My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Curriculum and Pedagogy

1.1. The Developmentalist Curriculum

1.1.1. Focuses on the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society. Student centered approach concerned with relating the curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at a particular developmental stage. Flexible concerning what is taught and how it is taught. Focusing on the students development of individual capabilities. Relates schooling to the life experiences of the child in order to make education meaningful. Teacher serves as a facilitator of knowledge instead of a transmitter. This curriculum has had a lot of influence over teacher education programs.

1.1.2. John Dewey & Piaget The developmentalist curriculum focuses on the relationship between the child and the curriculum. Emphasized the process of teaching as well as it contents

1.2. Transformative Tradition

1.2.1. The purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way Intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally.

1.2.2. Teachers provide students with a multidimensional theory of teaching. Reject authoritarian relationship between student and teacher Teaching and learning are inextricably linked. Do not feel that transformation of knowledge is the only component of teaching. Does not rely strictly on the didactic transfer of information, but the conversation between students and teachers. Uses questioning in collaboration with lecture. Student plays an integral role in the learning process. Active participation from students which results in growth. Growth depends on the specific goals of the classroom. Difficult to assess and measure outcomes

1.3. Mimetic Tradition

1.3.1. Purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students Uses the didactic method to transmit knowledge. Uses lecture and presentation as main form of communication.

1.3.2. The relationship between the knower (Teacher) and the learner (Student). Knowledge is acquired by passing along information from one to the other. Rational sequencing in the teaching process and assessment of the learning process. Statement of learning goals and clear means to assess whether students have acquired them. Measurable goals and objectives

2. Equality of Opportunity

2.1. Class

2.1.1. Students from different social classes have different educational experiences Schools represent the values of the middle and upper classes.

2.1.2. Upper class and middle class families Parents expect their children to finish school. Speak standard English Teachers favor students who speak English clearly.

2.1.3. Working class and underclass families Parents have lower levels of expectations for their children. Do not speak English as well Leads to labeling children according to their abilities, and social background.

2.1.4. The number of books in a home is related to higher academic achievement. Middle and upper class families have more books available in the home. Working class and underclass families have less books available in the home.

2.1.5. Peer Groups have an influence on students attitudes towards learning. More emphasis is placed on higher academic achievement in middle class schools.

2.1.6. Parents income Direct correlation between parental income and children performance on achievement tests, as well as placement in ability groups and curriculum track in high school. Working class and underclass children less likely to achieve, drop out, and resist curriculum. The higher the social class the more likely student will attend and complete college. Students class determines what type of college the student will attend.

2.2. Race

2.2.1. An individuals race has a direct impact on education.

2.2.2. Drop out 5.2% white, 9.3% African American, 17.6% Hispanic students are likely to drop out

2.2.3. Reading ability 89% white students will be able to read at the intermediate level, which includes being able to search for specific information, interrelated ideas, and make generalizations about literature, science, and social studies. 66 % African American students have reached that level of reading proficiency, and 70% of Hispanics are reading at the intermediate level. Lower levels of proficiency lead to lower SAT scores. SAT scores are used to determine College placement, and used to award scholarships.

2.3. Gender

2.3.1. Female Females are less likely than males to drop out of school. Higher level of reading and writing proficiency than males Women are attending post secondary education more than men Are often times not as prestigious as the ones men attend.

2.3.2. Male Males have better mathematics proficiency Score higher than females on SAT

2.4. Coleman Study 1982

2.4.1. In 1982, Coleman published his findings in "High School Achievement: Public, Catholic, and Private Schools Compared". In 1982, Coleman found that students who attended private schools scored higher than those who attended public school. Private schools were more effective because they place more emphasis on academic achievement, and enforce discipline in a way that is consistent with student achievement. Private schools demand more from their students than public schools.

2.4.2. Round Two Jencks (1985) argued that the differences between Catholic and private schools are statistically significant but unimportant when determining differences in learning. Other studies show that Private schools do produce better results, especially for low-income students. Catholic schools are becoming more elite, and like suburban public schools. Will they continue to meet the needs of the disadvantaged, and poor?

2.4.3. Round Three Students attend schools related to their socioeconomic status and race. The racial and socioeconomic composition of the school has a greater impact on student achievement than the individuals race and class. Gaps in student achievement are the result of segregation of race, class, and within school interactions dominated by middle class values. Borman and Dowlings study indicates that education reform must focus on ending the high level of segregation that remains in the U.S. and schools must end tracking systems and biases that favor white and middle class students.

3. Educational Reform

3.1. School Based Reforms

3.1.1. School Choice Private and Magnet schools are considered superior because they reflect the desires and needs of their constituents. Voucher programs would fund families, instead of schools, and would allow for greater parental choice and participation. Reward good schools, and punish bad schools. Voucher system would deregulate the public school system. Three different School Choice Options to Consider. Inter-sectional Choice plans include public and private schools. Intra-sectional Choice plans would apply only to public schools. Intra-district Choice plans allows students to choose between schools within a school district.

3.1.2. School Options Private schools During the 1980's and 1990's, researchers and analysts determined that most public schools were failing. Private schools offer a more effective learning environment, and they are accountable, safe, and efficient. Magnet Schools Public schools that offer special curriculum and student bodies. Schools that operate independently of the public school bureaucracy are happier, healthier, and more academically productive than zone schools were students were forced to attend based on residence.

3.2. Teacher Quality

3.2.1. One of the most important problems in education is how to employ and retain high quality teachers.

3.2.2. NCLB requires that all schools have highly qualified teachers in every classroom. Urban schools often have unqualified teachers. Urban schools where there is a high majority of minority schools have a larger percent of novice teachers. Results from organizational issues within the school. Easier to hire unqualified teachers. The absence of status and professionalism, and poor working conditions leads to higher drop out rates in the first five years. Urban schools are constantly replacing teachers. Alternative teaching programs help to solve urban staffing problems. Out of field teaching is where teachers are assigned to teach subjects that do not match their training and education. One fifth of classes in core academic subjects such as math, science, English, and social studies are taught by teachers who do not hold teaching certification in these areas.

3.2.3. Teachers Unions The existence of tenure, and seniority based transfers and layoffs have prevented improvement of teacher quality.

3.3. Full Service Schools

3.3.1. In an attempt to end educational inequality, school districts could examine and plan to educate not only the whole child, but the community as well.

3.3.2. Full service schools would focus on meeting the students needs, and supporting the families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion.

3.3.3. Schools would serve as community centers that are open extended hours and offer services such as adult education, health clinics, recreation facilities, after school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placement, and training programs and tutoring services.

3.3.4. Goal is to target and improve at risk neighborhoods, and prevent problems and support them. Also to repair the larger social and economic problems of society.

3.4. Harlem Children's Zone

3.4.1. Geoffrey Canada developed the program that helps African American children learn the skills they need to succeed in school. Baby College - program that teaches parents all the information that middle class parents know before the birth of their child so that they can support their child's growth. Instructors of color teach parents how to have academic conversations with their children, how to provide a healthy home environment, and effective discipline. Purchases items for infants that parents cannot afford, but need. Supports extended school days, and tutoring programs that support at risk students.

3.4.2. There is evidence that high expectations, and strong discipline positively impacts student achievement.

3.4.3. Critics Cultural deficit model and highly disciplinarian approach is problematic. Critics praise the impact that these programs are having on student achievement.

4. Source of Notes:

4.1. Sadovnik, A.R., Cookson, P.W. & Semel, S.F. (2013). Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education. 4th ed. Routledge: New York.


5. Educational Inequality

5.1. Race

5.1.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory - working class and non white families are disadvantaged because they lack the cultural resources such as books and other educational stimuli.

5.1.2. Resistance to dominate White Middle Class culture of schools- embracing anti school culture - opposed to school culture as it exists.

5.1.3. Causes of poverty are economic transformations, and conditions. Culture of the projects - rampant violence, drug abuse, and hopelessness. Public policy must eliminate social and economic conditions responsible for poverty and the behaviors that serve to reproduce it.

5.1.4. Asian American Culture. Why do Asian American's seem to do well in school? Come to the United States willing to assimilate to dominate culture to succeed. Come from educated middle class families and already possess the skills they need to succeed academically. Family values emphasize educational achievement, and families have higher expectations for their children.

