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MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: MITE6330
Learning Design
and Technology
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MITE6330 Learning Design and Technology

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paper1 a history of instructional design and technology:part1:a history of instructional media, the defination of instructional design and technology, mediums, museum, visual and audiovisual instruction, television, computer

paper2 a history of instructional design and technology:part2:a history of instructional design, original purpose of instructional design, conduct research and develop training materials for military service, programmed instruction, behavioral objectives, criterion-referenced testing, hierarchical analysis, evaluation, formative, summative

paper3 Teachers’ private theories and their design of technology-based learning, private theories, individual beliefs, six major areas, learning, knowledge and how it is acquired,useful teaching and learning strategies,ways learning can be evaluated, student-centered learning, studens, how the institute's students learn,their limitations,their ability to use technology for learning and collaboration, teacher, teachers' roles inlearning in a classroomand in a technology-based environment, technology, use of technology in a class before this study,ways in which technology-based learning differs from classroom learning ,limitations and benefitsof technology for learning, design, Selection criteria for topics determining suitability for technologybased learning, planning and design of technology-based learning, educational changes, Changes in society and their implications in education, ways in which such changes impact teachers and students, institutional influence, instructional decisions and technology integration, reflection on private theories, my conclusion, The understanding of teachers’ theories is important in the context of educational reforms that emphasise technology and changes in teaching and learning towards student-centred practices

paper4 an expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: an ethnographic study, instructional design(ID), micro-design, analysis, design, development and implemetation, evaluation and revision, e.g. classroom instructional models in literature and training environment, macro-design, establish and recognize societal-based system of leaning resources, manage and connect systems with the learning experiencein education, open to change, e.g system change and school restructuring, Sarah's experiment, classroom layout, first few weeks,line up the desks and make student be front of her,in order to memorize their faces and names, after,organized students in a circle,face to face interaction, walk around room easily,in order to make them talkative and involve in others, teacher's knowledge,beliefs,and theories of action, knowledge of self as a teacher, who she is and who she wants to be, be a facilitator to help students find information, knowledge of content, untilization of knowledge in real life, use exampls from everyday life to explain and interpretation, knowledge of curriculum, identify appropriate content,activities,materials,and teaching strategies and adjust curriculum resources to the context, pedagogical knowledge, emphasis on the usefulness of laboratory activities,real-world examples,and application exercises to solve real-life problems, knowledge of students, reflection on students' responses and reactions to the classroom, have a belief that students can be changed as teacher expect if one do it with her best power., knowledge of context, actions should be based on what social and culture setting or school she is in, students' background and characteristics change the classroom interactions, factors affecting thinking during planning, reflection on previous experience, perception and beliefs about herself,students,teaching and learning, knowledge of available resources, knowledge of students and their backgrounds, long-term general goals, physical science curriculum and its emphasis, interpretation of social and culture contexts of the classroom and the school, reflective teaching, reflection-in-action(during instruction), students' learning needs, students' responce(action and question), performance as a teacher, asking questions instead of providing answers, lesson content, reflection-on-action(before and after instruction), planning consideration(time,lesson content,teaching strategies), environment(classroom arrangement)


paper1 Instructional Design and Learning Theory, Behaviorism Theory, Learner Situation, learns have very little directly transferable prior knowledge about a skill or content area, suitable ID, classic instructional design, Strategy, mastery learning, contiguity of feedback/reinforcement,basic paired associations, stimulus-response(low degree of processing), Learning Evaluation, Tests which are developed to measure each objectives, Cognitive Theory, Schema, an internal knowledge structure, information processing model, sensory register, short-term memory, long-term memory, Learner Situation, follows introductory knowledge and preceeds expert knowledge, Suitable ID, analyze a task,break it down into smaller steps ant use that information to develop instruction that moves from simple to complex building on prior schema, Strategy, classification(increased level of process),analogical reasoning,systermetic problom solving, Evaluation, Constructive theory, Learner Situation, learners are able to make intelligent decisions within the learning envirnment, suitable ID, based on constructivist learning envirnment, considering about internal and social negotiation,and internet-based design, Strategy, heuristic problem solving,personal selection,social negotiation

