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ID & T by Mind Map: ID & T
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ID & T

It encompasses the analysis of learning and performance prolems, and the design, development, implementation, evalucation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a veriety of settings, particularly educational instutitions and the workplace(Reiser,2001).

Additional Resources & Instructional Technology Examples

Risal Account: Miawong

My Overall Reflection

Basic Concepts


taken place in the United States

Instructional Media, School Museums (the first decade of the 20th century), Visual Instruction, Supplementary Curriculum Materials, The "Visual Instruction"/"Visual Education" Movement (1914-1923), Magic Lanterns (lantern slide projectors ), Stereopticons (Stereograph viewers), Motion Picture Projector, Instructional Films, The Audiovisual Instruction Movement (1920s-1930s), Medium, Radio Broadcasting, Sound Recordings, Sound Motion Pictures, Radio, Evolvement, Three Existing National Professional Organizations (1932), Department of Visual Instruction (DVI), ACET, World War Ⅱ (1939-1945), Slowed in Schools, Military Service and in Industry, U.S Army Air Force, Training Films, Filmstrips, Industry, Training Films, Overhead Projectors, Slide Projectors, Audio Equipment, Simulators and Training Devices, Post-World War Ⅱ Developments (1950s-1995), Theories of Communication, Instructional Tevevision, Growth (1950s), Federal Communications Commission of educational channels, Ford Foundation Funding (1950s-1960s), Reduction (mid-1960s), Support on Public Television, In-School Application, Shifting Terminology (early 1970s), Computers (1950s-1995), Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) (1950s-1970s), Micro-Computers (early 1980s), Recent Developments (since 1995), Computer, Internet, Business, Industry and the Military, Low Cost for Widely Dispersed Learners, Easy Accessibility of Computers, Higher Education, Low Cost for Distance Education, Interactive Capabilities, Between Learns and Instructional Content, Between Learners and the Instructor, Among Learners Themselves, Increasing Multimedia Capabilities, A Constructivist Perspective, Authentic Problems, Other Digital Technology

Instructional Design, The Origins: World War Ⅱ, Conduct Research and Develop Training materials, Evaluation and Testing, Solve Instructional Problems (late 1940s-1950s), Viewing Training as a System, Developed Innovative analysis, Design, and Evaluation Procedures, More Early Developments, The Programmed Instruction Movement (mid-1950s-mid1960s), Programmed Instructional Materials, Formative Evaluation, The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives, Ralph Tyler (1934), Benjamin Bloom, et al. (1956), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Robert Mager (1962), Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction, The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement (1960s), Criterion-referenced Measures, Robert M Gagné, The Conditions of Learning (1965), Five Domain Learning Outcomes, Verbal Information, Intellectual Skills, Psychomotor Skills, Cognitive Strategies, Attitudes, Events of Instruction, Learning Hierarchies and Hierarchical Analysis, A Hierarchical Analysis Process, Evaluation, Formative Evaluation, Few Development (1940s-1950s), Situation Changed (1950s-1960s), Summative Evaluation, Early Instructional Design Models (early and mid-1960s), Task Analysis, Objective Specification, Criterion-referenced Testing, Systems Approach (1970s), US Military (mid-1970s), Instructional Improvement Centers, Business & Industry, International Arena, South Korea, Liberia, & Indonesia, Growth and Redirection (1980s), Institution, Military, Business & Industry, and International Arena, Schools and Universities, Growth, Cognitive Psychology, Redirection, Interest in Use of Microcomputers, New Performance Technology Movement, Front-end Analysis, On-the-job Performance, Business Results, Noninstructional Solutions to Perform Problems, Changing Views and Practice (1990s), The Performance Technology Movement, Non-instructional Solutions to solve problems, Constructivism, Electronic Performance Support Systems, An Information Base, A Serious of Work Activities, Intelligent Coaching & Expert Advisement Systems, Customized Performance Support Tools, Rapid Prototyping, Internet for Distance Learning, Knowledge Management, Identifying, Doumenting, Disseminating Explict, Tacit Knowledge

