ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

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ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR by Mind Map: ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

1. CHAPTER 7-BASICS OF MOTIVATION

1.1. MOTIVATION

1.1.1. INTENSITY: How much effort a person puts forth to meet a goal

1.1.2. DIRECTION: Efforts are channeled toward organization goals

1.1.3. PERSISTENCE: How long a person maintains effort toward a goal

1.2. MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY

1.3. THEORY X AND THEORY Y

1.4. TWO FACTOR THEORY

1.5. MAC CLELLAND THEORY OF NEED

1.6. SELF DETERMINATION THEORY

1.7. SELF EFFICACY THEORY

1.7.1. 6 CHOICES

1.8. EQUITY THEORY

1.9. EXPECTANCY THEORY

2. CHAPTER 8-APPLIED MOTIVATION

2.1. JOB CHARACTERISTIC MODEL (JCM)

2.1.1. Skill variety

2.1.1.1. Numbers of different skill and talents

2.1.1.2. Eg: Garage owner operator vs bodyshop worker

2.1.2. Task identity

2.1.2.1. Completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work

2.1.2.2. Eg: Carbinet maker vs lathe operator

2.1.3. Task significance

2.1.3.1. Jobs impact lives of others

2.1.3.2. Eg: Nurse vs floor sweeper

2.1.4. Autonomy

2.1.4.1. Eg: Sales manager vs sales rep

2.1.4.2. Freedom and independence of jobs

2.1.5. Feedback

2.1.5.1. Eg: Ipad tester and inspector vs Ipad components assembler

2.2. HOW CAN JOB BE REDESIGNED

2.2.1. Job rotation

2.2.1.1. Shifting from one task to another

2.2.1.2. Eg: Accountant to sales

2.2.2. Direction and clear information about worker's performance

2.2.3. Job enrichment

2.2.3.1. Worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of work

2.2.3.1.1. Guidelines for enriching a job

2.2.4. Alternative work arrangements

2.2.4.1. Flextime: Discretion on when to start & to leave

2.2.4.2. Job sharing: 2 workers split a single traditional 40-hour-a-week job among them

2.2.4.3. Telecommuting: Working from a virtual office

2.3. PAYMENT

2.3.1. What to pay

2.3.1.1. Internal equity: within org

2.3.1.2. External equity: compare to industry

2.3.2. How to pay

2.3.2.1. Piece-rate pay plan: tra luong theo san pham

2.3.2.2. Merit pay plan: tra luong theo cong trang

2.3.2.3. Bonuses: tien thuong

2.3.2.4. Skilled-based pay: tra luong theo ky nang

2.3.2.5. Profit-sharing pay: ke hoach chia se loi nhuan

2.3.2.6. Gainsharing: ke hoach chia se tien lai

2.4. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT

2.4.1. Participative management

2.4.1.1. Subordinates share decision-making power with superiors

2.4.2. Representative participation

2.4.2.1. small groups of employees participate in decisions affecting personnel: works councils & board membership

