Chapter 4: Images

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Chapter 4: Images by Mind Map: Chapter 4: Images

1. 3-D drawing and rendering

1.1. 3-D animation tools

1.2. Features of a 3-D application

1.3. 3-D drawing

1.3.1. 3-D animation, drawing, and rendering tools include:

1.3.1.1. Daz3D

1.3.1.2. Form*Z

1.3.1.3. NewTek′s Lightwave

1.3.1.4. Autodesk’s Maya

1.3.1.5. Trimble’s SketchUp

1.3.2. Features of a 3-D application

1.3.2.1. Modeling - Placing all the elements into 3-D space.

1.3.2.2. Extrusion - The shape of a plane surface extends some distance.

1.3.2.3. Lathing - A profile of the shape is rotated around a defined axis.

1.4. Rendering

1.4.1. Rendering - Use of intricate algorithms to apply user-specified effects

1.4.2. Takes many hours for a single image

2. Texture

2.1. What is Texture?

2.1.1. refers to the properties held and sensations caused by the external surface of objects received through the sense of touch.

2.1.2. the feel of a surface or a fabric; "the wall had a smooth texture

3. Vector Graphics

3.1. Advantages

3.1.1. Vector images use less memory space.

3.1.2. For the Web, pages that use vector graphics in plug-ins download faster and, when used for animation, draw faster than bitmaps.

3.1.3. Vector objects are easily scalable without loss of resolution or image quality.

3.1.4. Easy to edit the drawings as each object is independent of the other.

3.2. Disadvantages

3.2.1. Objects/drawings cannot have texture.

3.2.2. cannot be used for photorealistic images.

4. Vector-drawn images

4.1. How vector-drawn images work

4.1.1. A vector is a line that is described by the location of its two endpoints.

4.1.2. Vector drawing makes use of Cartesian coordinates.

4.1.3. Cartesian coordinates are numbers that describe a point in two- or three-dimensional space as the intersection of the X, Y, and Z axes.

5. Vector Drawing

5.1. Vector-drawn graphics

5.1.1. Applications of vector-drawn object

5.1.2. How vector-drawn images work

5.1.3. Vector-drawn images versus bitmaps

5.2. Vector-drawn images are used in the following areas:

5.2.1. Computer-aided design (CAD) programs needed by architects and engineers

5.2.2. Graphic artists designing for the print media

5.2.3. 3-D animation programs – changes of position, rotation, and shading of light

5.2.4. Applications requiring drawing of graphic shapes

6. Bitmap Software

6.1. The industry-standard programs for bitmap painting and editing are:

6.1.1. Adobe’s Photoshop and Illustrator

6.1.2. Corel’s Painter and CorelDraw

7. Bitmap Sources

7.1. Where do bitmaps come from?

7.1.1. Capture a bitmap using a camera.

7.1.2. Capture a bitmap from a photo or other artwork using a scanner to digitize the image.

7.1.3. Make a bitmap from scratch with a paint or drawing program

7.1.4. Grab a bitmap from an active computer screen with a screen capture program, then paste it into a paint program or your applications.

7.1.5. Get from the suppliers of clip arts, and from photo-graph suppliers.

7.1.6. Libraries of clip art are available online and images are downloadable (usually for a fee)

7.1.7. Download from an image from website – be aware of who owns the copyright to the image you wish to use and what is required to reproduce the image legally

7.2. Legal rights protecting use of images from clip art galleries fall into three basic groupings:

7.2.1. Public domain images were either never protected by a copyright or their copyright has ended (freely used without obtain permission/license fee)

7.2.2. Royalty-free images are purchased and then used without paying addition license fees

7.2.3. Right-managed images require you negotiate with the right holder regarding terms for using the image and how much you will pay for that use

8. Bitmaps Graphics

8.1. Advantages

8.1.1. Can have different textures on the drawings; detailed and comprehensive.

8.2. Disadvantages

8.2.1. Large file size

8.2.2. Not easy to make modification to objects/drawings

8.2.3. Resizing a bitmapped image requires either duplicating pixels.

8.2.4. Graphics become "blocky" when the size is increased.

9. Rendering

9.1. Rendering - Use of intricate algorithms to apply user-specified effects

9.2. Takes many hours for a single image

10. Making Still Images

10.1. Still images may be the most important element of a multimedia project.

10.2. Still images may be small or large, or even full screen. They may be colored, placed at random on the screen, evenly geometric, or oddly shaped.

