Instruction Design and Technology

MITE 6330 Learning Design and Technology (Jan 2011)

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Instruction Design and Technology by Mind Map: Instruction Design and Technology

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Behaviorism

1.1.1. Change in behavior

1.1.2. Response to stimulus

1.1.3. Ignore thought processes

1.2. Cognitivism

1.2.1. Information Processing Model

1.2.1.1. Sensory register

1.2.1.2. Short-term memory

1.2.1.3. Long-term memory

1.2.2. Link meaningless information with prior schema

1.2.3. Practice and rehearsal improves retention

1.3. Constructivism

1.3.1. Knowledge constructed from experience

1.3.2. Collaborative learning

1.3.3. Realistic settings in learning

1.3.4. Constructivist Learning Environments (CLE)

1.3.4.1. Methods

1.3.4.1.1. Select an appropriate problem for learning

1.3.4.1.2. Provide related cases/worked examples to enable case-based reasoning and enhance cognitive flexibility

1.3.4.1.3. Provide learner-selectable information just-in-time

1.3.4.1.4. Provide cognitive tools that scaffold required skills

1.3.4.1.5. Provide conversation and collaboration tools to support discourse, knowledge-building and/or communities of learners

1.3.4.1.6. Provide social/contextual support

1.3.4.2. Instructional activities

1.3.4.2.1. Model the performance and the covert cognitive processes

1.3.4.2.2. Coach learner by providing motivational prompts, monitoring and regulating learner's performance, encourage reflection

1.3.4.2.3. Scaffold learner by adjusting task difficulty, restructuring task and providing alternative assessments

2. Learning by Doing approach

2.1. Goal-based scenarios (GBSs)

2.1.1. Case-based reasoning (CBR)

2.1.1.1. Goals, Plans, and Expectations

2.1.1.2. Expectation Failure

2.1.1.3. Explanations

2.1.2. Essential components

2.1.2.1. The Learning Goals

2.1.2.2. The Mission

2.1.2.3. The Cover Story

2.1.2.4. The Role

2.1.2.5. The Scenario Operations

2.1.2.6. Resources

2.1.2.7. Feedback

3. Components of Teaching and Learning Settings (Collis, 1997)

3.1. General

3.1.1. Course enrollment and participation

3.2. Lectures

3.2.1. Lecture and presentation,multimedia and supporting materials

3.3. Group discussions

3.3.1. Chat forums, discussion rooms and email

3.4. Learning events

3.4.1. field trips and laboratory activities, computer-based activities

3.5. Communication

3.5.1. private communication between instructors and classmates

3.6. Self-study

3.6.1. learner-centred, self-regulation, further explore the knowledge through independent means

3.7. Individual projects

3.7.1. Major course assignment in higher education

3.8. Group projects

3.8.1. Collaborative learning activities to work out in groups

3.9. Testing

3.9.1. Assessment activities

4. Activity theory

4.1. Activity system

4.1.1. subject, object of the activity, tools used in the activity and the actions and operations that affect an outcome

4.2. Assumptions

4.2.1. Activity: Minds in Context (activity is a precursor to learning)

4.2.2. Consciousness in the World (combine attention, intention, memory, reasoning and speech)

4.2.3. Intentionality (Intentions emerge individuals' contradictions to accomplish a goal)

4.2.4. Object-Orientedness (Intentions are directed at objects of activity)

4.2.5. Community: A dialectic context (Individuals support different activities in the community)

4.2.6. Historical-Cultural dimension (activities evolve over time within a culture)

4.2.7. Tool Mediation (Activity involves artifacts e.g. instruments, signs, procedures and etc)

4.2.8. Collaboration (Activities are complex and interactive, which requires collaborative effort)

4.3. Method

4.3.1. Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs)

4.3.1.1. Problem-Project Space (present learners with an interesting, relevant and engaging ill-structured problem)

4.3.1.2. Related Cases (enable learners to examine prior experiences and relate them to current problem)

4.3.1.3. Information Resources (provide information banks about the subject that support problem resolution)

4.3.1.4. Cognitive Tools (tools help learners to perform those tasks)

4.3.1.5. Conversation and Collaboration Tools (computer-mediated communication methods to support collaboration on communities of learners)

4.4. Applying process

4.4.1. 1. Clarify purposes of activity system

4.4.2. 2. Analyze the Activity System

4.4.3. 3. Analyze the Activity Structure

4.4.4. 4. Analyze Tools and Mediators

4.4.5. 5. Analyzing the Context

4.4.6. 6. Analyzing Activity System Dynamics

5. Concept learning

5.1. Implications of Conceptual Change

5.1.1. Implications for Assessment: Propositions

5.1.1.1. Structural knowledge

5.1.1.1.1. Eliciting Conceptual Patterns

5.1.1.1.2. Representing Conceptual Patterns

5.1.2. Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use

5.1.2.1. Semistructured Interviews

5.1.2.2. Think-Aloud Problem Solving

5.1.3. Implications for Instruction: Concept-in-Use

5.1.3.1. Problem-Solving

6. Collaborative Learning

6.1. Learners work together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product.

6.1.1. Learning requires challenges

6.1.2. Learners benefits when diversing viewpoints of others

6.1.3. Learning is an active process

6.1.4. Learners create own concept during challenge or listen to the others

7. Elaborative Theory

7.1. Content to be learned should be organized from simple to complex order

7.2. A meaningful context in which subsequent ideas can be integrated.

7.3. Select and sequence content in a way that can optimize attainment of learning goals

7.4. Values

7.4.1. Sequence of instruction that is as holistic as possible, to foster meaning-making and motivation

7.4.2. Make many scope and sequence decisions on their own during the learning process

7.4.3. Facilitates rapid protolyping in the instructional development process

7.4.4. Scope and sequence into a coherent design theory

7.5. Approaches

7.5.1. Conceptual Elaboration Sequence (when many related concepts to be learned)

7.5.2. Theoretical Elaboration Sequence (when there are many related principles to be learned)

7.5.3. Simplifying Conditions Sequence (when a task of at least moderate complexity is to be learned)

8. Learning Technologies

8.1. Application of technology for the enhancement of teaching, learning and assessment

8.1.1. computer-based learning and multimedia materials

8.1.2. the use of networks and communications systems to support learning

8.1.3. CAI: Computer Aided Instruction

8.1.4. CAL: Computer Aided Learning

8.1.5. CBL: Computer Based Learning

8.1.6. CBT: Computer Based Training

8.1.7. CAA: Computer Aided Assessment

8.1.8. CMC: Computer Mediated Communications

8.2. Main application areas for Learning Technology

8.2.1. Drill and practice

8.2.2. Tutorials

8.2.3. Information retrieval systems

8.2.4. Simulations

8.2.5. Microworlds

8.2.6. Cognitive tools for learning

8.2.7. Productivity tools

8.2.8. Communication tools

8.3. Examples

8.3.1. Mobile learning

8.3.1.1. Functionality framework

8.3.1.1.1. Administration: information storage and retriveal

8.3.1.1.2. Reference: accessing of content at the place where learning activities occur

8.3.1.1.3. Interactive: engaging users through a response and feedback approach

8.3.1.1.4. Microworld: allow learners to construct knowledge through experimentation of real world

8.3.1.1.5. Data collection: record data and information about their environment

8.3.1.1.6. Location aware: enable learners to interact with their own environment

8.3.1.1.7. Collaborative: encourage knowledge sharing and communication

8.3.1.2. Pedagogical underpinning

8.3.1.2.1. Administration: focus on information storage and retrieval for educational domains

8.3.1.2.2. Referential: build on instructional philosophy of learning

8.3.1.2.3. Interactive: eliciting interactions and delivering appropriate feedback

8.3.1.2.4. Microworld: encourage creation and exploration in learners, inform in pedagogical principles and adopt a constructionist approach

8.3.1.2.5. Data collection

8.3.1.2.6. Location aware: allow learners to engage with/by their context

8.3.1.2.7. Collaborative: support meaningful learning with social activity, share knowledge

8.3.2. Web 2.0 and education

8.3.2.1. Internet-mediated social learning spaces (e.g. MySpace) and collaborative learning

8.3.2.2. New forms of assessment (e.g. digital portfolios)

8.3.2.3. New models and methods for design of learning objects and digital curriculum materials (mashups)

8.3.2.4. New models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers

8.3.2.5. New generations of learning management systems or modular content and services management platforms (e.g. Drupal)

