MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology

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MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology

1. Additional resources and instructional technology examples

1.1. RISAL

1.1.1. account name: Emma

2. Synthesis of ideas and reflection

2.1. session1

2.2. session2

2.3. session3

2.4. session4

2.5. session5

2.6. session6

2.7. session7

2.8. session8

3. Reading suggested metarials

3.1. session1

3.1.1. paper1 a history of instructional design and technology:part1:a history of instructional media the defination of instructional design and technology mediums museum visual and audiovisual instruction television computer

3.1.2. paper2 a history of instructional design and technology:part2:a history of instructional design original purpose of instructional design conduct research and develop training materials for military service programmed instruction behavioral objectives criterion-referenced testing hierarchical analysis evaluation formative summative

3.1.3. paper3 Teachers’ private theories and their design of technology-based learning private theories individual beliefs institutional influence instructional decisions and technology integration reflection on private theories my conclusion The understanding of teachers’ theories is important in the context of educational reforms that emphasise technology and changes in teaching and learning towards student-centred practices

3.1.4. paper4 an expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: an ethnographic study instructional design(ID) micro-design macro-design Sarah's experiment classroom layout teacher's knowledge,beliefs,and theories of action factors affecting thinking during planning reflective teaching

3.2. session2

3.2.1. paper1 Instructional Design and Learning Theory Behaviorism Theory Learner Situation suitable ID Strategy Learning Evaluation Cognitive Theory Schema information processing model Learner Situation Suitable ID Strategy Evaluation Constructive theory Learner Situation suitable ID Strategy

3.2.2. paper2 Second generation instructional design(ID2) limitation of ID1 1.content analysis does not ues integrated wholes which are essential for understanding complex and dynamic phenomena 2.has limited prescriptions for knowledge acquisition and course organization 3.theories are essentially closed systems 4.fails to integrate the phases of instructional development 5.teachers pieces but not integrated wholes 6.instruction is often passive rather than interactive 7.every ID1 presentation must be constructed from small components 8.ID1 is labor intensive ID2 analyzing and representing knowledge for integrated goals instructional strategies and transactions

3.2.3. paper3 knowledge objects and mental-models knowledge components facts concepts steps(procedures) principles knowledge structure list components in a hierachy procedural-prerequisite procedural-decision casual mental-models categorization problems interpretation problems

3.2.4. paper4 instructional transaction theory knowledge objects entities activities processes properties knowledge interrelationships(PEAnets) knowledge objects can be linked via component relationships knowledge objects can be linked via abstraction relationships

3.2.5. paper5 Chapter 10 “The events of instruction” self-instruction and self-learner Skill at self-instruction may be expected to increase with the age of the learners, as they gain in experience with learning tasks instruction and learning sensory effect instructional events gainning attention inforing the learner about the objective Retrieval of items of prior learning reflection Outcomes of instruction, performance objectives, a sequence for the topics, lessons,those four events are the fundamental artchitecture of the course .

3.2.6. paper6 Cisco Systems Reusable Information Object Strategy RIOs & RLO definition 1.Each RIO can stand alone as a collection of content items, practice items and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective. 2.Individual RIOs are then combined to form a larger structure called a Reusable Learning Object (RLO). RLO-RIO Structure Inside the RLO Inside the RIO RIO Creation Process Design Develop Deliver Evaluate My Reflection after reading many relevant materials about learning object design, one common and main feature is 're-usable'. most learning objects are combined or gathered by types of simple or independent objects. each RIO should follow certain learning objectives. inside RIO, content,practice and assessment should be matched with each other to reach the aim of this LO. RLO formation should depend on several RIOs and link well with each RIOs also.

