinions… learning is a process of connecting information sources… learning may reside in non-human appliances… capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known… nurturing and maintain connections is needed to facilitate continual learning… ability to see connections is a core skill… currency is the intent of all connectivist learning activities… the meaning of information is seen through the critical lens of a shifting reality…

15.1.8. • ICT one of the general capabilities – concerned with not only using technology but the evaluation and critique of it • Connectivism implies that in order to learn one must identify utilize and build a network • The internet and Web 2.0 (blogs, wikis, social networking sites etc.) provide the means for such connections to be made

15.2. CH 15 Integrating the curriculum by Kathleen Gordon

15.2.1. SNAPSHOT 2: - Cara ‘teaching a one teacher school with 18 students between Year 2 and 6’ (rural AU) - Found that there were substantial matches within history; o Investigating the experience o Stories o Contributions of people in local community o Sequencing historical events o Exclaiming significant local sites o Developments o Exploring change, continuity o Creating narratives to communicate findings The SNAPSHOTS illustrate diversity found in primary classrooms and suggest that teachers have different experiences of and approaches to integrating curriculum. SNAPSHOT 1: - Teachers Rhys, Li, Jacqui and Ada teach year 6. - Worked together with the head of curriculum of their school. - They state that given the small time allocation given to civics and citizenship, economic, business. ‘They have been discussing the possibility of integrating these subjects with each other or with other subjects.’

15.2.2. Writers o Barton and Smith,2000 o Hamston and Murdoch, 1996 o Loepp, 1999 o Ward, 1996 Have all proposed that an integrated curriculum: - Makes more sense to children, who don’t perceive knowledge in a fragmented or compartmentalised manner. - Reduces the pressure created by rigid timetables - Assists students and teachers to develop more efficient means of gathering, organising and processing information - Provides genuine, rich, real world contexts for learning and helps to focus on big ideas

15.2.3. The chapter described practical approaches to integrate teaching and learning in social sciences and humanities within a primary school context.

15.2.4. CURRICULUM INTERGRATION Can be described as an approach to teaching and learning that connects; - Knowledge - Understandings - Skills From within or across subject areas in meaningful ways.

15.2.5. The chapter states that teachers become more aware of the scope of the curriculum integration and identify ways they could use it to enhance their teaching practices.

15.2.6. WHY INTERGRATE? It is essential as by embracing integrative approaches to planning and teaching allows for flexibility and supports a holistic view of learning.

15.2.7. The BIG picture in AU primary schools - 1960’s change from separate subjects in primary school (History, geography and Civics) which integrated into social sciences (Marsh,2004) - 1990’s first attempt of national curriculum, reorganising the content and skills combined (Studies of Society and Environment SOSE) - 2016 disciplines, a new Australian Curriculum represents the field as the subjects (History, Geography, Civics and Citizenship, Economics and Business)

15.2.8. Radical integration by education authorities in Australia are worthy to mention because their contribution to thinking and debate about curriculum integration. New Basics: Developed trialled in QLD 1999 -2003. (What to teach, how kids show it and Productive pedagogies how it is taught) Fogarty - Webbed approach; teachers choose a topic, theme, issue or big idea to intergrate subject matter. - Threaded and integrated approaches; interdisciplinary in nature. - Skill of prediction could be the thread that binds together math (estimation), geography (forecast), science (hypothesis) and English (anticipation in narratives) This approach blends disciplines by finding overlapping skills and concepts in each.

15.2.9. THEMES - Made teaching and learning cohesive - They failed to develop important concepts, understandings and processes central to learning areas. - Thematic units were shallow and the links between subject areas were tenuous (Hamston and Murdoch, 1996; Jacobs, 1989; Ward, 1996) - Using an inquiry approach in social education (better)

15.2.10. Integration across disciplines is the approach, which simply requires teachers to arrange units, topics or skills in more than one subject area so that similar or related material is taught concurrently.

15.2.11. These snapshots illustrate some of the ways to integrate curriculum in the classroom

15.2.12. Radical integration by education authorities in Australia are worthy to mention because their contribution to thinking and debate about curriculum integration. New Basics: Developed trialled in QLD 1999 -2003. (What to teach, how kids show it and Productive pedagogies how it is taught)

15.2.13. ‘When knowledge and skills are connected within one subject, integration is happening’ - Fogarty While students remain distinct, student learning may be enhanced by the integration of common skills.

15.3. Another radicalising of the curriculum was taking place in Tasmania. - The curriculum was integrated - Doing away from disciplines and replacing them with inquiry- based approach with a focus on pedagogy. Five organisers of the Essential Learning Frameworks were: 1. Thinking 2. Communicating 3. Personal futures 4. Social responsibility 5. World futures Although both failed to be adopted widely.

