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Instruction Design and Technology by Mind Map: Instruction Design and
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Instruction Design and Technology

Learning Theories


Change in behavior

Response to stimulus

Ignore thought processes


Information Processing Model, Sensory register, Short-term memory, Long-term memory

Link meaningless information with prior schema

Practice and rehearsal improves retention


Knowledge constructed from experience

Collaborative learning

Realistic settings in learning

Constructivist Learning Environments (CLE), Methods, Select an appropriate problem for learning, Provide related cases/worked examples to enable case-based reasoning and enhance cognitive flexibility, Provide learner-selectable information just-in-time, Provide cognitive tools that scaffold required skills, problem-representation tools, knowledge-modeling tools, performance-support tools and information-gathering tools, Provide conversation and collaboration tools to support discourse, knowledge-building and/or communities of learners, Provide social/contextual support, Instructional activities, Model the performance and the covert cognitive processes, Coach learner by providing motivational prompts, monitoring and regulating learner's performance, encourage reflection, Scaffold learner by adjusting task difficulty, restructuring task and providing alternative assessments

Learning by Doing approach

Goal-based scenarios (GBSs)

Case-based reasoning (CBR), Goals, Plans, and Expectations, Expectation Failure, Explanations

Essential components, The Learning Goals, The Mission, The Cover Story, The Role, The Scenario Operations, Resources, Feedback

Components of Teaching and Learning Settings (Collis, 1997)


Course enrollment and participation


Lecture and presentation,multimedia and supporting materials

Group discussions

Chat forums, discussion rooms and email

Learning events

field trips and laboratory activities, computer-based activities


private communication between instructors and classmates


learner-centred, self-regulation, further explore the knowledge through independent means

Individual projects

Major course assignment in higher education

Group projects

Collaborative learning activities to work out in groups


Assessment activities

Activity theory

Framework for analyzing needs, tasks and outcomes for designing CLEs

Activity system

Components of activity organized into activity systems

subject, object of the activity, tools used in the activity and the actions and operations that affect an outcome


Activity: Minds in Context (activity is a precursor to learning)

Consciousness in the World (combine attention, intention, memory, reasoning and speech)

Intentionality (Intentions emerge individuals' contradictions to accomplish a goal)

Object-Orientedness (Intentions are directed at objects of activity)

Community: A dialectic context (Individuals support different activities in the community)

Historical-Cultural dimension (activities evolve over time within a culture)

Tool Mediation (Activity involves artifacts e.g. instruments, signs, procedures and etc)

Collaboration (Activities are complex and interactive, which requires collaborative effort)


Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs), Problem-Project Space (present learners with an interesting, relevant and engaging ill-structured problem), Related Cases (enable learners to examine prior experiences and relate them to current problem), Information Resources (provide information banks about the subject that support problem resolution), Cognitive Tools (tools help learners to perform those tasks), Conversation and Collaboration Tools (computer-mediated communication methods to support collaboration on communities of learners)

Applying process

1. Clarify purposes of activity system

2. Analyze the Activity System

3. Analyze the Activity Structure

4. Analyze Tools and Mediators

5. Analyzing the Context

6. Analyzing Activity System Dynamics

Concept learning

Implications of Conceptual Change

Implications for Assessment: Propositions, Structural knowledge, Eliciting Conceptual Patterns, Free word associations, Similarity ratings (rate similarity between pairs of concepts), Card sort, Representing Conceptual Patterns, Cognitive maps, Pathfinder networks (present concepts as nodes and relationships), Concept Maps

Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use, Semistructured Interviews, Think-Aloud Problem Solving

Implications for Instruction: Concept-in-Use, Problem-Solving

Collaborative Learning

Learners work together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product.

Learning requires challenges

Learners benefits when diversing viewpoints of others

Learning is an active process

Learners create own concept during challenge or listen to the others

Elaborative Theory

Content to be learned should be organized from simple to complex order

A meaningful context in which subsequent ideas can be integrated.

Select and sequence content in a way that can optimize attainment of learning goals


Sequence of instruction that is as holistic as possible, to foster meaning-making and motivation

Make many scope and sequence decisions on their own during the learning process

Facilitates rapid protolyping in the instructional development process

Scope and sequence into a coherent design theory


Conceptual Elaboration Sequence (when many related concepts to be learned)

Theoretical Elaboration Sequence (when there are many related principles to be learned)

Simplifying Conditions Sequence (when a task of at least moderate complexity is to be learned)

