Instruction Design and Technology

MITE 6330 Learning Design and Technology (Jan 2011)

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Instruction Design and Technology by Mind Map: Instruction Design and Technology

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Behaviorism

1.1.1. Change in behavior

1.1.2. Response to stimulus

1.1.3. Ignore thought processes

1.2. Cognitivism

1.2.1. Information Processing Model Sensory register Short-term memory Long-term memory

1.2.2. Link meaningless information with prior schema

1.2.3. Practice and rehearsal improves retention

1.3. Constructivism

1.3.1. Knowledge constructed from experience

1.3.2. Collaborative learning

1.3.3. Realistic settings in learning

1.3.4. Constructivist Learning Environments (CLE) Methods Select an appropriate problem for learning Provide related cases/worked examples to enable case-based reasoning and enhance cognitive flexibility Provide learner-selectable information just-in-time Provide cognitive tools that scaffold required skills Provide conversation and collaboration tools to support discourse, knowledge-building and/or communities of learners Provide social/contextual support Instructional activities Model the performance and the covert cognitive processes Coach learner by providing motivational prompts, monitoring and regulating learner's performance, encourage reflection Scaffold learner by adjusting task difficulty, restructuring task and providing alternative assessments

2. Learning by Doing approach

2.1. Goal-based scenarios (GBSs)

2.1.1. Case-based reasoning (CBR) Goals, Plans, and Expectations Expectation Failure Explanations

2.1.2. Essential components The Learning Goals The Mission The Cover Story The Role The Scenario Operations Resources Feedback

3. Components of Teaching and Learning Settings (Collis, 1997)

3.1. General

3.1.1. Course enrollment and participation

3.2. Lectures

3.2.1. Lecture and presentation,multimedia and supporting materials

3.3. Group discussions

3.3.1. Chat forums, discussion rooms and email

3.4. Learning events

3.4.1. field trips and laboratory activities, computer-based activities

3.5. Communication

3.5.1. private communication between instructors and classmates

3.6. Self-study

3.6.1. learner-centred, self-regulation, further explore the knowledge through independent means

3.7. Individual projects

3.7.1. Major course assignment in higher education

3.8. Group projects

3.8.1. Collaborative learning activities to work out in groups

3.9. Testing

3.9.1. Assessment activities

4. Concept learning

4.1. Implications of Conceptual Change

4.1.1. Implications for Assessment: Propositions Structural knowledge Eliciting Conceptual Patterns Representing Conceptual Patterns

4.1.2. Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use Semistructured Interviews Think-Aloud Problem Solving

4.1.3. Implications for Instruction: Concept-in-Use Problem-Solving

5. Collaborative Learning

5.1. Learners work together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product.

5.1.1. Learning requires challenges

5.1.2. Learners benefits when diversing viewpoints of others

5.1.3. Learning is an active process

5.1.4. Learners create own concept during challenge or listen to the others

6. History and background

6.1. History of instructional design

6.1.1. Training materials for military services (WWII)

6.1.2. Programmed instructional movement (1950s)

6.1.3. Criterion-referenced testing (1960s)

6.1.4. Domains of learning outcomes (Gagne) Verbal information Intellectual skills Pschomotor skills Attitudes Cognitive strategies

6.1.5. Formative evaluation

6.1.6. Early instructional design models (mid-1960s) Instructional design System development Systematic instruction Instructional system

6.1.7. Increasing instructional design models (1970s)

6.1.8. The use of microcomputer (1980s)

6.1.9. Change of views and practices (1990s) Instructional principles associated with constructivism Rapid prototyping Use of internet for distance learning Knowledge management

6.2. History of instructional media

6.2.1. Visual Instruction (early 1900s)

6.2.2. Audiovisual Instruction (1930s)

6.2.3. Instructional Television (1950s)

6.2.4. Computers (1950s-1995)

6.2.5. Internet (after 1995)

7. Instructional Design Models for designing learning environment

7.1. Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction

7.1.1. Gain Attention

7.1.2. Inform Learner of Objectives

7.1.3. Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning

7.1.4. Present Stimulus Material

7.1.5. Provide Learner Guidance

7.1.6. Elicit Performance

7.1.7. Provide Feedback

7.1.8. Assess Performance

7.1.9. Enhance Retention and Transfer

7.2. Four-phase process of creating RLOs and RIOs (Cisco)

7.2.1. Design Needs Assessment Tasks Analysis Learning Objectives

7.2.2. Development Build the RLO Build the RIOs Conduct an Alpha Review Conduct an Beta Review

7.2.3. Deliver Dynamic Web packages CD-ROMs Instructor-Led training materials

7.2.4. Evaluation Survey Assessment Transfer Impact

7.3. ADDIE model

7.3.1. Analyze Analyze system Compile task inventory Select tasks Build performance measures Choose instructional setting Estimate training cost