8.4. The promise of multimedia learning

8.4.1. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning

8.4.1.1. Dual channel assumption

8.4.1.1.1. Two channels (auditory and visual) for processing information

8.4.1.2. Limited capacity assumption

8.4.1.3. Active learning assumption

8.4.1.3.1. Filtering, selecting, organizing and integrating information based upon prior knowledge

8.4.1.4. Three types of memory status

8.4.1.4.1. Sensory (receives stimuli and stores only for a very short time)

8.4.1.4.2. Working (actively process information to create mental constructs)

8.4.1.4.3. Long-term (Store all things learned)

8.4.2. Processes of Meaningful learning

8.4.2.1. Selecting

8.4.2.2. Organizing

8.4.2.3. Integrating

8.4.3. Instructional methods

8.4.3.1. Presenting words and pictures rather than words alone

8.4.3.2. Excluding extraneous words and pictures

8.4.3.3. Placing corresponding words and pictures near each other on the page or screen

8.4.3.4. Expressing the words in a conversational style

8.4.4. Instructional design methods

8.4.4.1. Multimedia effect

8.4.4.2. Coherence effect

8.4.4.3. Contiguity effect

8.4.4.4. Personalization effect

8.5. Resource-based learning environments (RBLEs)

8.5.1. Components

8.5.1.1. Resources

8.5.1.1.1. Static (stable contents)

8.5.1.1.2. Dynamic (updated continuously)

8.5.1.2. Contexts

8.5.1.2.1. Externally directed

8.5.1.2.2. Learner generated

8.5.1.2.3. Negotiated generated

8.5.1.3. Tools

8.5.1.3.1. Searching tools

8.5.1.3.2. Processing tools

8.5.1.3.3. Manipulating tools

8.5.1.3.4. Communicating tools

8.5.1.4. Scaffolds

8.5.1.4.1. Conceptual scaffolds

8.5.1.4.2. Metacognitive scaffolds

8.5.1.4.3. Procedural scaffolds

8.5.1.4.4. Strategic scaffolds

9. History and background

9.1. History of instructional design

9.1.1. Training materials for military services (WWII)

9.1.2. Programmed instructional movement (1950s)

9.1.3. Criterion-referenced testing (1960s)

9.1.4. Domains of learning outcomes (Gagne)

9.1.4.1. Verbal information

9.1.4.2. Intellectual skills

9.1.4.3. Pschomotor skills

9.1.4.4. Attitudes

9.1.4.5. Cognitive strategies

9.1.5. Formative evaluation

9.1.6. Early instructional design models (mid-1960s)

9.1.6.1. Instructional design

9.1.6.2. System development

9.1.6.3. Systematic instruction

9.1.6.4. Instructional system

9.1.7. Increasing instructional design models (1970s)

9.1.8. The use of microcomputer (1980s)

9.1.9. Change of views and practices (1990s)

9.1.9.1. Instructional principles associated with constructivism

9.1.9.2. Rapid prototyping

9.1.9.3. Use of internet for distance learning

9.1.9.4. Knowledge management

9.2. History of instructional media

9.2.1. Visual Instruction (early 1900s)

9.2.2. Audiovisual Instruction (1930s)

9.2.3. Instructional Television (1950s)

9.2.4. Computers (1950s-1995)

9.2.5. Internet (after 1995)

10. Instructional Design Models for designing learning environment

10.1. Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction

10.1.1. Gain Attention

10.1.2. Inform Learner of Objectives

10.1.3. Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning

10.1.4. Present Stimulus Material

10.1.5. Provide Learner Guidance

10.1.6. Elicit Performance

10.1.7. Provide Feedback

10.1.8. Assess Performance

10.1.9. Enhance Retention and Transfer

10.2. Four-phase process of creating RLOs and RIOs (Cisco)

10.2.1. Design

10.2.1.1. Needs Assessment

10.2.1.2. Tasks Analysis

10.2.1.3. Learning Objectives

10.2.2. Development

10.2.2.1. Build the RLO

10.2.2.2. Build the RIOs

10.2.2.3. Conduct an Alpha Review

10.2.2.4. Conduct an Beta Review

10.2.3. Deliver

10.2.3.1. Dynamic Web packages

10.2.3.2. CD-ROMs

10.2.3.3. Instructor-Led training materials

