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PANAMÁ by Mind Map: PANAMÁ

1. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

1.1. GOVERNMENT

1.1.1. Guillermo Endara

1.1.1.1. Restoring functioning democratic political institutions, although the demilitarization process was difficult at times

1.1.2. Ernesto Pérez Balladares

1.1.2.1. Implemented an economic reform program that included trade liberalization

1.1.2.2. Privatization of state-owned enterprises

1.1.3. Martín Torrijos

1.1.3.1. Initiated the Panama Canal expansion project

1.1.3.1.1. Negotiated a free trade agreement with the United States

1.1.3.1.2. Enacted judicial, penal, and anti corruption reforms.

1.1.4. Ricardo Martinelli

1.1.4.1. Rupture in relations with Vice President Juan Carlos Varela of the PPA

1.1.4.2. Remained broadly popular of the strong performance of the Panamanian economy under his government buoyed

1.1.4.2.1. By the ongoing Canal expansion and other large infrastructure projects

1.1.4.3. He was also criticized by civil society groups and political opponents for

1.1.4.3.1. taking a heavy-handed approach toward governing and for not being more consultative.

1.2. ELECTIONS

1.2.1. System

1.2.1.1. President is elected by simple majority, with no provisions for a second round

1.2.2. Arias had won the presidency

1.2.2.1. His government could have submitted a constitutional reform to shorten the reelection

1.2.2.2. The popularity of President Martinelli was a key factor helping Arias in the race

1.2.3. 2014 campaign

1.2.3.1. Varela advocated programs

1.2.3.1.1. Emergency price controls for basic products

1.2.3.1.2. An electricity project with Colombia

1.2.3.1.3. An integrated public transportation plan for Panama City

1.2.3.1.4. Monthly payments to Panamanian seniors without pensions

1.2.3.1.5. Government with a majority in the legislature

1.2.3.2. Varela also has vowed to combat inequality

1.2.3.3. Were considered free and fair

1.2.4. Varela's Foreign Policy

1.2.4.1. Indicated a willingness to resume diplomatic relations with Venezuela

1.3. ECONOMIC SITUATION

1.3.1. Panama’s services

1.3.1.1. Has been flourishing because of the Panama Canal expansion

1.3.1.2. Large infrastructure projects, such as a metro system for Panama City

1.3.1.2.1. Third bridge over the Canal

1.3.1.2.2. Expansion of the country’s international airport

1.3.1.2.3. Several roads and highways

1.3.2. Global financial crisis

1.3.2.1. Recession slowed Panama’s economic growth to 3.9% in 2009

1.3.3. Growth

1.3.3.1. International Monetary Fund Article

1.3.3.1.1. Panama's banks that are well capitalized, profitable, and liquid.7

1.3.3.2. Poverty rate declined from 31% in 2005 to 25% in 2011

1.3.3.3. Torrijos government

1.3.3.3.1. Social support program of conditional cash transfers to poor families and the elderly

1.3.3.4. Martinelli government

1.3.3.4.1. Program to provide monthly payments

1.3.3.4.2. Universal scholarship program that provides monthly grants to students.

1.3.4. Inequality

1.3.4.1. Still remains relatively high, with large disparities between the rich and poor

1.3.4.2. Accelerating poverty reduction depends on the country developing a more effective social protection system for the poor

1.3.4.3. Panama has received support from the World Bank for a variety of projects

1.3.4.3.1. Focused on health, social protection, rural development, environment, infrastructure, and efficiency in the public sector

2. U.S RELATIONS

2.1. BILATERAL FREE TRADE AGREEMENT

2.1.1. strategic partner

2.1.1.1. Financial sector make it an important hub for global trade

2.1.1.2. Were strengthened with the approval of a bilateral free trade agreement

2.1.1.3. Key U.S strategic partner

2.1.1.3.1. Its transportation infrastructure, and its financial sector make it an important hub for global trade

2.1.2. Vulnerable

2.1.2.1. Drug trafficking, money laundering, and organized criminal activity

2.1.2.2. The country receives additional assistance through the Central American Regional Security Initiative (CARSI)

2.1.2.2.1. Reduce drug trafficking while advancing citizen security

2.1.3. Panama canal expansion project

2.1.3.1. Expected to reduce shipping rates between Asia and the U.S.

2.1.3.1.1. Increase in the export of liquefied natural gas from the United States to Asian markets

2.1.3.2. Significant savings and increased trade using that route

2.1.3.3. Increase Latin American trade with Asia as well as intra-Latin American trade

2.2. U.S. FOREIGN AID AND OTHER SUPPORT

2.2.1. Southern Command (Southcom)

2.2.1.1. Support through military exercises providing humanitarian and medical assistance

2.2.1.2. Provides emergency assistance in natural disasters

2.2.1.2.1. Such as floods or droughts

2.2.2. Regional Security Initiative (CARSI)

2.2.2.1. Central American states reduce drug trafficking while advancing citizen security.

2.2.2.2. Also provided training and equipment to the Panamanian National Police

2.2.2.2.1. For anti-gang enforcement and community policing

2.2.2.3. Law enforcement professionalization and support

2.2.2.4. Assistance to modernize and maintain vessels and facilities of the Air Naval Service

2.2.3. Drug Trafficking and Money Laundering

2.2.3.1. Drug trafficking and money laundering has been an important concern to U.S

2.2.3.1.1. Also exploit the country’s well-developed transportation infrastructure

2.2.3.2. Panama remains a major transit country for illicit drugs from South America

2.2.3.2.1. Because of its geographic location, large maritime industry, and containerized seaports

2.2.4. OECD’s “gray list,”

2.2.4.1. Its legal and regulatory system for the exchange of information for tax purposes are still subject to peer reviews