5.2. Class

5.2.1. Deprived Culture - lacks the value system of the middle-class culture. Middle class culture values hard work, initiative, the delay of immediate gratification, and the importance of schooling as a means of future success. Culture of Poverty - avoids delayed gratification, rejects hard work, initiative, and does not view schooling as the means to social mobility. Deutsch (1964) Deprivation results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for satisfactory academic achievement. Programs that aim to strengthen family environment of working class, and nonwhite students. Project Head Start - preschool intervention program for educationally and economically disadvantaged students. Critics

5.3. Gender

5.3.1. Curriculum The curriculum portrays the role of men and women in stereotypical and traditional ways. By omitting women's history and women's lives from discussion the curriculum silences women. The hidden curriculum reinforces traditional gender roles and expectations through classroom organization, instruction, and classroom interaction. Males dominate instruction, and receive more attention from teachers. Teachers are more likely to assist a male with a task. Women receive less attention in the classroom, and teachers will complete a task for them instead of assist them. Schools are organized to reinforce gender roles and gender inequality.

5.3.2. Vivian Gornick (1987) argued that the differences between men and women are cultural, not biological, and that women deserve equality in the public and private spheres of life.

5.3.3. Carol Gilligan (1982) asserts that women are more likely to adopt a caring orientation because they are socialized to do so. Women do reason differently than men but it is just as important of a component to life and should not be devalued.

5.4. Explanations for Educational Inequality

5.4.1. School Financing Taxes Majority of school funds come from state and local property taxes. Property tax is assessed by the value of the properties in the community. In affluent communities property taxes are higher which means more money for schools. In poorer communities property taxes are lower and less money for schools. Serrano v. Priest (1971) the California Supreme Court ruled that the system of unequal school funding between wealthy and poor districts unconstitutional. More states will use state funding to close the gap between the affluent districts and the poorer districts. All districts should have the minimum necessary to provide a quality education.

5.4.2. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices Does school climate affect student performance? Schooling can elevate or limit a students aspirations for the future. There is a significant difference between the culture and climate of lower socioeconomic and higher socioeconomic communities. Schools in working class communities are more likely to have authoritarian and teacher directed pedagogic practices, and vocationally or social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level. Schools in middle class communities are more likely to have less authoritarian, student centered pedagogic practices and humanistic or liberal arts college preparatory curriculum at the secondary level. Upper class students are more likely to attend elite schools that are authoritarian pedagogic practices and a student centered philosophy. They prepare students to enter college with a classical-humanistic curriculum at the secondary level.

5.4.3. Curriculum and Ability Grouping Often referred to as curriculum tracking or ability tracking. Elementary school - children are grouped according to reading level, standardized test scores, and in some cases descriptive characteristics such as race, class, gender. Secondary level - students are divided by ability and curriculum, with different groups of students receiving different types of education within the same school. Functionalist perspective - students are placed according to ability so that they may fill societal roles. Merit is based on ability. Conflict theorist - suggest that tracking is a way to separate students based on characteristics such as race, class and gender.

5.4.4. Cultural Difference Theories Cultural and familial differences between working class, non white families and white middle class families that affect educational outcomes and student achievement. Working class and non white students may come to school with different cultural dispositions, and without the skills and attitudes required by the schools.

6. Sociological Perspectives

6.1. Theoretical Perspective

6.1.1. Functionalism Interdependence of social system requires one system to rely on another system in order to produce a functioning society. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) believed that morals and values were the foundation of society. Schools were responsible for moral unity of students, which was required for social cohesion and harmony Today, Functionalists argue that the consensus (majority) is the normal state. Conflicts are the result of breakdown of shared values among the majority. Functionalist argue that educational reform should create structures, programs, and curriculum that are advanced, rational, and support social unity Schools socialize students into appropriate values, and organize students based on their abilities "A Nation at Risk" (1983) blamed schools for many of the social and economic problems in American society

