1. Looking at American Houses: Style, Form, Structure, Neighborhoods

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1. Looking at American Houses: Style, Form, Structure, Neighborhoods by Mind Map: 1. Looking at American Houses: Style, Form, Structure, Neighborhoods

1. Style

1.1. Two principal sorts: 1. Folk houses: designed without conscious attempt to mimic current fashion, many built by non-professionals. 2. Styled houses: at least some attempt at being fashionable, show influence of shapes, materials, detailing

1.2. Four principal of architectural traditions

1.2.1. Ancient Classical: Greece and Rome

1.2.1.1. most common features: entry or full facade porch supported by large columns, "colossal" columns. symmetrical facades, low-pitched roof. 3 Styles in America

1.2.1.1.1. 1 Early Classical Revival (1780 - 1830), loosely Roman. side-gabled or hipped roof with full-height entry porches

1.2.1.1.2. 2. Greek Revival (1820 - 1860). Very wide band of trim beneath eaves, mimicking entablature, full facade/height entry porches. Resemble prototype Greek temples

1.2.1.1.3. 3. Neoclassical (1895 - 1955). Two-story houses with prominent full-height columns

1.2.2. Renaissance Classical: Renaissance, 15th c

1.2.2.1. Usually balance, symmetrical facades, pedimented doors and windows, dentils, quoins, and pilasters, colonnaded one-story entrance porches

1.2.2.1.1. Italian: Italiante 1840-1885, Italian Renaissance 1890-1935. Round arches, cornice-line brackets

1.2.2.1.2. French: inspired Second Empire 1855-1885 and Beaux Arts 1885-1930, French Eclectic 1915-1945. Steeply pitched hipped roof, dual-pitched mansard roof

1.2.2.1.3. English: Georgian 1700-1780, Federal 1780-1820. Later - Colonial Revival 1880-1955. Elaborated front door surrounds, side pilasters supporting entablature or pediment (Georgian), or fanlight above door (Federal)

1.2.3. Medieval: Gothic style during Middle Ages and simpler domestic buildings of the same era, mostly originated in England and France

1.2.3.1. Romanesque end of 9th c til 12th c: extensive use of rounded arches > inspiration of Richardsonian Romanesque 1880-1900

1.2.3.2. Gothic from mid 12th c to beginning of Renaissance. Pointed arches on doors, windows and interior vaulting > inspiration for Gothic Revival 1840-1880, influenced Stick style 1860-1890

1.2.3.3. English architects of 1850+ turned back to Medieval heritage > English Queen Anne > American Queen Anne 1880-1910 also Shingle style - introduced simplified exterior surfaces and open interior planning, foreshadowed Modern phase of architectural styling

1.2.4. Modern: late 19th c to present. Lack of historically influenced ornamentation - external simplicity or "honesty" or manipulations made possibly by new material and technique. 2 phases:

1.2.4.1. 1. Arts and Crafts (Early Modern). Deliberately opposed historical precedent for decoration and design. Low-pitched roofs with wide eave overhang

1.2.4.1.1. Prairie style 1900-20. Began in Chicago under FLW. Elegantly simplified buildings

1.2.4.1.2. Craftsman style 1905-30. Began in So Cal by Greene brothers, emphasizes exposed structural members and wood joinery

1.2.4.2. 2. Machine Age after WWI > Mainstream Modern: standardization of parts, absence of non-functional deco, structurl honesty. Flat roofs and smooth wall

1.2.4.2.1. Modernistic style 1920-40

1.2.4.2.2. International style 1925-present

1.2.4.3. Bankers Modern after 1935

1.2.5. Others: Spanish Colonial era, Oriental and Egyptian

1.2.5.1. Spanish colonists blended adobe building of Native Americans with Spanish housing traditions

1.2.5.1.1. Spanish Colonial style 1600-1850

1.2.5.1.2. Pueblo Revival style 1910-present

1.2.5.2. Oriental, Egyptian and Swiss Chalet inspired Exotic Revivals 1835-90

1.2.5.3. Octagon style 1850-1870, one man's enthusiastic sponsorship of unorthodox ground plans of octagonal shape

1.3. Stylist Mixtures. Pictures from page 139 - 166

1.3.1. Gothic and Italianate: advocated by AJ Downing

1.3.2. Adding Italiante detailing to Greek Revival

1.3.3. Eclectic Era: fanciful combinations of many styles,disappeared around 1915

1.3.3.1. Period House: after Eclectic era, stylistic mixtures rare

1.3.3.1.1. late 1930s, experiment with restrained mix of Tudor, Colonial Revival and Meditteranean