7.3.2. Design Develop objectives Identify learning steps Develop tests List entry behaviour Sequence and structure

7.3.3. Develop List learner activity Select delivery system Review existing material Develop instruction Synthesize Validate instruction

7.3.4. Implementation Management plan Conduct training

7.3.5. Evaluate Internal evaluate External evaluate Revise system

7.4. ADDIE model

7.4.1. Anaylsis Clarify problems Establish goals and objectives Identify learning environment and learners' existing knowledge

7.4.2. Design Learning objectives Assessment instruments Content Lesson planning Media selection

7.4.3. Development Create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase

7.4.4. Implementation Make sure all things are available and functional Trainings for facilitators and learners

7.4.5. Evaluation Formative - present in each stage of the above process Summative - domain specific criterion-related referenced items

7.5. Four-component instructional design system (4C/ ID-model)

7.5.1. Learning Tasks Engage learners in activities which require them to work with constituent skills Real and simulated task environment and provide whole-task practice Task classes Simple to complex learning tasks Learner support

7.5.2. Supportive information Mental models Inductive strategies Deductive strategies Cognitive strategies General, abstract knowledge and concrete cases that exemplify the knowledge Cognitive feedback Feedback provided on the quality of performance

7.5.3. Just-in-Time Information (JIT) Provides learners with the step-by-step knowledge they need to know to perform the recurrent skills Information displays JIT info organized in small units Demonstrations and instants Provide demonstrations and instances in the context of learning tasks Corrective feedback Inform learner why there was an error and provide a suggestion or hint of how to reach the goal

7.5.4. Part-task Practice Promotes the compilation of procedures or rules and their subsequent strenghening Practice items Pracitce on one relevant recurrent constituent skill or objective JIT information for part-task practice Single-step or Step-by-step instruction Overtraining

8. Activity theory

8.1. Activity system

8.1.1. subject, object of the activity, tools used in the activity and the actions and operations that affect an outcome

8.2. Assumptions

8.2.1. Activity: Minds in Context (activity is a precursor to learning)

8.2.2. Consciousness in the World (combine attention, intention, memory, reasoning and speech)

8.2.3. Intentionality (Intentions emerge individuals' contradictions to accomplish a goal)

8.2.4. Object-Orientedness (Intentions are directed at objects of activity)

8.2.5. Community: A dialectic context (Individuals support different activities in the community)

8.2.6. Historical-Cultural dimension (activities evolve over time within a culture)

8.2.7. Tool Mediation (Activity involves artifacts e.g. instruments, signs, procedures and etc)

8.2.8. Collaboration (Activities are complex and interactive, which requires collaborative effort)

8.3. Method

8.3.1. Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs) Problem-Project Space (present learners with an interesting, relevant and engaging ill-structured problem) Related Cases (enable learners to examine prior experiences and relate them to current problem) Information Resources (provide information banks about the subject that support problem resolution) Cognitive Tools (tools help learners to perform those tasks) Conversation and Collaboration Tools (computer-mediated communication methods to support collaboration on communities of learners)