paper2 Second generation instructional design(ID2), limitation of ID1, 1.content analysis does not ues integrated wholes which are essential for understanding complex and dynamic phenomena, 2.has limited prescriptions for knowledge acquisition and course organization, 3.theories are essentially closed systems, 4.fails to integrate the phases of instructional development, 5.teachers pieces but not integrated wholes, 6.instruction is often passive rather than interactive, 7.every ID1 presentation must be constructed from small components, 8.ID1 is labor intensive, ID2, analyzing and representing knowledge for integrated goals, classes of knowledge representations(KR), retrieving the knowledge(KRr), be executable(KRe), interest(KRi), knowledge representation for ID2, frames, internal structure, links to other frames, knowledge analysis and acquisition system(KAAS), instructional strategies and transactions, transaction, one way transmission(video,lecture, lack of interaction), discussion,conversations, transaction management/strategy, transaction frame sets and goal sets, strategy analysis, information gathering, prescriptions and filters

paper3 knowledge objects and mental-models, knowledge components, facts, concepts, steps(procedures), principles, knowledge structure, list, no relationship between knowledge components, components in a hierachy, learning-prerequisite, component lower in the hierachy must be known before a component higher in the hierachy, parts-taxonomy, coordinate components represent the parts of superordinate component, knids-taxonomy, coordinate components represent the kinds of superordinate component, procedural-prerequisite, flowchart, procedural-decision, casual, cause- and -effect, mental-models, categorization problems, classification, generalization, interpretation problems, explanation, prediction, condition--->consequence, trouble shooting, learning by doing, consequence--->condition

paper4 instructional transaction theory, knowledge objects, entities, activities, processes, properties, knowledge interrelationships(PEAnets), knowledge objects can be linked via component relationships, knowledge objects can be linked via abstraction relationships

paper5 Chapter 10 “The events of instruction”, self-instruction and self-learner, Skill at self-instruction may be expected to increase with the age of the learners, as they gain in experience with learning tasks, instruction and learning, sensory effect, short term memory, semantic encoding, prepare information for long term store, long term memory, information is stored according to its meaning, instructional events, gainning attention, Catch students’ interest(e.g.Wouldn’t you like to know what makes a leaf fall from a tree), inforing the learner about the objective, make some communication if the learning objectives are not quite obvious(e.g.make sentences), Retrieval of items of prior learning, reflection, Outcomes of instruction, performance objectives, a sequence for the topics, lessons,those four events are the fundamental artchitecture of the course .

paper6 Cisco Systems Reusable Information Object Strategy, RIOs & RLO definition, 1.Each RIO can stand alone as a collection of content items, practice items and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective., 2.Individual RIOs are then combined to form a larger structure called a Reusable Learning Object (RLO)., RLO-RIO Structure, Inside the RLO, overview, RIOs (7 ± 2), summary, assessment, Pre-RLO Assessment, Post-RLO Assessment, Inside the RIO, Content Items, Practice Items, Types of Practices, Assessment Items, each assessment of RIO should be part of RLO assessment., RIO Creation Process, Design, Needs Assessment, Task Analysis, Learning Objectives, RIO Types, Develop, Deliver, Dynamic Packaging, Publish CD-ROM, Conduct ITL, Evaluate, Level 1 Survey, Measures the Learner's reaction to the event (Did Learners like it?)., Level 2 Assessment, match the objective found in the RIO, and therefore must be job-task focused., Level 3 Transfer, through some type of 360 degree peer/manager review and by observation., Level 4 Impact, increase in profitability, increase in customer satisfaction, increase in sales, and decrease in returns., My Reflection, after reading many relevant materials about learning object design, one common and main feature is 're-usable'. most learning objects are combined or gathered by types of simple or independent objects. each RIO should follow certain learning objectives. inside RIO, content,practice and assessment should be matched with each other to reach the aim of this LO. RLO formation should depend on several RIOs and link well with each RIOs also.