10.2.4. Evaluation

10.2.4.1. Survey

10.2.4.2. Assessment

10.2.4.3. Transfer

10.2.4.4. Impact

10.3. ADDIE model

10.3.1. Analyze

10.3.1.1. Analyze system

10.3.1.2. Compile task inventory

10.3.1.3. Select tasks

10.3.1.4. Build performance measures

10.3.1.5. Choose instructional setting

10.3.1.6. Estimate training cost

10.3.2. Design

10.3.2.1. Develop objectives

10.3.2.2. Identify learning steps

10.3.2.3. Develop tests

10.3.2.4. List entry behaviour

10.3.2.5. Sequence and structure

10.3.3. Develop

10.3.3.1. List learner activity

10.3.3.2. Select delivery system

10.3.3.3. Review existing material

10.3.3.4. Develop instruction

10.3.3.5. Synthesize

10.3.3.6. Validate instruction

10.3.4. Implementation

10.3.4.1. Management plan

10.3.4.2. Conduct training

10.3.5. Evaluate

10.3.5.1. Internal evaluate

10.3.5.2. External evaluate

10.3.5.3. Revise system

10.4. ADDIE model

10.4.1. Anaylsis

10.4.1.1. Clarify problems

10.4.1.2. Establish goals and objectives

10.4.1.3. Identify learning environment and learners' existing knowledge

10.4.2. Design

10.4.2.1. Learning objectives

10.4.2.2. Assessment instruments

10.4.2.3. Content

10.4.2.4. Lesson planning

10.4.2.5. Media selection

10.4.3. Development

10.4.3.1. Create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase

10.4.4. Implementation

10.4.4.1. Make sure all things are available and functional

10.4.4.2. Trainings for facilitators and learners

10.4.5. Evaluation

10.4.5.1. Formative - present in each stage of the above process

10.4.5.2. Summative - domain specific criterion-related referenced items

10.5. Four-component instructional design system (4C/ ID-model)

10.5.1. Learning Tasks

10.5.1.1. Engage learners in activities which require them to work with constituent skills

10.5.1.2. Real and simulated task environment and provide whole-task practice

10.5.1.3. Task classes

10.5.1.3.1. Simple to complex learning tasks

10.5.1.4. Learner support

10.5.2. Supportive information

10.5.2.1. Mental models

10.5.2.1.1. Inductive strategies

10.5.2.1.2. Deductive strategies

10.5.2.2. Cognitive strategies

10.5.2.2.1. General, abstract knowledge and concrete cases that exemplify the knowledge

10.5.2.3. Cognitive feedback

10.5.2.3.1. Feedback provided on the quality of performance

10.5.3. Just-in-Time Information (JIT)

10.5.3.1. Provides learners with the step-by-step knowledge they need to know to perform the recurrent skills

10.5.3.2. Information displays

10.5.3.2.1. JIT info organized in small units

10.5.3.3. Demonstrations and instants

10.5.3.3.1. Provide demonstrations and instances in the context of learning tasks

10.5.3.4. Corrective feedback

10.5.3.4.1. Inform learner why there was an error and provide a suggestion or hint of how to reach the goal

10.5.4. Part-task Practice

10.5.4.1. Promotes the compilation of procedures or rules and their subsequent strenghening

10.5.4.2. Practice items

10.5.4.2.1. Pracitce on one relevant recurrent constituent skill or objective

10.5.4.3. JIT information for part-task practice

10.5.4.3.1. Single-step or Step-by-step instruction

10.5.4.4. Overtraining

11. Learning strategies

11.1. Problem-based learning

11.1.1. Typology of problem solving (problem-solving outcome)

11.1.1.1. Logical Problems

11.1.1.1.1. Abstract tests of reasoning that puzzle the learner

11.1.1.1.2. Assess mental acuity, clarity and logical reasoning

11.1.1.2. Algorithmic Problems

11.1.1.2.1. Require learners' number-processing systems, comprised of comprehending and producing numbers

11.1.1.3. Story Problems

11.1.1.3.1. Identify keywords in story, select appropriate algorithm and sequence for solving the problem and apply the algorithm