3.3. session3

3.3.1. paper1 the promise of multimedia learning considerd elements multimedia effect coherence effect spatial contiguity effect personalization effect verbal-only instruction positive aspects negative aspects multimedia instructional message words(printed or spoken text) pictures(static graphics:map,chart,photo,dynamic graphics:animation,video) meaningful learning framework for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning multimedia learning work 2.organize 3.integrate

3.3.2. paper2 blueprints for complex learning:the 4c/id-model four essencial components learning tasks supportive information just in time information part task practice 4C/ID-model(4components instructional design) 1.integrating and coordinating performance of task-specific constituent skills rather than knowledge type 2.supportive information(knowledge) and just-in-time information(performance) 3.mix the part&whole task practice complex learning 1.integrate sets of learning goals(the whole is more than sum of parts) 2.use all skills in a coordinated and integrated fashion 3.skills hierarchy

3.4. session4

3.4.1. paper1 Rich environments for active learning Definition of REALs 1.constructivist philosophies and theories 2.realistic, meaningful, relevant, complex, and information-rich contexts 3.encourage the growth of student responsibility, initiative, decision-making, and intentional learning 4.knowledge-building learning communities 5.high-level thinking processes (i.e. analysis, synthesis, problem-solving, experimentation, creativity, and examination of topics from multiple perspectives) 6.realistic tasks and performances. The main attributes of REALs A. Student responsibility and initiative B. Generative learning activities C. Authentic learning contexts D. Authentic assessment strategies E. Co-operative support Reflection 1.Each REAL attribute builds upon and uses the others. None of the attributes are mutually exclusive, and no one attribute is more important than another. 2.The characteristics are symbiotic, with one feature both supporting and needing the others to create a successful rich environment for active learning

3.4.2. paper2 Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving problem variations structuredness complexity domain specificity problem representation individual differences typology of problem solving

3.4.3. paper3 Problem Based Learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework Constructivism 1.Understanding is in our interactions with the environment 2. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned 3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings Instructional Principles 1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem. 2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task 3. Design an authentic task 4. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning 5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution 6. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking 7. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts 8. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process Problem-Based Learning example on medical learning process

3.4.4. paper4 designing constructivist learning environments(215-239) model for designing constructivist learning environment problem context problem manipulation space case scaffold student memory:case-based reasoning enhance cognitive flexibility information resources cognitive(knowledge-construction)tools static and dynamic knowledge modeling tools

3.5. session5

3.5.1. paper1 teaching and learning online Materials for online learning Information Access Interactive Learning Networked Learning Materials Development Frameworks for online learning settings Instructional forms and learning initial knowledge Advanced Knowledge Expertise learning tasks,resources,supports Content-based design Task-based design

3.5.2. paper2 teaching and learning in digital environments:the resurgence of resource-based learning predigital perspectives 1.teachers used resources incrementally and linearly to convey specific content while learners attempted to acquire specified knowledge or skills 2.many ancillary educational materials were considered nonessential add-ons rather than integral learning resources 3.physical location of resources and packaging problems(pragmatic concerns) emerging perspectives 1.isolate various components to meet specific needs within a particular context 2.a resource provides candidate information to be engaged and interpreted.meaning is influenced more by the diversity than the singularity of the perspectives taken. 3.teachers may act as facilitators,guiding the process and assisting the learner in clarifying the kinds of information to be considered and in locating potentially useful learning resources 4.the same resource may support vastly different learning needs 5.intact resources(a single resource such as a book)are viewed as a collection of knowledge objects rather than single entities. 6.emerging systems enable educators and learners to access,evaluate,use and generate digital resources 7.contemporary systems provide ready access to historic,current,and dynamically changing information 8.learning may be guided according to individual needs and purposes resource-based learning RBLEs

3.6. session6

3.6.1. paper1 activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environment activity theory 1.emphasizes both the historical development of ideas as well as the active and constructive role of humans can not be understood or analyzed outside the context in which it occurs is a powerful socio-cultural and socio-historical lens through which we can analyze most forms of human activity activity system(components) subject object tools(for transformation process) goal-directed hierarchy of actions assumption of activity theory minds in context consciousness intentionality object-orientedness community historical-cultural dimension tool mediation collaboration constructivist learning environments problem-project space related case information resources cognitive tools conversation and collaboration tools process of desiging cles accordig to activity theory 1.clarify purpose of activity 2.analyse the activity system 3.analyze the activity structure 5.analyze the context 6.analyze activity system dynamics