Instructional Design & Learning Theory

Theories, Learning Theories, Behaviorism, key players, Pavlov, Thorndike, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Operant Conditioning Mechanisms, Behavioral Shaping, Reinforcement Schedules, Strengths, Weaknesses, Cognitivism, Key Concepts, Schema, Three-Stage Information Processing Model, Meaningful Effects, Serial Position Effects, Practice Effects, Transfer Effects, Interference Effects, Organization Effects, Levels of Processing Effects, Mnemonic Effects, Schema Effects, Advance Organizers, State Dependent Effects, key player, Jean Piaget, Theories, Information Processing Theory, Brain-based Learning, Right Brain/Left Brain Thinking, Cognitive Dissonance Theory, Vygotsky and Social Cognition, Social Learning Theory, Dual-coding theory, Subsumption Theory, Gestalt Theory, Neuroscience, Strengths, Weaknesses, Constructivism, Key Players, John Dewey, Giambattista Vico, Jerome Bruner, Rorty, Piaget's Constructivism, Vygotsky’s social development theory, Strengths, Weaknesses

Models, Instructional Design, Behaviorism, Behavioral Objectives Movement, Taxonomic Analysis of Learning Behaviors, Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning, Cognitive, attitudinal, psychomotor, Bloom's Cognitive taxonomy, Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning, Mastery Learning, Military and Industrial Approach, Gagne's and Brigg's Model, Accountability Movement, Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction Movement (late 1950s), Contributors, B.F. Skinner, Pressey, Peterson, W.W.II, Crowder, Individualized Instructional Approaches (early 1900s), Keller Plan (1963), Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) (1964), Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) (1967), Computer-Assisted Learning (1950s), Systems Approach to Instruction (1950s and 1960s), Cognitivism, Cognitivism and Computer-Based Instruction, Constructivism, hypertext & hypermedia, learner control, Practice of Instructional Design, cognitive theory, instructional strategies, teaching approach, behaviorists, a starting point, Introductory Learning, cognitivists, determine their predisposition, learning theory, constructivists, facilitative in nature, Advanced Knowledge Acquisition, Expertise is the final stage of knowledge acquisition

Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education

Online learning, Materials for online learning, Information Access, Interactive Learning, e.g., Flash, Shockwave and Java applets, forms, Networked Learning, e.g., email, bulletin boards and chat rooms, Materials Development, e.g., PPT, historical stories, diaries, case studies, Frameworks for online learning settings, General, lectures, group discussions, e.g., Internet phone and videoconferencing, learning events, Online learning e.g., interactive experiments controlled from remote sites, communication, self-study, individual projects, group projects, testing, authentic assessment tasks, Instructional forms and learning, Initial Knowledge, e.g., facts, procedures and rules of discourse, Advanced Knowledge, less structured and more-student centred, e.g., understanding of concepts and principles, Expertise, student-centred, e.g., analysis and synthesis, alternative perspectives, Knowledge construction, Learning environments, open-ended learning environments, e.g., problem solving, critical thinking, collaboration and self-regulation, study guides, course content, Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS), Instructional design for Web-based learning, Learning Tasks, collaborative learning, Learning Resources, a multitude of electronic sources, Learning Supports, e.g., an active and involved teacher, scaffolding, student-centred nature, Approaches to Instructional Design, Learning settings that support knowledge construction, Learning Tasks, Learning Resources, Learning Supports

Tasks, Learning Tasks, Design, Content-based design, assess form: exam/test, Task-based design, activity: a development task/an inquiry, learning, Task-based learning, learning tasks, content-based/activity-based instructional design, learning resources, presentation, Courseware delivery systems, Learning Management Systems (LMS), e.g., WebCT and Blackboard, Planning learning tasks, Problem solving, Inquiry tasks, Projects, Investigations, Authentic Tasks, Authentic assessment, in Online Settings, Online postings, Identity, Electronic submissions, Integrated assessment, On-line assessment

Resources, Content pages, Web pages as information sources, e.g., animations and video, Creating text for online presentation, Page Index, graphics and images, elaborations, hyperlinks, information presentation, Tables, Making use of the media, e.g., PDF documents, sound, video, Virtual Reality, 3D, Creative ideas for designing online learning resources, primary sources, authentic sources, virtual settings, multiple perspectives, dynamic sites, Interactive learning resources, tutorials, e.g., Javascript instructions, quizzes, e.g., Check box/Multiple choice/Short Answer/Crosswords Questions, simulations, e.g., used in science settings, worksheets