1.3.4. Altercations

1.3.4.1. 1. update appearance

1.3.4.1.1. porch most common, followed by doors, windows and wall material. New additions appear out of context with overall shape, form and material

1.3.4.2. 2. add living space

1.3.4.2.1. adding extension or wing; converting under-utilized areas into living space

1.3.4.3. 3. minimize exterior maintenance

1.3.4.3.1. adding aluminum/asbestos siding. May cover detailing, or hasten deterioration of wooden walls covered

1.3.4.4. 4. take advantage of code exemptions

2. Form

2.1. Basic components: Ground plan and elevation

2.1.1. Ground Plans: made up of simple combos of room-sized units

2.1.1.1. 1. linear plans: units aligned into single rows one unit wide/deep

2.1.1.2. 2. massed plans: both width and depth of more than one unit

2.1.1.3. compound plans

2.1.1.3.1. compound plans with irregularities

2.1.2. Elevations: straight on view that show the appearance of singe wall with its overlying roof and details

2.1.2.1. Facade wall height

2.1.2.2. Facade width and symmetry

2.1.2.3. Roof-wall propotions

2.2. Families of Shapes

2.2.1. box-house, saltbox, shotgun, town house, I-house, massed side-gable

2.2.2. principal use of shape families applies to folk houses because lack of architectural detailing

2.2.3. Simple-plan families

2.2.4. Compound-plan families

2.3. Shape Innovations

2.3.1. long winters around 1700-50s led to increase of depth>lower pitched roof or saltbox shape>massed plan houses dominant in American architecture

2.3.2. heating

2.3.2.1. cast-iron stoves 1830s, easier to install and permitted larger and less regular house plans>compound plans

2.3.2.2. central furnaces 1880, heat transferred to rooms by means of heated water, steam, or air. Only single masonry flue required>compound and irregular plans

2.3.3. balloon-frame construction, developed in Chicago area 1830s

2.3.3.1. allowed easy construction of corners>irregular plans with extensions and reentrants

2.3.4. integral garages 1920-50, and on

2.3.4.1. automobile access and storage become important factor in new home design

2.4. Structure: several individual components of houses that give them characteristic forms and styles

2.4.1. Three basic structural units

2.4.1.1. walls

2.4.1.1.1. functions: provide support and protection from weather and intrusion.

2.4.1.1.2. Structural Systems

2.4.1.1.3. Cladding: plywood, fiberboard panels, metal or plastic strips, asbestos, asphalt, metal, shingles, brick and stone veneers (20thc)

2.4.1.2. roof

2.4.1.2.1. flat

2.4.1.2.2. pitch: low under 30 degree, normal 30 - 45, steep over 45

2.4.1.2.3. roof framing

2.4.1.2.4. roofing materials

2.4.1.3. decorative details

2.4.1.3.1. windows and doors

2.4.1.3.2. chimneys

2.4.1.3.3. porches

2.4.1.3.4. other decorative details

3. Neighborhoods

3.1. Types

3.1.1. rural

3.1.1.1. plan

3.1.1.1.1. rural neighborhoods 1750-1940

3.1.2. urban

3.1.2.1. early core 1750-1850

3.1.2.1.1. plan

3.1.2.2. urban extensions: horse-drawn streetcars, omnibuses, ferries, cable cars 1830-1900

3.1.2.2.1. narrow houses, lot width 16 to 25 feet, front yard rare, similar size and age houses often grouped together, residential uses may occupy entire block face

3.1.3. suburban

3.1.3.1. railroad suburbs 1850-1930

3.1.3.1.1. distinct groupings of houses near rail stops, typically detached, large-scale lots with houses of similar size, age and style vary, uniform front yards often required by deed restrictions, residential use typically occupy entire block, street trees common, garages typically detached