15.4. CH 16 Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander Histories and Cultures

15.4.1. The Melbourne declaration includes the goal that young Australians will: ‘understand and acknowledge the value of indigenous cultures and possess the knowledge, skills and understanding to contribute to, and benefit from, reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians Identity is central to this priority and is intrinsically linked to living • Genuine incorporation of Indigenous perspectives requires a comprehensive approach • The Department of Education and Training Queensland (2011) has identified three ways in which Indigenous perspectives can be incorporated – 1. Selective inclusion – focuses on learning about Indigenous cultural perspectives and personal histories from Indigenous peoples. 2. Critical inclusion – unpacking historically developed responses to Indigenous peoples, and prompting a sense of common purpose aimed at establishing justice and rights within a democratic society. 3. Embedded inclusion – encompasses the first two approaches but extends more deeply across all teaching and learning, so that Indigenous perspectives become a normal and automatic part of the curriculum, rather than a periodic addition.

15.4.2. In the words of the Australian Curriculum, the aim is to deepen students’ knowledge of Indigenous cultures as ‘this knowledge and understanding will enrich their ability to participate positively in the ongoing development of Australia. ACARA has developed a conceptual framework based on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ sense of Identity, which is approached through the interconnected aspects of Country/Place, People and Culture, and a series of Organising Ideas reflecting essential knowledge, understanding and skills for each aspect

15.4.3. Incorporating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives as a priority in HASS is not achieved merely by including a series of relevant content topics, we need to acknowledge that schools are social contexts in which the reconciliation process can be promoted and community relations improved, teaching in all curriculum areas should be part of this process **Working with local communities – one of the organizing ideas in the conceptual framework of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures cross-curriculum priority is that ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ ways of life are uniquely expressed through ways of being, knowing, thinking and doing Considerable attention given to ensuring a fair representation of Indigenous perspectives in the curriculum. Conceptual framework for the cross-curriculum priority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures is a good example of attempts to ensure that Indigenous perspectives are incorporated in teaching

15.4.4. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and cultures as a cross-curriculum priority – the explanation of this priority notes that ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are strong, rich and diverse’, implying the need to appreciate the contemporary experiences of Indigenous people, and not just their past The inclusion of Indigenous perspectives within the curriculum should be celebrated, this will only result in socially just, meaningful recognition and reconciliation if it is based on ongoing, respectful and authentic consultation with Indigenous peoples Considerable effort needs to be made to work with Indigenous communities

15.4.5. The diversity of Indigenous cultures means that a generalized approach is likely to neglect the importance of local languages, kinship groups and relation to country • **Social justice and anti-racism in the curriculum • Racism can become embedded in the curriculum as part of the ‘hidden curriculum’ Young Australians are open to the inclusion of Indigenous perspectives within the curriculum. Yet celebration, while important, is not enough to address the many social disadvantages experienced by Indigenous people in Australian society. It is also important that students understand how ‘race’ is socially constructed in people’s attitudes and the practices of social and economic institutions, and how entrenched inequalities need special provision for disadvantaged groups if their situation is to be improved. **Indigenous perspectives and history • The curriculum history states that it values Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures and celebrates them as part of the shared history belonging to all Australians. • **Indigenous perspectives and geography • The curriculum geography identifies seven concepts underlying a geographical way of investigating and understanding the world: place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability, scale and change • The geography curriculum also enables students to learn that there are different ways of thinking about and interacting with the environment

15.4.6. A full and unbiased understanding of these unique cultures can only be gained through genuine contact with Indigenous people Ex. One strategy is to participate in Yarning Circles

16. Teaching the Social Sciences and Humanities in an Australian Curriculum - Colin Marsh and Catherine Hart

16.1. Notes

16.1.1. History is relevant because it relates directly to knowledge and understanding of our national character, our civil responsibility and sense of personal and community identity. History is not just a school subject. History is a lifetime study, which starts at home and in the classroom - T.Taylor 2005

16.1.2. Teaching and learning of history in schools is a highly and very publicly debated issue

16.1.3. Debate on what should be taught, why, how, and by whom. We are currently in the midst of history crisis founded on a perceived loss of national identity.

16.1.4. Polititians blame schools, critisising what school students appear to know about history and discussing what they think students ought to know (taylor & Young 2003)

16.1.5. History is not a fixed body of knowledge. It is subject to differing vews, to moderation in the light of new discoveries and the changing perspectives of present’ (NSW Department of Education 1981)

16.1.6. Some view history as a study of the past, while others view it in a more holistic temporal sense. A study of the continuities and discontinuities between the past, present and future (Bateman & Harris 2007)

16.1.7. The shape of the thinkable future depends on how the past is portrayed and on how its relations to the present are depicted.

16.1.8. The conceptions of history have changed over time and these changes have significant implications for the school history curriculum.

16.1.9. 3 major conceptions of history are; - grand narrative history - new history - critical approaches to history

16.1.10. Students were encouraged to enter the interpretive fray and develop their own, evidenced historical perspectives.

16.1.11. History is no longer an investigation of the past but a dialoged between the past and present.

16.1.12. The rise of Aboriginal studies in SOS classrooms, in which issues such as Australia Day, which is traditionally associated with the arrival of the Frst Fleet, was excamined from an Indigenous Australian perspective as Invasion Day. Became known as new history.

17. Problems with Indigenous studies resources

17.1. Outdated and does not reflect present culture

17.2. does not acknowledge diversity of Indigenous Australians

17.3. Limited focus on facts

17.4. Based on stereotypes and misconceptions, negativity biased

17.5. Learning in multi aged settings