8.4. Applying process

8.4.1. 1. Clarify purposes of activity system

8.4.2. 2. Analyze the Activity System

8.4.3. 3. Analyze the Activity Structure

8.4.4. 4. Analyze Tools and Mediators

8.4.5. 5. Analyzing the Context

8.4.6. 6. Analyzing Activity System Dynamics

9. Elaborative Theory

9.1. Content to be learned should be organized from simple to complex order

9.2. A meaningful context in which subsequent ideas can be integrated.

9.3. Select and sequence content in a way that can optimize attainment of learning goals

9.4. Values

9.4.1. Sequence of instruction that is as holistic as possible, to foster meaning-making and motivation

9.4.2. Make many scope and sequence decisions on their own during the learning process

9.4.3. Facilitates rapid protolyping in the instructional development process

9.4.4. Scope and sequence into a coherent design theory

9.5. Approaches

9.5.1. Conceptual Elaboration Sequence (when many related concepts to be learned)

9.5.2. Theoretical Elaboration Sequence (when there are many related principles to be learned)

9.5.3. Simplifying Conditions Sequence (when a task of at least moderate complexity is to be learned)

10. Learning Technologies

10.1. Application of technology for the enhancement of teaching, learning and assessment

10.1.1. computer-based learning and multimedia materials

10.1.2. the use of networks and communications systems to support learning

10.1.3. CAI: Computer Aided Instruction

10.1.4. CAL: Computer Aided Learning

10.1.5. CBL: Computer Based Learning

10.1.6. CBT: Computer Based Training

10.1.7. CAA: Computer Aided Assessment

10.1.8. CMC: Computer Mediated Communications

10.2. Main application areas for Learning Technology

10.2.1. Drill and practice

10.2.2. Tutorials

10.2.3. Information retrieval systems

10.2.4. Simulations

10.2.5. Microworlds

10.2.6. Cognitive tools for learning

10.2.7. Productivity tools

10.2.8. Communication tools

10.3. Examples

10.3.1. Mobile learning Functionality framework Administration: information storage and retriveal Reference: accessing of content at the place where learning activities occur Interactive: engaging users through a response and feedback approach Microworld: allow learners to construct knowledge through experimentation of real world Data collection: record data and information about their environment Location aware: enable learners to interact with their own environment Collaborative: encourage knowledge sharing and communication Pedagogical underpinning Administration: focus on information storage and retrieval for educational domains Referential: build on instructional philosophy of learning Interactive: eliciting interactions and delivering appropriate feedback Microworld: encourage creation and exploration in learners, inform in pedagogical principles and adopt a constructionist approach Data collection Location aware: allow learners to engage with/by their context Collaborative: support meaningful learning with social activity, share knowledge

10.3.2. Web 2.0 and education Internet-mediated social learning spaces (e.g. MySpace) and collaborative learning New forms of assessment (e.g. digital portfolios) New models and methods for design of learning objects and digital curriculum materials (mashups) New models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers New generations of learning management systems or modular content and services management platforms (e.g. Drupal)

10.4. The promise of multimedia learning

10.4.1. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning Dual channel assumption Two channels (auditory and visual) for processing information Limited capacity assumption Active learning assumption Filtering, selecting, organizing and integrating information based upon prior knowledge Three types of memory status Sensory (receives stimuli and stores only for a very short time) Working (actively process information to create mental constructs) Long-term (Store all things learned)

10.4.2. Processes of Meaningful learning Selecting Organizing Integrating

10.4.3. Instructional methods Presenting words and pictures rather than words alone Excluding extraneous words and pictures Placing corresponding words and pictures near each other on the page or screen Expressing the words in a conversational style

10.4.4. Instructional design methods Multimedia effect Coherence effect Contiguity effect Personalization effect

10.5. Resource-based learning environments (RBLEs)

10.5.1. Components Resources Static (stable contents) Dynamic (updated continuously) Contexts Externally directed Learner generated Negotiated generated Tools Searching tools Processing tools Manipulating tools Communicating tools Scaffolds Conceptual scaffolds Metacognitive scaffolds Procedural scaffolds Strategic scaffolds

11. Learning strategies

11.1. Problem-based learning

11.1.1. Typology of problem solving (problem-solving outcome) Logical Problems Abstract tests of reasoning that puzzle the learner Assess mental acuity, clarity and logical reasoning Algorithmic Problems Require learners' number-processing systems, comprised of comprehending and producing numbers Story Problems Identify keywords in story, select appropriate algorithm and sequence for solving the problem and apply the algorithm Complex cognitive process Rule-Using Problems Accommodate more guests and complexity Find most relevant information in the least amount of time Decision-Making Problems Selecting single option from a set of alternatives based on the criteria Troubleshooting Problems Fault states diagnosis Use symptoms to generate and test hypotheses about different fault states Strategic Performance Real-time, complex and integrated activity structures which performers use number of tactics to meet a more complex strategy Performer applies a set of complex tactics that are designed to meet strategic objectives Case-Analysis Problems Emerge from instruction, not reality Engage process that includes goal elaborating, information collecting, hypothesis forming, forecasting, planning and decision making, monitoring the effects of ones' actions and self-reflecting Design Problems The most complex and ill-structured kinds of problems that are encountered in practice Dilemmas Social dilemmas Ethical dilemmas

11.1.2. Problem-based Learning (PBL) design Instructional Principles (constructivism) Connect all learning activities to a larger task or problem Develop ownership for overall task or problem Design reliable task Reflect complexity of environment Ownership of the process Support and Challenge learner' thinking Testing ideas against alternative views and contexts Features Learning goals Problem Generation Problem Presentation Facilitator role Well-structured problems Present all problem's elements to learners Organized rules, regular and principles in predictive and prescriptive ways Probabilistic problems and knowable, comprehensible solutions

11.2. Rich Environments for Active Learning (REALs)

11.2.1. Definitions Constructivist philosophies Knowledge-building activities to promote high-level thinking processes Promote high-level thinking processes Learning-to-learn through realistic tasks and performances Encourage student responsibility, initiative, decision-making and intentional learning Promote study and investigation within authentic contexts

11.2.2. Main attributes Student responsibility and initiative Intentional learning Questioning Self-reflection Metacognitive skills REAL: reciprocal teaching Generative learning activities Students: investigators, seeker and problem solvers Teachers: facilitators and guides REAL: cognitive apprenticeship Authentic learning contexts Realistic learning experience REAL: anchored instruction REAL: cognitive flexibility theory Authentic assessment strategies Evaluate students performance REAL: learning in design Co-operative support Social practice, meaning and patterns REAL: Problem-based learning