paper1 the promise of multimedia learning, considerd elements, multimedia effect, coherence effect, spatial contiguity effect, personalization effect, verbal-only instruction, positive aspects, 1.long history in education, 2.clearly deliver key information, negative aspects, 1.inadequate conception on how to learn, 2.hard to remember most key points and apply to solve real world problems, multimedia instructional message, words(printed or spoken text), ears, selecting words, sounds, verbal model, long-term memory, pictures(static graphics:map,chart,photo,dynamic graphics:animation,video), eyes, selecting images, images, pictorial model, meaningful learning, problem-solving transfer test, show how something works, framework for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, multimedia learning work,, 2.organize, verbal material, visual material, 3.integrate

paper2 blueprints for complex learning:the 4c/id-model, four essencial components, learning tasks, organized in simple-to-complex task, supportive information, establish relationships between new elements and what learners already know(prior knowledge), just in time information, provides learners with the step-by-step knowledge they need to know in order to perform the recurrent skills, part task practice, repeat practice of recurrent constituent skills in learning task, 4C/ID-model(4components instructional design), 1.integrating and coordinating performance of task-specific constituent skills rather than knowledge type, 2.supportive information(knowledge) and just-in-time information(performance), 3.mix the part&whole task practice, complex learning, 1.integrate sets of learning goals(the whole is more than sum of parts), 2.use all skills in a coordinated and integrated fashion, 3.skills hierarchy


paper1 Rich environments for active learning, Definition of REALs, 1.constructivist philosophies and theories, 2.realistic, meaningful, relevant, complex, and information-rich contexts, 3.encourage the growth of student responsibility, initiative, decision-making, and intentional learning, 4.knowledge-building learning communities, 5.high-level thinking processes (i.e. analysis, synthesis, problem-solving, experimentation, creativity, and examination of topics from multiple perspectives), 6.realistic tasks and performances., The main attributes of REALs, A. Student responsibility and initiative, REAL strategy: reciprocal teaching, B. Generative learning activities, REAL strategy: cognitive apprenticeship, C. Authentic learning contexts, REAL strategy: anchored instruction, REAL strategy:cognitive flexibility theory, D. Authentic assessment strategies, REAL example: learning in design, E. Co-operative support, REAL strategy: problem-based learning, Reflection, 1.Each REAL attribute builds upon and uses the others. None of the attributes are mutually exclusive, and no one attribute is more important than another., 2.The characteristics are symbiotic, with one feature both supporting and needing the others to create a successful rich environment for active learning

paper2 Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving, problem variations, structuredness, well-structured problems, 1.present all elements of the problem to the learners, 2.require the application of a limited number of regular and well-structured rules and principles that are organized in preductive and perscriptive ways, ill-structured, 1.possess problem elements that are unknown or not know with any degree of confidence, 2.possess multiple solutions, 3.require learners to make judgement and express personal opinions or beliefs, ill-structured problems can become well-structured with practice, complexity, 1.the most complex problems are dynamic(task environment and its factors change over time), involves more cognitive operations, domain specificity, problem representation, individual differences, familiarity, experts are good problem solvers as they recognize different problem states that invoke certain solutions, novices who do not have well-developed problem schemas,are not able to recognize problem types,so they must rely on general problem solving strategies, domain and structural knowledge, cognitive controls, metacognition, epistemological beliefs, 1.learners believe knowledge is right or wrong depend on teachers' instruction(assimilate what teacher knows), 2.accept different perspectives, affective and conative, affective elements, attitudes,beliefs about problems,problem domain,learner's ability to solve problems, conative, motivational, engaging intentionally,persisting on task, typology of problem solving, logical problems, puzzle, algorithmic problems, math,formula, story problems, long for car A to overtake car B traveling at different speeds, decision-making problems, e.g.should i move in order to take another job?, troubleshooting problems, e.g.why won't car start, rule-using problems, using an online search system to locate your house holding, strategic performance, use a number of tactics to meet a more complex and ill-structured strategy, case-analusis problem, design problems