6.1.2. Conflict Theory Dominate groups manipulate, and control subordinate groups with power, and cooptation Society is held together with economic, political, cultural, and military power Powerful determine that inequalities that exist are the result of biology or history Views the relationship between schools as problematic, and unclear. Achievement ideology is the belief that schools promote learning, and students are provided with an equal opportunity to learn that is not based on social status Karl Marx (1818-1883) was concerned about the class system affecting the proletariat; a group of people in Europe who were poor, worked 18 hour days, with no hope of creating a better life for their children. Thought that capitalism was the root cause of the social injustice. Supported the abolition of capitalism in favor of socialism Max Weber (1964-1920) felt that the relationship between dominate and subordinate groups provided structure for society (class structure) Stresses that bureaucracy is the dominate type of authority, and educational reforms would reflect that authority Willard Waller "The Sociology of Teaching" (1965) Students are forced to go to school. Schools are oppressive, demeaning, and portray student non-compliance with school rules as a form of resistance Randall Collins (1971,1979) college degrees are status symbols and not indicators of actual achievement. Bourdieu and Passeron (1977) Cultural Capital -knowledge and experiences related to art, music, and literature Social Capital- Social networks and connections In order to understand inequality, you must recognize that the culture and social characteristics of an individual or group are indicators of their social status or class

6.1.3. Interactionalism Interactional theories are based on critiques and extensions of functional and conflict theories Neither theory provides enough information about schools at the everyday level. What do students and teachers actually do in school? Looks at relationships that other two theories neglect to look at, such as student/ student and student/teacher Basil Bernstein (1993) working class students are at a disadvantage because schools are designed to educate middle class students The structural and interactional aspects of education should work together as one

6.2. Effects of Schooling

6.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes Studies show that students who have higher achievement levels typically come from higher social classes Ron Edmonds (1979a,1979b) was the pioneer of the effective schools movement sought to show how student learning is affected by the differences in academic programs, and policies at different schools Schools that are focused on academics produce higher rates of learning Students achievement levels go up when there is consistent discipline in the school Heyns (1978) students achievement levels were higher when students used resources available to them, and had consistency in learning

6.2.2. Employment Large organizations (corporations) require employees to have higher levels of education A college degree will help an individual obtain a higher status job early in their career, and they usually obtain a higher income Berg (1970) found that education levels were not necessarily related to job performance Schools determine who will have access to high status jobs People learn how to do their jobs by doing them At all levels of education, women typically earn less than men Women are more likely than men to take time off work, or work part-time, due to family commitments Occupational segregation by sex, or pay discrimination Other factors that can influence pay besides education are type of employer, age, union affiliation, and social class

6.2.3. Education and Mobility American theories of education stress that occupational and social mobility begin in schools Education is considered "The Great Equalizer" MacLeod (1995) some males do not respond to "attainment through education" phylosophy Higher education = higher economic and social mobility Individuals rise and fall based on their own merit Hopper (1971) differences between educational amount and route Number of years of education v. where students attend school affects mobility

6.2.4. Teacher Behavior Teachers have a huge impact on student learning and behavior, but should not be blamed for society's problems Set standards for students, help students develop a positive self -esteem, and promote student effectiveness Expectations can encourage, or discourage students to work to their full potential Teachers must fill many different roles in order to meet their students needs, and their occupational roles within the educational system Instructor, disciplinarian, bureaucrat, employer, friend, confidant, educator and so on... Conflicting roles can lead to role strain, and possibly teacher burn out Labels placed on students can influence academic performance - self fulfilling prophecy Lower expectations for minority students and working class students

6.2.5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation Conflicting cultures which can lead to alienation and violence Adult culture which includes teachers and administrators Student culture idealizes athletic ability, looks, and popularity Stinchcombe (1964) correlation between student who participated in vocational programs, who were headed towards low income jobs were more likely to participate in rebellious sub culture Violence is a problem Students are attacking each other and teachers at an alarming rate Culture and social media promotes and glorifies violence Students are exposed to 18,000 television murders by the time they are 12 years old Students witness violence on social media, and television. Some are exposed to violence in their homes and neighborhoods Four types of college sub-cultures Student culture plays a significant role in shaping how students view, and experience education

7. Politics of Education

7.1. The Purpose of Education

7.1.1. Intellectual Purpose Teach cognitive skills, such as reading, writing, and math Basic skills needed to function in society, and for employment Teach specific knowledge about subjects such as science, literature, and history Students are able to develop higher-order thinking skills by learning to analyze, evaluate, and synthesis information

7.1.2. Political Purpose Instill/promote allegiance to existing political order, which is Patriotism Patriotism is defined as devoted love, support, and defense of one's country; national loyalty ( Education should prepare students to become citizens who are able to participate in political order (political democracies) Assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order Teach children basic laws of society so that they have the ability to be law abiding citizens.

