Figurative Language

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Figurative Language by Mind Map: Figurative Language

1. IDIOM

1.1. The term refers to a set expression or a phrase comprising two or more words. An interesting fact regarding the device is that the expression is not interpreted literally

1.1.1. He is just playing devil's advocate. Don't fall for the trap.

1.1.2. Finishing the paper was race against the clock.

1.1.3. Such bag are available dime a dozen on Fashion Sreet.

2. HYPERBOLE

2.1. Hyperbole, derived from a Greek word meaning “over-casting” is a figure of speech, which involves an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis.

2.1.1. I am trying to solve a million issues these days.

2.1.2. I am trying to solve a million issues these days.

2.1.3. My grandmother is as old as the hills

3. SIMILE

3.1. is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things.

3.1.1. Our soldiers are as brave as lions.

3.1.2. He is as cunning as a fox.

3.1.3. Her cheeks are red like a rose.

4. METAPHOR

4.1. is a figure of speech which makes an implicit, implied or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated but share some common characteristics.

4.1.1. My brother was boiling mad.

4.1.2. The skies of his future began to darken.

4.1.3. Her voice is music to his ears

5. PERSONIFICATION

5.1. is a figure of speech in which a thing, an idea or an animal is given human attributes

5.1.1. The flowers danced in the gentle breeze.

5.1.2. The fire swallowed the entire forest.

5.1.3. The wind whispered through dry grass.

6. ONOMATOPOEIA

6.1. is defined as a word, which imitates the natural sounds of a thing. It creates a sound effect that mimics the thing described, making the description more expressive and interesting.

6.1.1. The books fell on the table with a loud thump.

6.1.2. The rustling leaves kept me awake.

6.1.3. The sack fell into the river with a splash.

7. IRONY

7.1. is a figure of speech in which words are used in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words.

7.1.1. The name of Britain’s biggest dog was “Tiny”.

7.1.2. “Oh great! Now you have broken my new camera.”

7.1.3. The butter is as soft as a marble piece.

8. ALLUSION

8.1. is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance.

8.1.1. “This place is like a Garden of Eden.” – This is a biblical allusion to the “garden of God” in the Book of Genesis.

8.1.2. “Stop acting like my ex-husband please.” – Apart from scholarly allusions we refer to common people and places in our speech.

8.1.3. “Hey! Guess who the new Newton of our school is?” – “Newton”, means a genius student, alludes to a famous scientist Isaac Newton.

9. METONYMY

9.1. is a figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else with which it is closely associated. We can come across examples of metonymy both from literature and in everyday life.

9.1.1. Let me give you a hand. (Hand means help.)

9.1.2. England decides to keep check on immigration. (England refers to the government.)

9.1.3. The pen is mightier than the sword. (Pen refers to written words and sword to military force.)

10. SARCASM

10.1. Sarcasm is derived from French word sarcasmor and also from a Greek word sarkazein that means “tear flesh” or “grind the teeth”. Somehow, in simple words it means to speak bitterly.

10.1.1. Whatever kind of look you were going for, you missed

10.1.2. Don’t bother me. I’m living happily ever after

10.1.3. Well, this day was a total waste of makeup.

11. ANAPHORA

11.1. In writing or speech, the deliberate repetition of the first part of the sentence in order to achieve an artistic effect is known as Anaphora

11.1.1. “Every day, every night, in every way, I am getting better and better”

11.1.2. “My life is my purpose. My life is my goal. My life is my inspiration.”

11.1.3. “I want my money right now, right here, all right?”

12. IMAGERY

12.1. Imagery means to use figurative language to represent objects, actions and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical senses.

12.1.1. It was dark and dim in the forest. – The words “dark” and “dim” are visual images.

12.1.2. He whiffed the aroma of brewed coffee. – “whiff” and “aroma” evoke our sense of smell or olfactory sense.

12.1.3. The girl ran her hands on a soft satin fabric. – The idea of “soft” in this example appeals to our sense of touch or tactile sense

13. SYMBOLISM

13.1. Symbolism is the use of symbols to signify ideas and qualities by giving them symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense.

13.1.1. The dove is a symbol of peace.

13.1.2. Black is a symbol that represents evil or death.

13.1.3. A broken mirror may symbolize separation

14. OXYMORON

14.1. is a figure of speech in which two opposite ideas are joined to create an effect. The common oxymoron phrase is a combination of an adjective proceeded by a noun with contrasting meanings, e.g. “cruel kindness” or “living death”.

14.1.1. Foolish wisdom

14.1.2. Original copies

14.1.3. Seriously funny

15. ALLITERATION

15.1. Alliteration is derived from Latin’s “Latira”. It means “letters of alphabet”. It is a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series.

15.1.1. American Apparel

15.1.2. The Scotch and Sirloin

15.1.3. Dunkin’ Donuts

16. ASSONANCE

16.1. Assonance takes place when two or more words close to one another repeat the same vowel sound but start with different consonant sounds.

16.1.1. Johnny went here and there and everywhere

16.1.2. The engineer held the steering to steer the vehicle.

16.1.3. We light fire on the mountain.

17. CONSONANCE

17.1. Consonance Definition Consonance refers to repetitive sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or phrase.

17.1.1. The ship has sailed to the far off shores.

17.1.2. Shelley sells shells by the seashore.

17.1.3. She ate seven sandwiches on a sunny Sunday last year

18. LITOTES

18.1. Litotes, derived from a Greek word meaning “simple”, is a figure of speech which employs an understatement by using double negatives or, in other words, positive statement is expressed by negating its opposite expressions

18.1.1. William Shakespeare was not a bad playwright at all.

18.1.2. He is not the cleverest person I have ever met

18.1.3. New York is not an ordinary city.

19. TAUTOLOGY

19.1. Tautology is a repetitive use of phrases or words which have similar meanings. In simple words, it is expressing the same thing, an idea or saying two or more times

19.1.1. Due to inadequacies in Language

19.1.2. Psychological significance

19.1.3. Used by inept Speakers

20. UNDERSTATEMENT

20.1. An understatement is a figure of speech employed by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is.

20.1.1. “He is not too thin” while describing an obese person.

20.1.2. “Deserts are sometimes hot, dry and sandy” while describing deserts of the world.

20.1.3. “It is a bit cold today,” when the temperature is 5 degrees below freezing.