2.3. COMMERCIAL RELATIONS

2.3.1. Exports

2.3.1.1. Repaired goods, seafood, gold, electrical machinery, and sugar

2.3.2. Imports

2.3.2.1. Oil, machinery, electrical machinery, iron and steel products, aircraft, and agricultural products

2.3.3. FTA

2.3.3.1. As a means of increasing foreign investment in the country

2.3.3.2. Provide access to the country’s large services market

2.3.3.3. According to U.S. officials, Panama’s strategic location as a major shipping route

2.3.3.4. The agreement also provides improved access for U.S. companies to Panama

2.3.3.4.1. Includes financial, telecommunications, computer, express delivery, energy, environmental, and energy services

2.4. CANAL OPERATIONS

2.4.1. Historical Background

2.4.1.1. The Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treaty established the United States “as if it were sovereign”

2.4.1.1.1. Conflict between the U.S. and Panamanian governments

2.4.1.1.2. Panamanian resentment over the extent of U.S. rights in the country led to riots

2.4.1.2. Panama Canal Treaty gave primary responsibility for defending the Canal to the United States

3. FORTALEZA

3.1. OBJETIVOS ESTRATEGICOS

3.1.1. Población

3.1.1.1. País siempre es plural y consta de muchos sectores o grupos diferentes .

3.1.1.2. Importante diversidad de intereses, prioridades y preferencias

3.1.2. Interés colectivo,

3.1.2.1. Plural: concita el apoyo de distintos sectores y grupos socio-económicos, ideológicos y territoriales de la población

3.1.2.2. Integrador en el de que incorpora a esos grupos, pese a sus diferencias, en el interés común

3.1.3. Canal de Panamá

3.1.3.1. Recuperación del área multiplicaría los ingresos del Estado y fortalecería el desarrollo de la economía nacional

3.1.3.1.1. Mejorar la calidad de vida de todos los panameños

3.1.3.2. Los voceros panameños opinión respecto a la usurpación de su principal recurso natural

3.1.3.2.1. Irrespetaba el derecho internacional

3.1.3.2.2. El derecho de las otras naciones a la soberanía sobre sus recursos naturales.

3.1.3.3. Empresa pacífica y desmilitarizada, destinada a diversificar y potenciar los servicios marítimo‑comerciales de interconexión

3.1.3.3.1. Entre los países latinoamericanos y de todos ellos con el resto del mundo.

3.1.3.4. Más allá de recuperar el territorio, buscaba convertirlo en motor del desarrollo del país,

3.1.3.4.1. Después demandaría tener acceso a inversiones y tecnologías adecuadas a esos objetivos nacionales

3.1.4. Causa nacional

3.1.4.1. Debe obtener amigos solidarios y actuar con su apoyo

3.1.4.1.1. Ya que el problema ya no es individual sino colectivo

3.1.4.2. La presión internacional le permitirá sacarle al grande el compromiso de negociar el problema

3.1.4.2.1. Obtener resultados satisfactorios

3.1.4.3. Panamá quería desalojar el enclave colonial extranjero y recuperar su más valioso patrimonio nacional.

3.1.5. Denuncias Antiimperialistas

3.1.5.1. Obtener un arreglo amigable que satisficiera ese objetivo nacional,

3.1.6. Política de neutralidad activa

3.1.6.1. País enfocado en crear puentes que ayudaran resolver o mitigar los problemas de su época,

3.1.7. EE.UU

3.1.7.1. Jimmy Carter

3.1.7.1.1. Privilegiaba la cuestión ética y los derechos humanos

3.1.7.2. Richard Nixon

3.1.7.2.1. Las tensiones ocasionaron una creciente inquietud internacional

3.1.7.2.2. Decisión de reunir al Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU en Panamá

3.1.8. Momentos clave

3.1.8.1. Solidaridad internacional que se expandió de América Latina y el Caribe

3.1.8.1.1. Campo afroasiático y tercermundista

3.1.8.2. Simpatía de varios estados europeos

3.1.8.3. Respaldo de los movimientos sociales norteamericanos

3.1.8.4. Apoyo de lo que entonces era el bloque socialista europeo

3.1.8.4.1. Además de los socialistas asiáticos, China y Vietnam.

3.2. GENERAL TORRIJOS

3.2.1. Guerra fría

3.2.1.1. La atmósfera envenenaba al planeta y no se contaba con instancias de diálogo y concertación

3.2.1.2. OEA estaba férreamente dominada por Estados Unidos

3.2.2. Méritos

3.2.2.1. Maniobrar entre esos riesgos sin dejarse atrapar por las parcelaciones ni los dogmas de aquel entonces

4. REFERENCIAS

4.1. Castro N, 2010 La política exterior de un objetivo nacional: Panamá

4.2. P. Sullivan M, 2014 Panama: Background and U.S. Relations