7.1.3. Social Purpose Solve social problems Ensure social cohesion by working as one of many institutions, such family, and church To socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values within society Socialization is the key to stability within society

7.1.4. Economic Purpose Prepare students for later occupational roles select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor Schools play a indirect role in preparing students for work. School involvement in this process varies by society

7.2. The Role of the School

7.2.1. The main role of the school is the aims, purposes, and functions of education in society

7.2.2. Conservative Perspective Provide students with the educational training to ensure the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity Individual efforts should be rewarded. Individuals succeed on their own accord, and schools should provide a place for individual merit to be encouraged and rewarded Progress is based on ability and talent and not class or wealth Belief that schools socialize children to become productive members of society, and to maintain social order Believes that cultural traditions are passed along through education, and the curriculum should be based on those traditions Essential to both economic productivity and social stability

7.2.3. Liberal Perspective The chief purpose of school is to socialize, and train students Support equal opportunity in education Schools should provide each student with an equal education, so that students have equal opportunity to succeed in society Believe that students should be taught to respect cultural diversity, so they are able to understand and fit into a diverse society Support citizenship, and educating citizens. Train and educate students to participate in a democratic society. Supports development of both individual needs, and societal needs. Supports schools role in developing the individual's talents, creativity, and sense of self Schools role is to balance the needs of the individual, and society. Supports development of both individual needs, and societal needs. Adult status is based on merit and achievement. Citizens have the opportunity to participate in a democratic and meritocratic society

7.2.4. Radical Perspective Agrees that schools should eliminate inequalities, but asserts that currently schools maintain the unequal economic conditions of the capitalist economy, and socialize individuals to accept the legitimacy of the society Equality of opportunity is an illusion put into place to convince people that they have been given an equal opportunity to achieve but they have not Social and cultural reproduction Schools responsible for perpetuate society, and serve interests of those who are economically wealthy and hold political power Schools prepare students from different backgrounds for different roles within the economic division of labor

7.3. Explanations of Unequal Performance

7.3.1. Conservative Perspective Believe that individuals, or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative Achievement is the result of hard work and sacrifice Schools give students the opportunity to succeed If students fail it is because the individual is deficient, or is part of a larger group that is deficient

7.3.2. Liberal Perspective Believe that students enter school with different life chances, and some groups have more advantages than other groups Policies and programs that make schools equal should be in place to protect students from inequality, and provide students from disadvantaged backgrounds the opportunity to succeed

7.3.3. Radical Perspective Believe that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds have fewer opportunities Believe that the problems that plague the education system are the result of the economic system In order to change the failure in the education system, change must be made to the political-economic system

7.4. Definitions of Educational Problems

7.4.1. Conservative Perspective Decline of standards In an attempt to make schools equal, standards were lowered and the quality of education was reduced Decline of cultural literacy Changes made to the curriculum to promote multiple different cultures resulted in Schools losing the ability to pass along the heritage of American and western civilization Decline of values or of civilization Cultural relativism caused the schools to lose their ability to teach moral standards and values Decline of authority Respecting students individuality and freedom took away the schools disciplinary function, which lead to chaos. State control Schools are controlled by the state and suppressed by bureaucracy and inefficiency Schools are not able to compete in the free market

7.4.2. Liberal Perspective Schools limit the life chances of poor students and minority students Limit the students ability to grow as an individual by enforcing discipline and authority Differences in learning environments and quality of education between urban and suburban, low/high socioeconomic school systems Traditional curriculum is one sided, and does not embrace diverse culture of people