Learning Technologies

Application of technology for the enhancement of teaching, learning and assessment

computer-based learning and multimedia materials

the use of networks and communications systems to support learning

CAI: Computer Aided Instruction

CAL: Computer Aided Learning

CBL: Computer Based Learning

CBT: Computer Based Training

CAA: Computer Aided Assessment

CMC: Computer Mediated Communications

Main application areas for Learning Technology

Drill and practice


Information retrieval systems



Cognitive tools for learning

Productivity tools

Communication tools


Mobile learning, Functionality framework, Administration: information storage and retriveal, Calendars, scheduling and grading, Reference: accessing of content at the place where learning activities occur, Dictionaries, translators and e-books, Interactive: engaging users through a response and feedback approach, drill and test, Microworld: allow learners to construct knowledge through experimentation of real world, Data collection: record data and information about their environment, Scientific, encourage participants to learn via recording info and provide immediate feedback, Reflective, allow learners to access content and diaries, encourage reflective practice, Location aware: enable learners to interact with their own environment, Collaborative: encourage knowledge sharing and communication, Pedagogical underpinning, Administration: focus on information storage and retrieval for educational domains, Referential: build on instructional philosophy of learning, Interactive: eliciting interactions and delivering appropriate feedback, Microworld: encourage creation and exploration in learners, inform in pedagogical principles and adopt a constructionist approach, Data collection, Scientific: focus supporting field-trip methodologies of learning, Reflective: encourage reflective social practice by focusing on storing info in learning for later evaluation and reflection, Multimedia: encourage learners to construct new ideas or concepts based on current and past knowledge, Location aware: allow learners to engage with/by their context, Collaborative: support meaningful learning with social activity, share knowledge

Web 2.0 and education, Internet-mediated social learning spaces (e.g. MySpace) and collaborative learning, New forms of assessment (e.g. digital portfolios), New models and methods for design of learning objects and digital curriculum materials (mashups), New models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers, New generations of learning management systems or modular content and services management platforms (e.g. Drupal)

The promise of multimedia learning

Cognitive theory of multimedia learning, Dual channel assumption, Two channels (auditory and visual) for processing information, Limited capacity assumption, Active learning assumption, Filtering, selecting, organizing and integrating information based upon prior knowledge, Three types of memory status, Sensory (receives stimuli and stores only for a very short time), Working (actively process information to create mental constructs), Long-term (Store all things learned)

Processes of Meaningful learning, Selecting, Organizing, Integrating

Instructional methods, Presenting words and pictures rather than words alone, Excluding extraneous words and pictures, Placing corresponding words and pictures near each other on the page or screen, Expressing the words in a conversational style

Instructional design methods, Multimedia effect, Coherence effect, Contiguity effect, Personalization effect

Resource-based learning environments (RBLEs)

Components, Resources, Static (stable contents), Dynamic (updated continuously), Contexts, Externally directed, Learner generated, Negotiated generated, Tools, Searching tools, Processing tools, Manipulating tools, test beliefs, ideas and theories, Communicating tools, enable sharing of ideas in different forms (e.g. text, audio and video), Scaffolds, Conceptual scaffolds, assist learner to decide what to consider or to prioritize, Metacognitive scaffolds, assist learner to access what they know and what to do, assist learner to organize knowledge, Procedural scaffolds, assist learner to use resources, Strategic scaffolds, engage a task

History and background

History of instructional design

Training materials for military services (WWII)

Programmed instructional movement (1950s)

Criterion-referenced testing (1960s)

Domains of learning outcomes (Gagne), Verbal information, Intellectual skills, Pschomotor skills, Attitudes, Cognitive strategies

Formative evaluation

Early instructional design models (mid-1960s), Instructional design, System development, Systematic instruction, Instructional system

Increasing instructional design models (1970s)

The use of microcomputer (1980s)

Change of views and practices (1990s), Instructional principles associated with constructivism, Rapid prototyping, Use of internet for distance learning, Knowledge management

History of instructional media

Visual Instruction (early 1900s)

Audiovisual Instruction (1930s)

Instructional Television (1950s)

Computers (1950s-1995)

Internet (after 1995)

Instructional Design Models for designing learning environment

Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction

Gain Attention

Inform Learner of Objectives

Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning

Present Stimulus Material

Provide Learner Guidance

Elicit Performance

Provide Feedback

Assess Performance

Enhance Retention and Transfer

Four-phase process of creating RLOs and RIOs (Cisco)

Design, Needs Assessment, Tasks Analysis, Learning Objectives

Development, Build the RLO, Build the RIOs, Conduct an Alpha Review, Conduct an Beta Review

Deliver, Dynamic Web packages, CD-ROMs, Instructor-Led training materials

Evaluation, Survey, Assessment, Transfer, Impact

ADDIE model

Analyze, Analyze system, Compile task inventory, Select tasks, Build performance measures, Choose instructional setting, Estimate training cost

Design, Develop objectives, Identify learning steps, Develop tests, List entry behaviour, Sequence and structure

Develop, List learner activity, Select delivery system, Review existing material, Develop instruction, Synthesize, Validate instruction

Implementation, Management plan, Conduct training

Evaluate, Internal evaluate, External evaluate, Revise system

ADDIE model

Anaylsis, Clarify problems, Establish goals and objectives, Identify learning environment and learners' existing knowledge