paper3 Problem Based Learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework, Constructivism, 1.Understanding is in our interactions with the environment, 2. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned, 3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings, Instructional Principles, 1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem., 2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task, 3. Design an authentic task, 4. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning, 5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution, 6. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking, 7. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts, 8. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process, Problem-Based Learning, example on medical learning, 1.check problems existed in one patient, 2.speak out and discuss individual opinions, 3.self-directed learning(searching knowledge,reading books), They must be able to develop strategies for identifying learning issues and locating, evaluating, and learning from resources relevant to that issue., and re-discuss, process, 1.Learning goals, 2.Problem Generation, 3.Problem Presentation, 4.Facilitator Role

paper4 designing constructivist learning environments(215-239), model for designing constructivist learning environment, problem context, performance environment, describe the physical,socio-cultural and organizational climate surrounding the problem, community of performers, the values,beliefs,sociocultural expectations people involved, problem manipulation space, case, scaffold student memory:case-based reasoning, enhance cognitive flexibility, information resources, cognitive(knowledge-construction)tools, static and dynamic knowledge modeling tools, databases,spreadsheets,semantic networks,hypermedia construction


paper1 teaching and learning online, Materials for online learning, Information Access, Interactive Learning, Technologies such as Flash, Shockwave and Java applets provide a range of options and applications for interactive elements, Networked Learning, email, bulletin boards, discussion forums, chat sessions, real-time on-line audioconferencing and videoconferencing, Materials Development, Frameworks for online learning settings, Instructional forms and learning, initial knowledge, Advanced Knowledge, Expertise, learning tasks,resources,supports, Content-based design, the learner will understand the … the learner will be introduced to the…, Task-based design, about how to use it., the learner will be able to demonstrate how to … the learner will design and build the… the learner will successfully perform

paper2 teaching and learning in digital environments:the resurgence of resource-based learning, predigital perspectives, 1.teachers used resources incrementally and linearly to convey specific content while learners attempted to acquire specified knowledge or skills, 2.many ancillary educational materials were considered nonessential add-ons rather than integral learning resources, 3.physical location of resources and packaging problems(pragmatic concerns), emerging perspectives, 1.isolate various components to meet specific needs within a particular context, 2.a resource provides candidate information to be engaged and interpreted.meaning is influenced more by the diversity than the singularity of the perspectives taken., 3.teachers may act as facilitators,guiding the process and assisting the learner in clarifying the kinds of information to be considered and in locating potentially useful learning resources, 4.the same resource may support vastly different learning needs, 5.intact resources(a single resource such as a book)are viewed as a collection of knowledge objects rather than single entities., 6.emerging systems enable educators and learners to access,evaluate,use and generate digital resources, 7.contemporary systems provide ready access to historic,current,and dynamically changing information, 8.learning may be guided according to individual needs and purposes, resource-based learning, RBLEs, resources, static, dynamic, static, contexts, externally directed, learner generated, negotiated, tools, searching tools, processing, manipulating, communicating, scaffolds, conceptual scaffolds, metacognitive, procedural, strategic


paper1 activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environment, activity theory, 1.emphasizes both the historical development of ideas as well as the active and constructive role of humans, can not be understood or analyzed outside the context in which it occurs, is a powerful socio-cultural and socio-historical lens through which we can analyze most forms of human activity, activity system(components), subject, individual or group designers/learners, object, curriculum design, workshop, hypertext program, conceptual objects(a theory or model), tools(for transformation process), software production tools, project management system, model, goal-directed hierarchy of actions, activities<-->actions<-->operations, assumption of activity theory, minds in context, objective world, interaction, conscious activities, consciousness, analyze the activities in which performers engage in the context of the performance, the systems of people(goals,needs and beliefs)and artifacts change the nature of the conscious activity, intentionality, purposeful action, object-orientedness, community, any activity system can be described only in the comtext of the community in which it operates, historical-cultural dimension, tool mediation, activity cannot be understood without understanding the role of artifacts, collaboration, the human individul's activity is a system of social relations, constructivist learning environments, problem-project space, problem context from real world, problem presentation(virtual,simulate), problem manipulation space, provide students problem solving and operation, related case, information resources, cognitive tools, conversation and collaboration tools, process of desiging cles accordig to activity theory, 1.clarify purpose of activity, 2.analyse the activity system, 3.analyze the activity structure, 5.analyze the context, 6.analyze activity system dynamics

paper2 on the role of concepts in learning and instructional design, similarity view of concepts, classical-attributed isolation view of concepts, a person has learned a concept when he or she can correctly isolate and apply attributes of specific objects into their correct categories, prototype or probablistic view of concepts, 1.concepts are represented as prototypes in memory,contextual entities with common attributes that are most typical of category membership, 2.concepts have high family resemblance will maximize similarity within categories while minimizing similarity between categories, 3.people actually encode concepts in memory,but still treat concepts as isolated and unconnected entities, exemplar view, human learn concepts primarily by inducing concept descriptions from examples or by combining previously existing concepts, other views, actional view, conceptualizing is a kind of doing,concept is active,constructive, intentional,organizating our expriences, theory-based view, concepts are organized by theories;the properties of concepts and their interrelationships vary with different contexts of purpose formed by different personal theories of the world, conceptual change, 1.when learners change their understanding of the concepts they use and how they are organizaed within a conceptual framework, 2.dissatisfaction with existing conceptions which can not interpret or explain personal experiences,can not solve problems, conceptual pattern, free word associations, similarity ratings, card sorts

paper3 searching for learner-centered,constructivist,and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools, theoretical perspectives on collaborative learning tools, A learner-centered view on collaborative technology, cognitive and metacognitive factors, motivational and affective factors, developmental and social factors, indivdual differences, sociocultural views on collaborative technology, mediation, zones of proximal development, internalization, cognitive apprenticeship


paper1 web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications, web2.0 application, blog,wiki,social spaces,podcasting, read-write web, blog, wiki, subscribing information, RSS(subscribe recent news), desk-top applications, social spaces, 1.engage people in collective activities, 2.rescources sharing and referencing systems, internet as a platform, google docs, open source, wikipedia, educational web2.0, forms of assessment, 2.use of internet-mediated social learning space, models and methods for design of learning objects and curriculum, models for resources sharing, generation of learning environment system


paper1 designing collaborative,constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices, functionality framework of handheld educational application, administrition, personal information manager(calendars,schedual,contact,grade), reference, well established usage patterns of reference books(dictionary,ebok), interactive, responce and feedback process(strengthen memory through multiple choice style quizzes ), animation, educational micriworld, data collection, scientific, record relevant information(well dicument in the literature) and provide immediate feedback through on-the-spot analysis, reflective, store information for later evaluation and reflection, multimedia, capture images,sounds,video, location aware, collaborative, collaborative,constructionist and contextual applications, TxtIT, examines using the low-threshold technology of short message service to support interactivity in the classroom, Mapping Challenge, it requires co-ordination between spatially separated members of a team,visiting locations in an urban area,to collect symbols in order to complete tasks, SortIT

Course reflection

Session1-design of learning / instructional design

concept of instructional design

instructioanl products, multimedia package, digital vedio, blended learning package, educational websites, assessment system, LO, educational games, educational electronic devices, E-books

the process of Instructional Design, ADDIE, 1.analysis, needs assessment, market blank, final user(clients), content, risk, limitation of the project, system/technology, feasibility analysis, technonical, economical, human factor,, resource, objectives, content, function, 3.development, 4.implementation, 5.evaluation, team member, project manager, instructional designer, interface designer, multimedia designer, programmer, others, writer,vedio producer.....

Session2-Instructional Design Models and Analysis Stage of a Process

Session3-Design stage(1)

procedure, define a goal, conduct instructional analysis, performance,content,task analysis, assessment strategy, write learning objectives, analyze learners and context, instructional strategy, organize instructional events, develop a flowchart(CBT flowchart)

construct an instructional product, pre-testing(privious assessment), content+practice(formative assessment), summative assessment

Session4-Design stage(2)

storyboard needs to be evaluated, includes, screen area presentation, authoring plathform, quality and format of graphies ,videos,audios and other medio, pedagogical consideration

session5-Design stage(3)

multimedia learning theories

The Four-Component Instructional Design model -- 4C/ID-model

learning by doing

resource-based learning

constructive learning environment


A working model and a representation of your final project Provides sufficient information to allow a client and the team to have glimpse into the final product

Interface design, 1.Layout, Buttons Hot-spot areas Clickable objects Pull-down menus text enter, 2.Size of display area, 4.Color