10.3. Still images are generated in two ways:

10.3.1. Bitmaps (raster)

10.3.2. Vector-drawn graphics

10.4. Bitmaps editors are called painting program, vector editors are called drawing program.

10.5. Bitmaps

10.5.1. Bitmap is derived from the words “bit,” which means the simplest element in digital world, an electronic digit that is either on or off, black or white, or true (1) or false (0).

10.5.2. A bitmap is a simple matrix of the tiny dots that form an image and are displayed on a screen or printed.

10.6. Bitmaps are an image format suited for creation of:

10.6.1. Photo-realistic images

10.6.2. Complex drawings requiring fine detail

10.7. Image editing programs enable the user to:

10.7.1. Enhance and make composite images

10.7.2. Alter and distort images

10.7.3. Add and delete elements

10.7.4. Morph (manipulate still images to create animated transformations), allow to smoothly blend two images so that one image seems to melt into the next

10.8. Users can scan images from conventional sources and make necessary alterations and manipulations.

11. Bitmaps Graphics

11.1. Advantages

11.1.1. Can have different textures on the drawings; detailed and comprehensive.

11.2. Disadvantages

11.2.1. Large file size

11.2.2. Not easy to make modification to objects/drawings

11.2.3. Resizing a bitmapped image requires either duplicating pixels.

11.2.4. Graphics become "blocky" when the size is increased.

12. Bitmap Sources

12.1. Where do bitmaps come from?

12.1.1. Capture a bitmap using a camera.

12.1.2. Capture a bitmap from a photo or other artwork using a scanner to digitize the image.

12.1.3. Make a bitmap from scratch with a paint or drawing program

12.1.4. Grab a bitmap from an active computer screen with a screen capture program, then paste it into a paint program or your applications.

12.1.5. Get from the suppliers of clip arts, and from photo-graph suppliers.

12.1.6. Libraries of clip art are available online and images are downloadable (usually for a fee)

12.1.7. Download from an image from website – be aware of who owns the copyright to the image you wish to use and what is required to reproduce the image legally

12.2. Legal rights protecting use of images from clip art galleries fall into three basic groupings:

12.2.1. Public domain images were either never protected by a copyright or their copyright has ended (freely used without obtain permission/license fee)

12.2.2. Royalty-free images are purchased and then used without paying addition license fees

12.2.3. Right-managed images require you negotiate with the right holder regarding terms for using the image and how much you will pay for that use

13. Bitmap Software

13.1. The industry-standard programs for bitmap painting and editing are:

13.1.1. Adobe’s Photoshop and Illustrator

13.1.2. Corel’s Painter and CorelDraw

14. Vector Drawing

14.1. Vector-drawn graphics

14.1.1. Applications of vector-drawn object

14.1.2. How vector-drawn images work

14.1.3. Vector-drawn images versus bitmaps

14.2. Vector-drawn images are used in the following areas:

14.2.1. Computer-aided design (CAD) programs needed by architects and engineers

14.2.2. Graphic artists designing for the print media

14.2.3. 3-D animation programs – changes of position, rotation, and shading of light

14.2.4. Applications requiring drawing of graphic shapes

15. Vector-drawn images

15.1. How vector-drawn images work

15.1.1. A vector is a line that is described by the location of its two endpoints.

15.1.2. Vector drawing makes use of Cartesian coordinates.

15.1.3. Cartesian coordinates are numbers that describe a point in two- or three-dimensional space as the intersection of the X, Y, and Z axes.

16. Vector Graphics

16.1. Advantages

16.1.1. Vector images use less memory space.

16.1.2. For the Web, pages that use vector graphics in plug-ins download faster and, when used for animation, draw faster than bitmaps.

