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Macromolecules by Mind Map: Macromolecules

1. Chemical Reactions

1.1. Dehydration Synthesis / Condensation

1.1.1. Uses -OH and -H (or H from -OH) to make bond between monomers, plus molecule of water

1.2. Hydrolysis

1.2.1. "Water Breaking"

1.2.2. Inserts water between monomers

1.2.3. Opposite of condensation reaction

1.2.4. Used in digestion to break down macromolecules into monomers; allows for monomers to be absorbed into cells

2. Types

2.1. Lipids

2.1.1. Types Triacylglycerol Glycerol 3 Fatty acids Uses Glycerol + Fatty acids make ester bonds (type of covalent bonds) Phospholipids Used for the cell membrane (2 layers thick) Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate Cholesterol Used in cell membranes to keep fluidity Used as the basis of all steroids 4-ring structure Waxes Waterproofing of plants' leaves Pigments Used to absorb light

2.1.2. General Characteristics Hydrophobic Made mostly of C-H bonds

2.2. Carbohydrates

2.2.1. General characteristics C:H:O in 1:2:1 ratio Hydrophilic Carbonyl and carboxyl groups

2.2.2. Types Monosaccharides Triose (3 carbons) Pentose (5 carbons) Hexose (6 carbons) General information Disaccharides Lactose Maltose Sucrose Polysaccharides Glycogen Cellulose Chitin Starch Glycosidic Linkages Mnemonic If you're MONOgamous (monosaccharide) you will get a Good Girl Friend (or be a good girl friend) (GGF = Glucose, Galactose, Fructose) You will DIE (di-saccharide) if you Like My Status (LMS = Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose) Polly (polysaccharide) Gets Crappy Crackers Sometimes (Poly = Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin, Starch)

2.3. Proteins

2.3.1. General Characteristics Monomers Amino acids: (alpha) carbon with carboxylic acid, hydrogen, amino group, and "R" group Peptide bonds form when H from amino and OH from carboxylic acid undergo condensation reaction R Groups: Make the characteristic of the amino acid Levels of Organization Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Chaperonins: Help with folding by separating polypeptide from external environment during protein folding

2.3.2. Functions Structural: used for support Keratin Collagen Hormones: Proteins used for sending chemical messages throughout the body (some hormones are also steroid-based) Insulin Immunity: The immune system uses antibodies to defend against invaders Transport: Moving materials into and out of cells along with carrying molecules throughout the blood stream Membrane transporters: Pumps, channels etc in the cell membrane to allow materials into and out of cells Hemoglobin: delivers oxygen throughout the body in mammals Movement Actin and myosin are used in muscles to contract Motor proteins: Move cilia and flagella to allow cells to move Enzymes: Proteins that speed up chemical reactions End in -ase Amylase: Breaks down amylose into glucose molecules Receptors: Cell membrane proteins that are shaped to identify specific chemicals and cause a change within the cell Nerve cell receptors detect neurotransmitters and hormones Storage: large proteins for storing excess amino acids Albumin in eggs is used for supplying amino acids to a baby chick until it hatches Mnemonics: "HITS ME Really Stinks"

2.3.3. Studying Proteins X-ray crystallography NMR Spec: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Bioinformatics

2.4. Nucleic Acids

2.4.1. Nucleotides Phosphate group 5-carbon sugar Nitrogenous base Pyrimidine (single ring) Purine (double ring) Arrangement:

2.4.2. Polymerization Phosphodiester bonds: Bonds between the 3' hydroxyl of a nucleotide with a 5' phosphate of an adjacent nucleotide to produce the "backbone" of the nucleic acid" Hydrogen bonds: Form between different strands of nucleic acid backbones at the nitrogenous base (reason for base pairing) Cytosine and Guanine share three hydrogen bonds (DNA and RNA) Adenine and Thymine share two hydrogen bonds (DNA only) Adenine and Uracil share two hydrogen bonds (RNA only)

2.4.3. Types and Function DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid Used for storing genetic information Comprised of two strands that run in opposite directions (antiparallel) RNA: Ribonucleic acid Used for helping to "decode" the DNA into a message and produce a protein Comprised of a single strand, but can sometimes fold back on itself to make short double stranded segments ATP: Adenosine triphosphate An immediate-use energy molecule that powers the cell's activities; found in all organisms and therefore likely made by the LUCA (last universal common ancestor) Made of an adenine (nitrogenous base), ribose, and 3 phosphate groups

3. Chemistry

3.1. Carbon

3.1.1. 6 p, 6 n, 6 e

3.1.2. 4 valence electrons Can form 4 covalent bonds Forms nonpolar bonds with hydrogen Forms polar bonds with oxygen, nitrogen

3.1.3. "Backbone" of all organic molecules Strongest bonds

3.2. Elements

3.2.1. Mostly C, H, O, and N

3.2.2. Trace amounts of P, K, Na, Mg, Ca

3.3. Bonds

3.3.1. Covalent Polar Unequal sharing of electrons Will allow formation of hydrogen bonds Nonpolar Equal sharing of electrons Will exclude hydrogen bonds Especially between C and H Main component of macromolecules

3.3.2. Ionic Between + and - ions Water will cause dissociation of ions Important in protein tertiary structure

3.3.3. Hydrogen Between slightly + and slightly - of adjacent molecules (not within a molecule!)

3.4. Functional Groups

4. Basic Vocabulary

4.1. Monomer: A small piece that is assembled to make up a macromolecule

4.2. Polymer: Many monomers attached together

4.3. "Macro" = Big

4.4. Hydrophobic: Not interacting with water

4.5. Hydrophilic: Interacting with water