Supports, Online learning support strategies, Learning Guides, Learning Contracts, Learning Schedules, e.g., achilles heel, Supporting self-regulated learning, skill & will, Metacognition and self-concept, self-regulation, self-esteem, Self-monitoring and motivation, motivation, Volitional and Cognitive Strategy formation, Volition, e.g., concept mapping, journals and diaries, Social construction of knowledge, socio-cognitive conflict and co-construction of knowledge, Groupwork and Collaboration, motivation, students' self-efficacy, Successful Collaborative Groups, heterogeneity among group members, Contexts for Collaborative Activity, software, guidance and leadership, Cooperative learning in on-line settings, asynchronous communication, synchronous communication, Learning scaffolds, Vygotsky's (1978) zone of proximal development, actual development, potential development, a learner’s zone of proximal development, Scaffolding, instructional conversation, complexity of the task and the learners’ skills in self-regulation, The concept of fading, Learning communities, Developing learning communities, virtual elearning communities, Discussion activities, design principles, problems of Online discussions, Group Projects, Mentors and Buddies, a sounding board

Designs, Learning designs supporting knowledge construction, Situated Learning, cognitive apprenticeships, as a model of instruction, Characteristics, Problem-based learning, Designing an online problem-based learning setting, develop expertise, authentic and reflective problem, e.g., The online setting, Case-based learning, Characteristics, Choosing case-based learning, e.g., interactive multimedia design, Planning case-based learning in online settings, Choosing case-based learning, provide descriptions of the theoretical underpininngs, Project-based learning, Characteristics, Planning project-based learning in online settings, e.g., developing a multimedia product, Inquiry-based learning, Characteristics, e.g., discussions, group exercises and role-plays, Choosing inquiry-based learning, provide a more meaningful context for content, Planning inquiry-based learning settings, Role-playing and simulations, Characteristics, Role-playing in online settings, Planning and designing role-playing activities, Role-playing activities online, e.g.,

Design and Development Strategies, Learning objects, main considerations, the design of learning tasks and the selection of learning resources, Learning designs and learning objects, Reusable learning objects, challenges, Developing resources for reuse, Accessibility, Creating accessible content, Text content instead of image, Priority levels of accessibility, W3C guidelines, Section 508, Metadata, Inserting Metadata, Search engines, Organisation strategies for online learning sites, metaphor, Evaluating online learning settings, Attributes of effective online settings, A framework for evaluating online learning settings, Pedagogies, Resources, Delivery strategies

Second generation instructional design (ID2)

First Generation Instructional Design (ID1), Instructional Design Theory, Instructional Systems Development (ISD), different learning outcomes, internal conditions, external conditions, Component Display Theory, Information Processing Analysis, Structural Analysis by Scandura, Algorithm/ Heuristic Analysis, Limitations, ID1 content analysis does not use integrated wholes, ID1 has limited prescriptions for knowledge acquisition, current design methodology, ID1 has limited prescriptions for course organization, ID1 theories are essentially closed systems, ID1 fails to integrate the phases of instructional development, five phases, ID1 teaches pieces but not integrated wholes, ID1 instruction is often passive rather than interactive, Every ID1 presentation must be constructed from small components, ID1 is labor intensive

Second Generation Instructional Design ID2, characteristics, components, Analyzing and Representing Knowledge for Integrated Goals, mental models, a representation of the knowledge, Classes of Knowledge Representations, KRr, KRe, KRi, Knowledge Representation for ID2, an elaborated frame network, three frame types, entities, activities, processes, three types of elaborations, components, abstractions, associations, Two principals, inheritance, propagation, Knowledge analysis and acquisition system (KAAS), content structures, knowledge, The knowledge base (rules), designer/user, domain knowledge base, Instructional Strategies and Transactions, Transactions, one-way transmission of information, discussions and conversations, tutoring, simulations and micro-worlds, Transaction Classes, interaction strategy, transaction frame set, individual interactions, transaction strategy, traverse management, goal strategy, transaction goal set, course strategy, Strategy Analysis, Information gathering, an integrated goal, Prescriptions and Filters, Course Organization, instantiated elaborated frame network (knowledge structure), directs and constrains, knowledge acquisition, configuring of transactions, Strategy Analysis System (SAS), strategy knowledge base, Transaction Configuration, default values, Transaction Configuration System (TCS) and Library, a transaction library, A transaction instance, a piece of computer code, adaptability, An Intelligent Advisor System (IADV), An Open System -- Mini-Experts, Integration of the ID Phases - A Single Knowledge Representation, Comparison with Other Approaches, drawback and difficulties, ID1 Expert Systems, the state of knowledge about instructional design, Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Micro-worlds

