Esophageal Cancer

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Esophageal Cancer by Mind Map: Esophageal  Cancer

1. Causes/Risk Factors

2. Signs/Symptoms

3. Diagnostic Tests

4. Treatments

5. Patterns of Injury

6. -A growth of neoplasm in the middle or lower portion of the esophagus. -Esophageal CA has often metastasized by the time of diagnosis

7. Pathophysiology

8. -Dysphagia -Pain with swallowing -Substernal pain that radiates to back and neck. -Choking -Sore throat -Esophageal obstruction (late sign esophageal CA)

9. Barium swallow CT, MRI, PET, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (biopsy) Endoscopic ultrasound (staging)

10. -Radiation or chemotherapy -Radiofrequency ablation, Types of surgery: Esophagectomy Esophagogastrostomy Esophagogastrectomy Esophagoenterostomy

11. -Metastasis to the liver or lung is common. -Lesions can extend to aorta causing hemorrhaging. -Esophageal obstruction and perforation Death

12. -Age -Gender -Gastroesophageal reflux disease -Barrett’s esophagus -Tobacco and alcohol -Obesity -Diet -Achalasia -Tylosis -Plummer -Vinson syndrome -Workplace exposures -Injury to the esophagus -History of certain other cancers -Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection

13. -Squamous -Adenocarcinoma

14. Chronic Inflammation (GERD)

15. Normal Squamous Epthilium

16. Barrett's Intestinal Meteplasia

17. Low Grade Dysplasia

18. High Grade Dysplasia

19. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma