lines connecting shapes
HIPO stands for Hierarchy plus Input-Process-Output, and represent a design oriented WBS technology. It consists of: (1) A set of diagrams which show the functional breakdown of a program system (or any system) in the form of traditional hierarchy charts (2) Separate diagrams which explode each box on the hierarchy chart into a set of three boxes showing inputs, processes, and outputs.
Pseudocode is a notation similar in look, form, and meaning to both spoken language and programming languages; it’s a bridge between the two.
Structured charts are a pictorial way of expressing program logic, or structure, in a rigorous way, readable from top to bottom.
A data flow diagram can help illuminate the process: (1) By showing events rather than programs (2) By tracing the wanderings of a major chunk of data rather than by showing program logic.
A Decision Table is a simple, convenient way of summarizing a number of "if—then" situations. A Decision Table shows at a glance what action is to be taken if a given condition or set of conditions exists.
Interaction diagrams, Sequence diagrams, Collaboration diagrams
A coverage matrix is a means of showing the relationship between two kinds of information. An index in a book is a coverage matrix for it shows what pages in the book cover what subjects. A coverage matrix in a program design document might show system functions versus program names.
Storage maps are pictures describing how the various storage devices (core, disk, tape, CD's etc.) are being utilized. In most cases, a simple diagram showing how various blocks of storage are being used (that is, by what programs and for what purposes) is sufficient.