Presentation design, Information design, diagrams, icons, symbols, images & photographs, tables & graphs, metaphors & analogies, spaces & lines, Media design

Prototype Evaluatiopn

other issues, How deliver via web influences overall design?, How delivery via mobile devices influences overall design?, What are requirements for design when mashing content?, What is relationship between effective design and learning outcomes?

session7-web2.0 learning technologies

definition of web2.0, User control of information New forms of expression Web as a point of presence Internet-mediated social/collective activities Web as a platform Rich user experiences

web2.0 applications, 1.Blog, blogging, blogger, blogsphere,, 3.Social Bookmarking, 4.RSS Feeds and Aggregators, 5.podcasting

session8-design learning technologies for mobile learning

handheld devices

functions, multimedia access, connectivity, capture tools, analytical tools, presentational tools


Additional resources and instructional technology examples


account name: Emma

Synthesis of ideas and reflection


My reflection Instructional design, literally explanation, is curriculum or content and learning activity design for teaching. In the contemporary market, there exist various forms of instructional products, such as CD-ROM, E-book, distance web teaching etc. but in my opinion, they should be referred as a subsidiary method of traditional face to face teaching. I have experienced distance learning of one English training class, this online class provided online lecture and after-class exercise for learners, the teaching system is closed to be perfect, but measured by instructional design theory, it just can be titled as a wonderful curriculum design because it didn’t integrate any interaction.   Instructional product can promote Self-directed learning, and help students review and learn new knowledge out of textbooks. But a systematic and organized instructional product is hard to be designed, which needs a group of people working on it.   Besides, some people proposed that instructional design should be technology-based, I do not think so. Instructional design should be built on the content, in other words, it should be content-based and added external relevant resources for knowledge complementation and extension. In my mind, technology such as website can be used as a platform for learners’ communication and knowledge exchanging. Also, Technology can make asynchronous learning come true(e.g. discussion forum)   What kind of instructional design can be titled as a perfect design? it should be evaluated by learners. As a student, I think there are some points should be taken into consideration: whether this instructional design can meet learners’ learning demand and whether it has improved former teaching style. Whether students’ learning passion are lighted.  


My reflection Instructional design has experienced a few years, although it has improved a lot and tried to assist teaching, it still exists many shortcomings. I guess teachers may consider whether technology is so importance that it must be integrated into instruction. I have the same feeling about technology-position. As I am an ITE student, in every class, teachers introduce many software applications to us and ask us to apply them into teaching and curriculum design. I thought technology is needless for teaching sometimes, because some knowledge can be interpreted much easier by traditional teaching method than by technology (when we use technology to explain some phenomenon or concept, sometimes it brings much trouble to us and waste time). Because of the wrong technology position, instructional designers are facing a dilemma situation: technology-based design or content-based design. in my mind, designers should clear about learning objectives first, then according to curriculum outline to design. besides, instructional design should not only focus on content, but also concentrate on relevant activities, especially interactivity. As constructivist mentioned, learning would be more effective and efficient by mutual or group learning.


  My reflection: Verbal-only instruction has taken a long history, which made students feel boring and tedious in class, even through, we still can not live without words interpretation due to it can clearly deliver key points of contents. According to the multimedia learning theory, some people considered about adding images, videos or some visual objects to improve and encourage learning. learning is for applying, but on the promise, knowledge needs to be memorized. Technically speaking, the sense organs have relationship with the function of memory. If people can use them together when learning, the effect will be surprising. Multimedia learning theory exactly complies with this medical hypothesis, so designers need to integrate and organize words and visual objects together to achieve effective and efficient learning. All in all, designer should grasp the features of human sense, using multiple forms for learning activity design. there proposed four basic building blocks(learning task, supportive information, just in time information and part task practice) for training programs for complex learning and their main foundation of learning theories is cognitive psychology.4C/ID model promotes learning by doing, task-based learning and focusing on performance. in my opinion, it is more effective and efficient for learning compared with only theories teaching. students need more practice rather than just sitting and listening. Besides, gaining know  


My reflection: i am impressed on the example of medical case on problem-based learning which reminds me of Management Case Study in my previous major. i do agree that PBL is one of the greatest ways of effective learning which well combines theoretic knowledge and practice. in the process of PBL, students not only can memorize abstract concepts easily and deeply, but also apply knowledge to real world. it is really student-centered and self-directed learning.