2.5. CHAPTER 11-KEY GROUP CONCEPTS

2.5.1. GROUPS: Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives

2.5.1.1. Untitled

2.5.1.2. Untitled

2.5.2. FIVE STAGE MODEL

2.5.3. EQUILIBRIUM FOR TEMPORARY GROUPS

2.5.4. GROUP PROPERTIES

2.5.4.1. ROLE

2.5.4.2. NORM

2.5.4.3. STATUS

2.5.4.4. SIZE

2.5.4.5. COHESIVENESS

2.5.4.6. DIVERSITY

2.5.5. GROUP THINK AND GROUP SHIFT

2.5.6. GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUE

2.6. BENEFITS TO MOTIVATE

2.6.1. Extrinsic rewards

2.6.2. Intrinsic rewards

2.7. Employee-stock ownership plan (ESOP): ke hoach so huu co phieu

3. CHAPTER 9-COMMUNICATIONS

3.1. COMMUNICATION PROCESS

3.2. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION

3.2.1. Formal: professional and authority chain

3.2.2. Informal: personal and social

3.3. DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION

3.3.1. Upward: lower to higher level

3.3.2. Downward: higher level to lower level

3.3.3. Lateral: same level

3.4. SMALL GROUP NETWORKS

3.4.1. Untitled

3.4.2. Grapevine: word-of-mouth, important but ambiguous situation

3.4.2.1. Untitled

3.5. MODES OF COMMUNICATION

3.5.1. Oral

3.5.1.1. Receiver's preference

3.5.1.2. Pace of work environment

3.5.1.3. Speaking ability

3.5.2. Written

3.5.2.1. Provides a tangible and verifiable record that can be stored for an indefinite period of time

3.5.2.2. Message is physically available for later reference

3.5.2.3. Messages are more likely to be well thought-out, logical, and clear

3.5.2.4. grammar mistakes can be problematic

3.5.3. Nonverbal

3.6. PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION

3.6.1. Automatic processing: superficial

3.6.2. Controlled processing: detail, facts and figure

3.7. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

3.7.1. Filtering

3.7.2. Selective perception

3.7.3. Information overload

3.7.4. Emotions

3.7.5. Language

3.7.6. Silence

3.7.7. Communication apprehension

3.7.8. Lying

4. CHAPTER 10-GROUPS TO TEAMS

4.1. GROUPS

4.1.1. Share information and make decision

4.2. TEAMS

4.2.1. Positive synergy through coordinated effort

4.3. 4 TYPES OF TEAMS

4.3.1. Problem-solving

4.3.1.1. Same department

4.3.1.2. Improve quality, environment, efficiency

4.3.1.3. rarely to implement suggestion

4.3.2. Self-managed

4.3.2.1. 10-15 employees

4.3.2.2. takes on supervisory responsibilities

4.3.2.3. select and evaluate members

4.3.3. Cross-functional

4.3.3.1. same level, diverse area

4.3.3.2. exchange information

4.3.3.3. solve problems

4.3.3.4. complex projects

4.3.3.5. time consuming, complexity and diversity

4.3.4. Virtual team

4.3.4.1. less social rapport

4.3.4.2. dispersed team together

4.4. MULTITEAM SYSTEMS

4.4.1. 2 or more interdependent teams

4.5. CREATING EFFECTIVE TEAMS

4.5.1. Untitled

4.6. TEAM COMPOSITION AND SUCCESS

4.6.1. Abilities of members: technical expertise, problem-solving, interpersonal

4.6.2. Personalities of members: conscientiousness, open-minded

4.6.3. Allocation of roles

4.6.4. Diversity of members

4.6.5. Size of teams

4.6.6. Member preferences

5. CHAPTER 12-LEADERSHIP AND TRUST

5.1. LEADER

5.1.1. Vision

5.1.2. Goals

5.1.3. Inspire

5.2. MANAGER

5.2.1. Process controlling: planning, organizing, order and consistency

5.3. PREDICT LEADER

5.3.1. Trait theories

5.3.1.1. Extraversion: strong

5.3.1.2. Conscientiousness and openness to experience: strong

5.3.1.3. Agreeableness and Emotional stability: Not correlated

5.3.1.4. Emotional intelligence: under investigated

5.3.2. Behavioral theories

5.3.2.1. Ohio State University

5.3.2.1.1. Initiating structure: achieve goals

5.3.2.1.2. Consideration: trust and respect

5.3.2.2. University of Michigan

5.3.2.2.1. Production oriented: technical/task aspect

5.3.2.2.2. Employee oriented: interpersonal

5.3.3. Contingency theories

5.3.3.1. Leader-member relationship: confidence, trust, respect

5.3.3.2. Task structure: structured and unstructured

5.3.3.3. Position power: hiring, firing, discipline, promotion, salary

5.3.4. Situational leadership theory (SLT)

5.3.4.1. Motivation (willingness)

5.3.4.2. Performance (able)

5.3.5. Path-goal theory

5.3.5.1. Supportive

5.3.5.2. Directive

5.4. CHARISMATIC LEADER

5.4.1. gain followers through personality rather than through power or authority

5.4.1.1. Vision and articulation: expressed as an idealized goal

5.4.1.2. Personal risk-taking: self-sacrifice to achieve the vision

5.4.1.3. Sensitivity toward followers: Perceptive of others’ abilities and responsive to their feelings and needs

5.4.1.4. Unconventional behaviors: novel and counter to norms

5.4.2. 50% gene & 50% training and experience

5.4.3. Dark sides

5.4.3.1. Personal benefits

5.4.3.2. Remark own image

5.4.3.3. override org's goals

5.5. TRANSACTIONAL vs TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER

5.5.1. Transactional: motivate by clarifying goals and requirements

5.5.2. Transformational: Inspire for the goods of org

5.6. SERVANT LEADER

5.6.1. Go beyond their own self-interest

5.6.2. Help followers grow and develop

5.7. MENTOR

5.7.1. Experienced to sponsor and support less experienced

5.8. SUBSTITUTES AND NEUTROLIZERS

6. CHAPTER 13-POWER AND POLITICS

6.1. POWER: influence and dependence

6.2. LEADERSHIP AND POWER

6.3. BASES OF POWER

6.3.1. Formal power: individual's org position

6.3.1.1. Coercive: fear of negative results

6.3.1.2. Reward: positive benefit