7.4.3. Radical Perspective Existing policies that are racist, classist, homophobic, and sexist have failed many groups with the system, such as women, minorities, and the poor These policies leave out culture, history, and voices of the oppressed Curriculum and teaching practices promote conformity without critical understanding of the problems of American society Educational system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results

8. History of U.S. Education

8.1. Equal Opportunity

8.1.1. Has had the most profound impact on education in the United States. Throughout history, Americans have expected schools to solve social, political, and economic problems in society GI Bill Implemented following WWII as an incentive for veterans who were returning home in mass amounts, and would be unemployed. Helped to avoid mass amounts of unemployment in postwar economy Brought to light the issue of inequality of education for poor and disadvantaged African Americans Brown v. Topeka Board of Education: The Supreme Court ruled that state imposed segregation of schools was unconstitutional. De jure: Segregation by law Plessy v. Ferguson Louisiana law that allowed for the separation of railway passengers by race. Applied to schools, it was supposed to make education separate but equal. De facto: Segregation by neighborhood housing patterns, and not intentionally segregated by state policies. One of the issues that Huntsville City Schools is dealing with right now. Socioeconomic Equality Student/family socioeconomic status results in inequality among schools. Project Head Start was designed to provide early preschool education for students identifies as being disadvantaged Court Cases that support equal funding for public schools

8.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

8.2.1. Democratic Perspective History of education involves progressive evolution of the school system that strives to provide equal opportunity to all students Overtime, reform has lead to the larger quantities of population receiving educational opportunities. Lawrence A. Cremin Identifies the evolution of U.S. Schools in two related processess; Popularity and Multitudinouseness Acknowledges discrepancies between opportunity and results, especially among the economically disadvantaged

9. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Pragmatism

9.1.1. Generic Notions Dewey's Pragmatism Founded on psychology, behaviorism, and philosophy of pragmatism Experimentalism = application of ideas to educational practice based on an experimental basis Instrumentalism =relationship between school and society Theory of evolution and optimistic belief in progress Theory of evolution and optimistic belief in progress

9.1.2. Key Researchers Founders of Pragmatism George Sanders Pierce (1839-1914) William James (1842-1910) John Dewey (1859-1952) Philosophers who would be considered Pragmatists Philosophers who would be considered Pragmatists Francis Bacon John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau

9.1.3. Goal of Education John Dewey Primary goal = Growth Schools should balance needs of society and community with that of the individual student Philosophy has a responsibility to society Prepare students to work, and function in a democratic society Schools have the responsibility to integrate students into democratic society

9.1.4. Role of the Teacher Teachers are facilitators to learning in the progressive approach to education The teacher encourages students to learn, and explore subjects. The teacher is available to guide their learning experience by answering questions, offering suggestions, and planning out what subjects will be taught. Traditionally, teachers assumed an authoritarian role in the classroom. Knowledge was passed along to students from the teacher. Students had little input in regards to education.

9.1.5. Method of Instruction John Dewey Students learn through individual, and cooperative learning. Students learn through problem solving

9.1.6. Curriculum Core curriculum, or integrated curriculum Contemporary problems addressed Working from known to unknown information Based on interests and needs of the students. Flexible enough to reflect changes in society Howard Gardner suggests that Dewey meant that their should be a balance between the interests and needs of the student and traditional disciplines of curriculum

10. Schools as Organizations

10.1. Major Stakeholders Madison City Schools

10.1.1. State Senators Arthur Orr Bill Holtzclaw

10.1.2. House of Representatives Mike Ball Mac McCutcheon

10.1.3. State Superintendent Michael Sentance

10.1.4. State Board of Education District 8 Mary Scott Hunter

10.1.5. Local Superintendent Roddy Parker

10.1.6. Local School Board Dr. Terri Johnson Ranae Bartlett David Hergen Roeder Timothy S. Holtcamp Connie Cox Spears

10.2. Elements of Change

10.2.1. School Processes Schools as bureaucracies Educators Max Weber (1976) Explicit rules and regulations, which promote predictability ad regularity in decision making and minimize the significance of personal relationships.

10.2.2. School Culture Willard Waller Viewed the school as a social organism Despotisms in a state of perilous equilibrium Metz (1978) Chronic tension due to conflicting goals