My reflection: on-line learning design should be considered from teacher's and student's perspective. the aim of online learning is to provide convenient, effective and efficient learning, so the content, activity and other things need to be designed suited to those two groups. in my opinion, task-learning or problem-solving learning is preferable, because knowledge seems to be valuable when it is applied into real life.   Besides, i realized resource-based learning is not just providing relevant resources and asking for reading, but should be constructed, integrated, gathered by various other segments(multiple resources need to be well connected to achieve a certain aim or learning objectives).resource-based teaching is not easy as we simply thought according to its literal comprehensive, but need to put efforts on kinds of resources organizing and collecting. until now, resource-based teaching and learning has not been perfect yet, it still has following weakness: standards and conventions for creating and distributing digital resources remain inconsistent; resource credibility, content validity, and reliability are unregulated(resource is often questioned);teaching and learning activities tend to address the scope of defined knowledge and skills across curriculum areas....


  My reflection: Activity theory focuses on the activities in which people are engaged ,the tools they use, the social and contextual relationship among the collaborators, the goals and intentions, the outcomes of activities. all in all, the richer the context and the more embeded the conscious thought processes are in that context, the more meaning learners will construct both for the activities and the thought processes. Activity-based learning and teaching is a breakthrough of traditional pedagogy, which has switched total textbook instruction to student-centered teaching and self-directed learning. besides, activity-based teaching is more effective and efficient for students who can apply theoretical knowledge to real life problems solving. It is the real meaning of learning. when i saw the title of the article ‘on the role of concepts in learning and instructional design’, i was curious about what could be showed about concept learning? just a concept, anything else needs to be taught and researched? but after read this paper, i figured out there also existed knowledge in concept learning. concepts learned in isolation will lack coherence and therefore be less useful than concepts-in-use in thought construction processes. besides, concept learning mush be assessed in patterns and in use. students should learn how to use a variety of tools to build models of what they are learning and to engage in solving complex and ill-structured problems. That makes me come back to the activity-based learning. most of concepts are abstract and not easy to memory, even hard to comprehensive, if students could connect those abstract concepts to real life problem solving or some typical model, it may much easier to understand.  


  Web2.0, in my mind, should be pedagogy-centered learning and teaching assisting by technology. In my ITE class, teachers are used to take moodle, blog, and google site as teaching platforms. By the way, Moodle is the most systematic and organized web2.0 application I have seen so far, it has various practical functions, such as discussion forum, wiki, database, etc. my point is not just how many functions it owns, but all those functions can be integrated into one LMS. I had questioned before, why moodle was so favorite by HKU teachers, now I figured out that it puts separate activities together and makes teachers and students convenient and comfortable use it. Web2.0 applications always provide communication or discussion spaces for users. Like comment box in Blog which is under one article. According to constructivism, learning is based on interaction----various forums do improve and promote such mutual learning.  


  My reflection: Digital generation, ready-at-hand nature, these are the popular words for our new generation. Computer era seems disappear, at least not popular as before, instead, handheld devices are becoming favorable among young people. So that many authors argue that why do not we take this advantage to make ‘anyone, anytime, anywhere learning’ come true.   But according to my experience on mobile learning, I found following problems: 1. compared with computer screen, mobile phone screen is too small to read the whole context, and the size of word is not big enough for reading. Limitations on mobile devices result in a ‘restricted’ version. All in all, reading on mobile phone is harm for eyes 2. some popular software may not compatible in mobile phone. For example, there is a lack of microworlds for handheld devices 3. the effectiveness of mobile learning is very little. To myself, I almost never read textbooks on my smartphone or log in Moodle through mobile. To the contrary, I prefer using mobile phone for entertainment rather than study. But learning through mobile phone is not impossible, it should depend on what kind of knowledge it can offer. Such as news, tips on cooking, some simple and clear information may be more welcome by people to read.