The events of instruction

The Nature of Instruction, Self-Instruction and the Self-Learner, Instruction and Learning, Learning Theory, internal process, cognitive learning theories, cognitive theories of learning and memory, kinds of processing, attention, selective perception/ pattern recognition, rehearsal, semantic encoding, retrieval, response organiztion, feedback, executive control processes, Learning Process, Instructional/External Events, gaining attention, reception of patterns of neural impulses, communication, informing the learner of the objective, activating a process of executive control, a goal schema, stimulating recall of prerequisite capabilities, retrieval of prior learning to working memory, a recall question, presenting the stimulus material, emphasizing features for selective perception, reflects the learning, proper stimuli, features, a variety of examples, providing learning guidance, semantic encoding, cues for retrieval, eliciting the performance, activating response organization, providing feedback, establishing reinforcement, assessing performance, activating retrieval, making reinforcement, enhancing retention and transfer, providing cues and strategies for retrieval, learning outcomes, capability to be learned, intellectual skill, cognitive strategy, verbal information, attitude, motor skill

The events of instruction in a Lesson, Comparison with Lessons for Older Students, homework assignments

Designing constructivist learning environments

Constructive learning emphasizes personal meaning making and so intentionally seeks to relate new ideas to experiences and prior learning. Constructive learning therefore engages conceptual and strategic thinking, rather than reproductive learning.

Learning Theories, complementary design tools, objectivism, knowledge can be transferred, constructivism, knowledge is individually/socially constructed

Model, Case-, project-, & problem-based learning, Ill-structured problems, definable by the learners, question/case/problem/project, problem context, Performance environment, understand the problem, Community of practitioners/performers/stakeholders, problem representation/simulation, Stories, Authentic, Activity Theory, PARI Method, domain knowledge, strategic knowledge, The Jasper Series, 15-20 mins, problem manipulation space, manipulate something, affect the environment, phenomenaria, related cases, scaffold student memory: CBR, enhance cognitive flexibility, information resources, cognitive (knowledge-construction) tools, problem/task representation tools, visualization tools, static and dynamic knowledge modeling tools, "what do I know"/"what does it mean", building simulations, Stella, performance support tools, automate algorithmic tasks, information gathering tools, embedding search tools, conversation & collaboration tools, Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments (CSILEs), communities of learners (COLs), social/contextual support, accommodating contextual factors

Supporting Learning in CLEs, A.modeling, model performance, worked examples, reasoning (reflection-in-action), articulate reasoning, model the kinds of argumentation, providing reasoning-congruent visual representations, use some of the cognitive tools, B.coaching, solicited & unsolicited, provide motivational prompts, Monitor and regulate the learner's performance, provoke reflection, perturb learners' models, embedding provoking questions, provide dissonant views, C.scaffolding, adjust task difficulty, black-box scaffolding, restructure a task to supplant knowledge, glass-box scaffolding, provide alternative assessments