Design, Learning objectives, Assessment instruments, Content, Lesson planning, Media selection

Development, Create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase

Implementation, Make sure all things are available and functional, Trainings for facilitators and learners

Evaluation, Formative - present in each stage of the above process, Summative - domain specific criterion-related referenced items

Four-component instructional design system (4C/ ID-model)

Enviornments for complex learning can be described in four interrelated blueprint components

Learning Tasks, Engage learners in activities which require them to work with constituent skills, Real and simulated task environment and provide whole-task practice, Task classes, Simple to complex learning tasks, Learner support

Supportive information, Mental models, Inductive strategies, Inductive-inquiry, Inductive-expository, Deductive strategies, Cognitive strategies, General, abstract knowledge and concrete cases that exemplify the knowledge, Cognitive feedback, Feedback provided on the quality of performance

Just-in-Time Information (JIT), Provides learners with the step-by-step knowledge they need to know to perform the recurrent skills, Information displays, JIT info organized in small units, Prevent process overload during practice, Demonstrations and instants, Provide demonstrations and instances in the context of learning tasks, Corrective feedback, Inform learner why there was an error and provide a suggestion or hint of how to reach the goal

Part-task Practice, Promotes the compilation of procedures or rules and their subsequent strenghening, Practice items, Pracitce on one relevant recurrent constituent skill or objective, JIT information for part-task practice, Single-step or Step-by-step instruction, Overtraining

Learning strategies

Problem-based learning

Typology of problem solving (problem-solving outcome), Logical Problems, Abstract tests of reasoning that puzzle the learner, Assess mental acuity, clarity and logical reasoning, Algorithmic Problems, Require learners' number-processing systems, comprised of comprehending and producing numbers, Story Problems, Identify keywords in story, select appropriate algorithm and sequence for solving the problem and apply the algorithm, Complex cognitive process, Rule-Using Problems, Accommodate more guests and complexity, Find most relevant information in the least amount of time, Decision-Making Problems, Selecting single option from a set of alternatives based on the criteria, Troubleshooting Problems, Fault states diagnosis, Use symptoms to generate and test hypotheses about different fault states, Strategic Performance, Real-time, complex and integrated activity structures which performers use number of tactics to meet a more complex strategy, Performer applies a set of complex tactics that are designed to meet strategic objectives, Case-Analysis Problems, Emerge from instruction, not reality, Engage process that includes goal elaborating, information collecting, hypothesis forming, forecasting, planning and decision making, monitoring the effects of ones' actions and self-reflecting, Design Problems, The most complex and ill-structured kinds of problems that are encountered in practice, Dilemmas, Social dilemmas, Perceived by individuals in terms of their own personal self-interests or the common good, Ethical dilemmas, Complicated when the decision maker is pulled in one direction by ethical considerations and legal, temporal or organizational obstacles

Problem-based Learning (PBL) design, Instructional Principles (constructivism), Connect all learning activities to a larger task or problem, Clear purpose of learning activity, Develop ownership for overall task or problem, Request problems for learners as the stimulus for learning activities, Establish problem that learners can readily adopt as their own, Design reliable task, Discuss and negotiate with learners, Reflect complexity of environment, Ownership of the process, Challenge learner's thinking by teachers, Support and Challenge learner' thinking, Inquiring based learning, Testing ideas against alternative views and contexts, Collaborative learning, Features, Learning goals, Simulate and engage students in the problem solving behavior, Problem Generation, Include the concepts and principles related to the content, Identify the primary concepts student must learn, Must be real problem, Problem Presentation, Facilitator role, Asking questions to encourage deeply knowledge developed, Challenge learner's thinking, Well-structured problems, Present all problem's elements to learners, Organized rules, regular and principles in predictive and prescriptive ways, Probabilistic problems and knowable, comprehensible solutions

Rich Environments for Active Learning (REALs)

Instructional systems

Definitions, Constructivist philosophies, Knowledge-building activities to promote high-level thinking processes, Promote high-level thinking processes, Learning-to-learn through realistic tasks and performances, Encourage student responsibility, initiative, decision-making and intentional learning, Promote study and investigation within authentic contexts

Main attributes, Student responsibility and initiative, Intentional learning, Questioning, Self-reflection, Metacognitive skills, REAL: reciprocal teaching, Social, interactive and holistic, Generative learning activities, Students: investigators, seeker and problem solvers, Teachers: facilitators and guides, REAL: cognitive apprenticeship, make processes visible, Authentic learning contexts, Realistic learning experience, REAL: anchored instruction, realistic event, problem or theme, REAL: cognitive flexibility theory, develop conditionalized and indexicalized knowledge structure, Authentic assessment strategies, Evaluate students performance, REAL: learning in design, Co-operative support, Social practice, meaning and patterns, REAL: Problem-based learning