11.1.1.3.2. Complex cognitive process

11.1.1.4. Rule-Using Problems

11.1.1.4.1. Accommodate more guests and complexity

11.1.1.4.2. Find most relevant information in the least amount of time

11.1.1.5. Decision-Making Problems

11.1.1.5.1. Selecting single option from a set of alternatives based on the criteria

11.1.1.6. Troubleshooting Problems

11.1.1.6.1. Fault states diagnosis

11.1.1.6.2. Use symptoms to generate and test hypotheses about different fault states

11.1.1.7. Strategic Performance

11.1.1.7.1. Real-time, complex and integrated activity structures which performers use number of tactics to meet a more complex strategy

11.1.1.7.2. Performer applies a set of complex tactics that are designed to meet strategic objectives

11.1.1.8. Case-Analysis Problems

11.1.1.8.1. Emerge from instruction, not reality

11.1.1.8.2. Engage process that includes goal elaborating, information collecting, hypothesis forming, forecasting, planning and decision making, monitoring the effects of ones' actions and self-reflecting

11.1.1.9. Design Problems

11.1.1.9.1. The most complex and ill-structured kinds of problems that are encountered in practice

11.1.1.10. Dilemmas

11.1.1.10.1. Social dilemmas

11.1.1.10.2. Ethical dilemmas

11.1.2. Problem-based Learning (PBL) design

11.1.2.1. Instructional Principles (constructivism)

11.1.2.1.1. Connect all learning activities to a larger task or problem

11.1.2.1.2. Develop ownership for overall task or problem

11.1.2.1.3. Design reliable task

11.1.2.1.4. Reflect complexity of environment

11.1.2.1.5. Ownership of the process

11.1.2.1.6. Support and Challenge learner' thinking

11.1.2.1.7. Testing ideas against alternative views and contexts

11.1.2.2. Features

11.1.2.2.1. Learning goals

11.1.2.2.2. Problem Generation

11.1.2.2.3. Problem Presentation

11.1.2.2.4. Facilitator role

11.1.2.3. Well-structured problems

11.1.2.3.1. Present all problem's elements to learners

11.1.2.3.2. Organized rules, regular and principles in predictive and prescriptive ways

11.1.2.3.3. Probabilistic problems and knowable, comprehensible solutions

11.2. Rich Environments for Active Learning (REALs)

11.2.1. Definitions

11.2.1.1. Constructivist philosophies

11.2.1.2. Knowledge-building activities to promote high-level thinking processes

11.2.1.3. Promote high-level thinking processes

11.2.1.4. Learning-to-learn through realistic tasks and performances

11.2.1.5. Encourage student responsibility, initiative, decision-making and intentional learning

11.2.1.6. Promote study and investigation within authentic contexts

11.2.2. Main attributes

11.2.2.1. Student responsibility and initiative

11.2.2.1.1. Intentional learning

11.2.2.1.2. Questioning

11.2.2.1.3. Self-reflection

11.2.2.1.4. Metacognitive skills

11.2.2.1.5. REAL: reciprocal teaching

11.2.2.2. Generative learning activities

11.2.2.2.1. Students: investigators, seeker and problem solvers

11.2.2.2.2. Teachers: facilitators and guides

11.2.2.2.3. REAL: cognitive apprenticeship

11.2.2.3. Authentic learning contexts

11.2.2.3.1. Realistic learning experience

11.2.2.3.2. REAL: anchored instruction

11.2.2.3.3. REAL: cognitive flexibility theory

11.2.2.4. Authentic assessment strategies

11.2.2.4.1. Evaluate students performance

11.2.2.4.2. REAL: learning in design

11.2.2.5. Co-operative support

11.2.2.5.1. Social practice, meaning and patterns

11.2.2.5.2. REAL: Problem-based learning