3.1.3.2. streetcar suburbs 1890-1930

3.1.3.2.1. plan

3.1.3.3. early automobile suburbs 1915-1940

3.1.3.3.1. plan

3.1.3.4. post-WWII 1940-80

3.1.3.4.1. plan

3.1.4. post-suburban 1970 - present

3.1.4.1. beyond WWII suburb and interacting mainly with other post-sub and subs, three types

3.1.4.1.1. TOD: transit oriented development - 1/4~1/2 mile radius of higher density development, high residential density supports varied retail, requires green space and community amenities, walking and baking connections common

3.1.4.1.2. TND: traditional neighborhood development - recreates visual qualities of rural, urban and pre-1940 suburban streetscapes, walking and biking connections common, emphasis on green space and sense of community, daily shopping needs hopefully nearby

3.1.4.1.3. SLUG: spread-out, low density, unguided growth - small developments, often gated, shopping at a distance, community amenities may not exist, car essential, may be interspersed with agriculture

3.2. Ground Plans

3.2.1. rectilinear: common for thousands of years, until 1940

3.2.1.1. early town plans

3.2.1.1.1. Gridiron plat extensions, very common until 1940

3.2.1.2. Land Ordinance of 1785: dived with strick north-south/east-west one mile square grid system

3.2.2. curvilinear: 19th c; 1. aethetic, promoted by AJ Downing: contrast an angular common farm with curvilinear country seat. 2. railroad network allowed access to undevelped tracts

3.2.2.1. Olmstedian plans 1869-1940: green space along waterways, smoothly curving street-leisure, tranquility, street trees, minimum setback of houses, houses on higher grade, natural drainage system, utility systems preceded building, deed restriction

3.2.2.1.1. Warped grids 1915-40. Efficient for automobile traffic

3.2.3. Combined plans

3.2.3.1. Bull's eye form

3.2.3.1.1. Side-by-side combinations: curvi for expensive homes, rect for modest

3.2.4. Topography

3.2.4.1. using native plants conserves resources, make neighborhood more distinctive. Natural drainage cost less and facilitates native landscape

3.3. Overlay Patterns: formed by green space, street profile, block size, and lot width

3.3.1. inspired by Olmsted's Emerald Necklace chain of parks in Boston.

3.3.1.1. Curvilinear

3.3.1.1.1. Rectilinear

3.3.2. development patterns: access into and through neighborhood is critical function, evolved with nbh types and transportation

3.3.2.1. early pikes or highways, pre1850

3.3.2.1.1. horsecar and streetcar suburb 1850-1920

3.3.2.2. primary roads: favored location > shunned location postwar. Fine streetcar homes converted to commercial or demolished

3.3.2.2.1. early streets ran through neighborhood, main streets decorated

3.3.2.3. curbs and sidewalks

3.3.2.3.1. before 1900, local stones used for curb

3.3.2.3.2. Post WWII, frequently no sidewalks

3.3.2.3.3. fine early autmobile suburbs, omission of curbs and gutters is neighborhood-character

3.3.3. blocks and lots

3.3.3.1. effect of increasing block length

3.4. Development Influences

3.4.1. developer/builder

3.4.1.1. subdivision: basic landscape unite of residential development>large undeveloped land cut into smaller lots for building a home

3.4.1.1.1. developers> add improvements: landscaping, utility sys, etc > adding restrictions: residential only, etc, builders>build

3.4.1.2. Great Depression > housing construction standstill. National Housing Act of 1934 to revive home building, changed how neighborhoods were developed

3.4.1.2.1. FHA: insure home loans banks made against losses, strict standards for loans, encouraged same developer to build houses on an entire neighborhood, early practice of separating land subdivison from home building became less common

3.4.2. home financing

3.4.2.1. early: buyers save entire cost before buy, only short term loans of 5yrs

3.4.2.1.1. early 20th c: homes purchased with the lot with long term installment payment mortgage