16.1.3. Vector objects are easily scalable without loss of resolution or image quality.

16.1.4. Easy to edit the drawings as each object is independent of the other.

16.2. Disadvantages

16.2.1. Objects/drawings cannot have texture.

16.2.2. cannot be used for photorealistic images.

17. Texture

17.1. What is Texture?

17.1.1. refers to the properties held and sensations caused by the external surface of objects received through the sense of touch.

17.1.2. the feel of a surface or a fabric; "the wall had a smooth texture

18. 3-D drawing and rendering

18.1. 3-D animation tools

18.2. Features of a 3-D application

18.3. 3-D drawing

18.3.1. 3-D animation, drawing, and rendering tools include:

18.3.1.1. Daz3D

18.3.1.2. Form*Z

18.3.1.3. NewTek′s Lightwave

18.3.1.4. Autodesk’s Maya

18.3.1.5. Trimble’s SketchUp

18.3.2. Features of a 3-D application

18.3.2.1. Modeling - Placing all the elements into 3-D space.

18.3.2.2. Extrusion - The shape of a plane surface extends some distance.

18.3.2.3. Lathing - A profile of the shape is rotated around a defined axis.

19. Colors and Palettes in Multimedia

19.1. Understanding natural light and color models

19.1.1. Additive color

19.1.2. Subtractive color

19.2. Additive color

19.2.1. In the additive color method, a color is created by combining colored light sources in three primary colors - red, green, and blue (RGB).

19.2.2. TV and computer monitors use this method.

19.3. Subtractive color

19.3.1. In the subtractive color method, color is created by combining colored media such as paints or ink.

19.3.2. The colored media absorb (or subtract) some parts of the color spectrum of light and reflect the others back to the eye.

19.3.3. Subtractive color is the process used to create color in printing.

19.3.4. The printed page consists of tiny halftone dots of three primary colors: cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY).

19.4. Dithering

19.4.1. Usually, digitised images are 24 bit, 16 million colour depth.

19.4.2. If display system is limited to less than 16 million colours, the image must be transformed for display in the lesser colour environment (colour dithering).

19.4.3. Dithering is a process whereby the color value of each pixel is changed to the closest matching color value in the target palette.

19.4.4. This is done using a mathematical algorithm.

20. Image File Types Used in Multimedia

20.1. Macintosh formats

20.1.1. On the Macintosh, the most commonly used format is PICT.

20.1.2. PICT is a versatile format developed by Apple.

20.2. Windows formats

20.2.1. The most commonly used image file format on Windows is DIB, also known as BMP.

20.2.1.1. DIB stands for device-independent bitmaps.

20.3. Cross-platform formats

20.3.1. JPEG, GIF, and PNG – Most commonly used format on the Web

20.3.1.1. JPEG(Joint Photographic Expert Group )

20.3.1.1.1. Commonly used standard method of compression for photographic images.

20.3.1.1.2. Support a maximum of 16.7 million colors

20.3.1.1.3. Lossy compression technique: Losses some image information.

20.3.1.1.4. Degradation of image possible with repeated editing and saving

20.3.1.1.5. No transparency

20.3.1.1.6. No animation

20.3.1.2. GIF

20.3.1.2.1. 8-bit per pixel, bitmap image format commonly used by the world wide web.

20.3.1.2.2. Uses lossless compression technique.

20.3.1.2.3. Image can have transparent portion.

20.3.1.2.4. Animation possible.

20.3.1.3. PNG (Portable Network Graphic )

20.3.1.3.1. Supports more than 16.7 million colors.

20.3.1.3.2. Use Lossless Compression Technique

20.3.1.3.3. Image can have transparent portion

20.3.1.3.4. No animation

20.4. Image File Compression

20.4.1. lossless compression

20.4.1.1. every single bit of data that was originally in the file remains after the file is uncompressed. All of the information is completely restored

20.4.2. Lossy compression

20.4.2.1. reduces a file by permanently eliminating certain information, especially redundant information.