6.3.1.3. Legitimate: authority to control

6.3.2. Personal power: individual's unique characteristics

6.3.2.1. Expert: expertise, skill, knowledge

6.3.2.2. Referent: desirable resources/traits

6.4. 9 POWER TACTICS

6.4.1. Legitimacy: relying on authority, organization policies and rules

6.4.2. Rational persuasion: logical arguments , facts and figures

6.4.2.1. All level influence

6.4.2.2. Most effective

6.4.3. Inspirational appeals: emotional commitment to target’s values, needs, hopes and aspirations

6.4.4. Consultation: support with the involvement of the target

6.4.5. Exchange: reward the target with benefits or rewards

6.4.6. Personal appeals: based on friendship or loyalty

6.4.7. Ingratiation: flattery, praise

6.4.8. Pressure: warnings, repeated demands and threats

6.4.9. Coalitions: enlist aid and support of others to persuade

6.5. POLITICAL SKILL: influence others to enhance one's own objectives

6.6. ORGANIZATION POLITICAL BEHAVIOR: activities to distribute of advantages and disadvantages within the organization

6.6.1. Decrease job satisfaction

6.6.2. Increase anxiety and stress

6.6.3. Increase turnover

6.6.4. Reduced performance

6.7. POLITICKING: Twisting facts to support one’s own goals and interests

6.8. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS TO POLITICAL BEHAVIOR

6.8.1. Traits

6.8.1.1. High self-monitors: control environment

6.8.1.2. Internal focus: proactive stance and manipulate environment

6.8.1.3. High need for power

6.8.2. Situations

6.8.2.1. Lower org investment

6.8.2.2. Big perceived alternatives

6.8.2.3. Great expectation of success

6.9. ORG FACTORS TO POLITICAL BEHAVIOR: Low trust + Role ambiguity + Zero-sum reward allocation + Democratic decision making + High performance pressures + Leading by poor example + Unclear performance evaluation systems

6.10. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT: attempt to control the impression others form of them

6.10.1. Interview: self-promotion

6.10.2. Evaluation: Ingratiation

6.11. MAPPING POLITICAL CAREER

7. CHAPTER 17-CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND STRESS

7.1. CHAPTER 14-CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION

7.1.1. CONFLICT: perceives + negatively affected + between parties

7.1.2. VIEWS OF CONFLICT

7.1.2.1. Traditional view: harmful --> avoided

7.1.2.2. Interactionist: fucntional and dysfunctional

7.1.3. TYPES OF CONFLICT

7.1.3.1. Task: goals

7.1.3.2. Relationship: people

7.1.3.3. Process: best ways

7.1.4. SOURCES OF CONFLICT

7.1.4.1. Dyadic conflict: 2 people

7.1.4.2. Intragroup: within group

7.1.4.3. Intergroup: between groups

7.1.5. CONFLICT PROCESS

7.1.5.1. stage 1

7.1.5.1.1. Communication: too much or too little

7.1.5.1.2. Structure: Group size, age, diversity + Organizational rewards, goals + group dependency

7.1.5.1.3. Personal variables: Personality types + Emotionality

7.1.5.2. stage 2

7.1.5.2.1. Emotions: play big roles

7.1.5.3. stage 3

7.1.5.3.1. Competing: one person wins

7.1.5.3.2. Collaborating: win-win

7.1.5.3.3. Avoiding: withdraw and ignore

7.1.5.3.4. Accommodating: sacrifice to maintain relationship

7.1.5.3.5. Compromising: each gives up something

7.1.5.4. stage 4

7.1.5.5. stage 5

7.1.5.5.1. Function outcomes: Improves decision quality + Stimulates creativity and innovation + Encourages interest and curiosity + Problems are aired + Accepts change and self-evaluation

7.1.5.5.2. Dysfunctional Outcomes: Group is less effective + Reduces cohesiveness and communications + Leads to the destruction of the group

7.1.6. MANAGING CONFLICT

7.1.6.1. Recognize disagreement

7.1.6.2. Open, frank discussion

7.1.6.3. Work for mutual satisfaction

7.1.6.4. Shared interests

7.1.7. NEGOTIATION: two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources

7.1.7.1. Bargaining strategies

7.1.7.1.1. Distributive bargaining

7.1.7.1.2. Integrative bargaining: win-win

7.1.7.2. Negotiation process

7.2. FORCES FOR CHANGE

7.2.1. Nature of the workforce: demographic changes, immigration and outsourcing

7.2.2. Technology: Internet, web, and social media

7.2.3. Economic shocks: bankruptcy, acquisition

7.2.4. Competition: local, global

7.2.5. Social trends: customers share ideas about products on blogs, forum and chat room

7.2.6. World politics: the rise of power and influence of China

7.3. OVERCOME RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

7.4. RESISTANCES TO CHANGE

7.4.1. People tend to resist change even positive

7.4.2. Carefully think through the implications

7.5. SOURCES OF RESISTANCE

7.6. WAYS TO MANAGE CHANGE

7.6.1. LEWIN

7.6.2. KOTTER

7.6.3. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: A collection of change methods to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being

7.6.3.1. OD interventions

7.6.3.1.1. Discovery: identify strength of org

7.6.3.1.2. Dreaming: speculating on future

7.6.3.1.3. Designing: a common vision

7.6.3.1.4. Destiny: fulfil the dream

7.7. INNOVATION: new idea --> improving a product, process, or service

7.7.1. Structure

7.7.2. Culture

7.7.3. Human resources

7.8. WORK STRESS: A dynamic condition confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource --> outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important

7.8.1. Challenge Stress: workload + pressure to complete tasks + time urgency --> POSITIVE

7.8.2. Hindrance Stress: obstacles to achieving goals --> NEGATIVE

7.9. MANAGING STRESS