3.4.3. governance: 3 ways to control how neighborhood looks

3.4.3.1. deed restriction: began about 1870. Unified streetscapes

3.4.3.1.1. House setbacks from street

3.4.3.2. zoning

3.4.3.2.1. municipalities to legislate protection for all neighborhoods after the success of deed restriction in 1900~20s, zoning laws quickly spread

3.4.3.3. subdivision

3.4.3.3.1. City Planning Enabling Act: made subdivision design an important part of directing growth of cities. Ensured coordination with overall plans (highways and parks), required developers to build good infrastructure, controlled amount of land available to avoid oversupply of vacant lots

3.4.4. growth rate

3.4.4.1. economic origins, income level and rate of population growth>major factor in shaping neighborhoods and streetscapes

3.4.4.1.1. Fast and steady growth>large areas of similar houses.

3.4.4.1.2. New industry with many workers>nearby neighborhood of small homes

3.4.4.1.3. Slow growth>mixture of house sizes and styles

3.5. Reading Streetscapes: idea about period of time which houses were built, care the original developer took, and current condition of homes> recording how economic conditions changed

3.5.1. houses on the block: medley streetscapes- found in small towns and early suburb with log growth periods. Unified streetscapes-found i areas with deed restrictions or zoning and relatively rapid development

3.5.1.1. smooth rhythm of unified street: uniform lot sizes, deed restrictions mandating similarities, and rapid growth

3.5.1.2. recommended slight differences in spacing and placement to create variety

3.5.2. street trees and street enclosures

3.5.2.1. trees

3.5.2.1.1. single species-dramatic effects. Broad, spreading tress form attractive tree tunnel. Columnar trees create formal allee. Palm trees give tropical flair. Intermixing species produce soft and varied look

3.5.2.2. street enclosure: effect created by structures that line a street

3.5.2.2.1. continuous street enclosure

3.5.2.3. street-enhancing device- changing grade between house and street, sometimes found in suburbs between 1870 and 1940

3.5.3. house on lot

3.5.3.1. Rural southern farmstead, 1835, before Downing's Treatise. Very large lot with geometric front garden, trees and shrubs in rows, rectilinear planting of ornamental trees, formal parterre of ornamental plants, food grown on lot, fron garden seen from street

3.5.3.1.1. Rural or "borderlands villa", 1850, after Treatise. Very large lot with curvilinear plan, trees and shrubs used to screen from street, naturalistic planting of ornamental trees, food grown on lot

3.5.3.2. prior mid 19th Am gardens more in geometric pattern. 1841, AJ Downing's Treatise promoted more naturalistic landscape

3.5.3.2.1. early 20th broad front lawn-status symbol. Backyards functioned as service area

3.5.4. underlying survey

3.5.4.1. colonists brought European tradition of individual ownership of land

3.5.4.1.1. surveyed portions of land, established sys of boundaries>reflected today in street patterns

3.5.4.2. metes-and-bounds (measurements and boundaries) survey

3.5.4.2.1. earliest survey-landscape features to establish boundaries of landownership

3.5.4.3. long-lot survey

3.5.4.3.1. apportioning relatively small tracts along waterways, commonly terminated at crest of hills

3.5.4.4. irregular rectangular survey

3.5.4.4.1. roughly rectangular or square, but vary greatly in size and lack orderly grid pattern

3.5.4.5. rigid rectangular survey

3.5.4.5.1. 1785 Land Ordinance>today Public Land Survey System (PLSS). Drafted by Jefferson- system of continuous sq mile sections, 640 acres each, strick nor-south/east-west grid and organized into 36 sq mile township.

3.5.4.5.2. Ca, NM, Texas, under Spanish rule, 45 degree southwest by northeast angle for laying out street - most desirable orientation for light and ventilation. Small plaza at center

3.6. Existing Neighborhoods

3.6.1. preservation of existing neighborhoods - economic, green and conservation minded

3.6.1.1. 1950s-60s, many older neighborhoods torn down and rebuilt

3.6.1.1.1. Housing Act of 1954: funds to buy up and tear down large areas of inner cities for urban renewal

3.6.1.1.2. 1956 Federal-Aid Highway Act: provided 90% of funds buy gave states and municipalities almost complete control over routes of interstates, man plowed through hearts of neighborhoods and cites