3.6.2. paper2 on the role of concepts in learning and instructional design similarity view of concepts classical-attributed isolation view of concepts prototype or probablistic view of concepts exemplar view other views actional view theory-based view conceptual change 1.when learners change their understanding of the concepts they use and how they are organizaed within a conceptual framework 2.dissatisfaction with existing conceptions which can not interpret or explain personal experiences,can not solve problems conceptual pattern free word associations similarity ratings card sorts

3.6.3. paper3 searching for learner-centered,constructivist,and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools theoretical perspectives on collaborative learning tools A learner-centered view on collaborative technology sociocultural views on collaborative technology

3.7. session7

3.7.1. paper1 web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications web2.0 application blog,wiki,social spaces,podcasting read-write web blog wiki subscribing information RSS(subscribe recent news) desk-top applications social spaces 1.engage people in collective activities 2.rescources sharing and referencing systems internet as a platform google docs open source wikipedia educational web2.0 forms of assessment 2.use of internet-mediated social learning space models and methods for design of learning objects and curriculum models for resources sharing generation of learning environment system

3.8. session8

3.8.1. paper1 designing collaborative,constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices functionality framework of handheld educational application administrition reference interactive educational micriworld data collection location aware collaborative collaborative,constructionist and contextual applications TxtIT Mapping Challenge SortIT

4. Course reflection

4.1. Session1-design of learning / instructional design

4.1.1. concept of instructional design

4.1.2. instructioanl products multimedia package digital vedio blended learning package educational websites assessment system LO educational games educational electronic devices E-books

4.1.3. the process of Instructional Design ADDIE 1.analysis 3.development 4.implementation 5.evaluation team member project manager instructional designer interface designer multimedia designer programmer others

4.2. Session2-Instructional Design Models and Analysis Stage of a Process

4.3. Session3-Design stage(1)

4.3.1. procedure define a goal conduct instructional analysis performance,content,task analysis assessment strategy write learning objectives analyze learners and context instructional strategy organize instructional events develop a flowchart(CBT flowchart)

4.3.2. construct an instructional product pre-testing(privious assessment) content+practice(formative assessment) summative assessment

4.4. Session4-Design stage(2)

4.4.1. storyboard needs to be evaluated includes screen area presentation authoring plathform quality and format of graphies ,videos,audios and other medio pedagogical consideration

4.5. session5-Design stage(3)

4.5.1. multimedia learning theories

4.5.2. The Four-Component Instructional Design model -- 4C/ID-model

4.5.3. learning by doing

4.5.4. resource-based learning

4.5.5. constructive learning environment

4.6. session6-prototype

4.6.1. Interface design 1.Layout Buttons Hot-spot areas Clickable objects Pull-down menus text enter 2.Size of display area 4.Color

4.6.2. Presentation design Information design diagrams, icons, symbols, images & photographs, tables & graphs, metaphors & analogies, spaces & lines Media design

4.6.3. Prototype Evaluatiopn

4.6.4. other issues How deliver via web influences overall design? How delivery via mobile devices influences overall design? What are requirements for design when mashing content? What is relationship between effective design and learning outcomes?

4.7. session7-web2.0 learning technologies

4.7.1. definition of web2.0 User control of information New forms of expression Web as a point of presence Internet-mediated social/collective activities Web as a platform Rich user experiences

4.7.2. web2.0 applications 1.Blog, blogging, blogger, blogsphere 3.Social Bookmarking 4.RSS Feeds and Aggregators 5.podcasting

4.8. session8-design learning technologies for mobile learning

4.8.1. handheld devices

4.8.2. functions multimedia access connectivity capture tools analytical tools presentational tools

4.8.3. limitations