Concrete Concepts

Teachers' Theories

Teachers’ Private Theories & Their Design of Technology-based Learning, Teachers' Private Theories, instructional decisions/planning and technology integration, teachers' cognitive constructs, beliefs, guiding principles, theories or preconceptions, Areas of the participants’ private theories, four major areas, learning, students, teacher, technology, two additional focus areas, design, educational changes, participating teachers’ private theories, institutional influences, teachers’ theories are interrelated in this context, teachers’ prior experience and beliefs, knowledge of curriculum and pedagogical content, students’ ability, gender, class participation, self-concept, social competence, independence, classroom behavior and work habits, learning ability, epistemology, structure, certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, control of knowledge acquisition, speed of knowledge acquisition, New node, dominant focus areas, direct instruction, Technology, Students, Teacher, student-centred learning, Learning, formative evaluation, collaborative learning, knowledge construction, a self-examination, an appropriate design framework, intervention strategy/tools, Reflection, most frequently, learning, student-centred, technology, wider possibilities of technology through the experience, design, the nature of the participants’ involvement, moderate frequency, teacher, educational changes, not appear frequently, students, collaboration, communication skills, Emerging area of constraints to student-centred design practice, challenges for intervention with teachers, how to initiate their reflection and inquiry into their own theories about learning, how to enable teacher thinking to remain dominated by private theories on learning throughout their design experience, drive the participants towards direct instruction, two directions, private theories, students, assessment, technical skills, intuitional influences, assessment, technology, management

An Expert Teacher's Thinking and Teaching and Instructional Design Models and Principles, teacher's practice, Teacher's Thinking, Teaching processes, instructional design procedures, Instructional Design (ID) models, microdesign models, classroom instructional models, procedure, four phases, analysis, design, development and implementation, evaluation and revision, macrodesign models, systemic change, school restructuring, Instructional Design Principles, Eight Grades Science Classroom:The Classroom Physical and Social Context, classroom arrangement, line up the desks in rows, know students well and to see their reactions, organizing desks in a circle, face-to-face interactions, a rule-governed community, traditional rules and regulations which incorporated the school's rules, a modification of traditional classroom rules, the school practice, change the science fair project, the implicit rules, negotiation and agreement, smooth functioning of the class, interpreting the classroom events, major sources for Sarah's thinking and teaching, The Teacher's Experiential World, Sarah's present beliefs, her experience as a learner, as a beginning teacher, The Teacher's Knowledge, Bellefs, and Theories of Action, Knowledge of self as a teacher, a good sense of who she is and who she wants to be, a facilitator, unique characteristics and biases, knowledge of her limitations, takes her role as a teacher very seriously and looks upon herself as a professional, Knowledge of content and curriculum, view of science, cognitive, affective, a curriculum designer, subjectivity, extensive knowledge, teaching, learning environment, adapted the context, designing and developing the activities and materials for the curriculum, Objectivity, curricular materials, textbooks, activities, and tests, Pedagogical knowledge, view of learning, to solve real-life problems, knowledge of teaching, act of teaching, teaching is like acting and teachers should be like actors or actresses, physical and nonverbal expression, body language, facial expressions, well-developed beliefs, the importance of clearly communication, providing a variety of activities and materials, methodology for student evaluation, ongoing monitoring and evaluating of students' performance, testing, knowing students, adjusting her instruction, Knowledge of students, influenced by directly experienced events, reflection on students' responses and reactions, Knowledge of context, expresses her beliefs about the context, organizes her actions and interactions, The Teacher's Preplannlng and Interactive Thinking, Yearly/Courseplannin, personal, instructional, managerial, Unit and daily planning, weekly plans, written quizzes, Day-by-day outlines, Teacher's Reflective Teaching, reflection-in-action, changes, a minor conventional adjustment, a major strategic change, stimulated Sarah's reflection, students' learning needs, Sarah's performance as a teacher, the content of the lesson, sources of information, students' responses, Sarah's beliefs and theories of actions, students' performance of the lesson, reflection-on- action, two phases, after classroom actions, the postactive phase of teaching, three categories, planning consideration, students' learning needs, environmental factors, The Conceptual Model of the Teacher's Preactlve. Interactive and Reflective Teaching, Comparison of the Teacher's Thinking and Teaching Processes with Mlcroinstructionol Design Models, Differences between Sarah's Thinking and Teaching and Microinstructional Design Models, comparison between practical knowledge underlying Sarah's decisions and factors considered in the analysis phase of ISD models, the differences between ISD models and the teacher's ways of thinking and teaching, Similarities Between Sarah's Thinking and Teaching and Microinstructional Design Models, components or elements, assessment of learning outcomes or results of testing are an important source of change in future plans, the consistency between intentions or goals, instruction, and assessment

Concept Learning

On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design, Concepts, cognitive tools, meaning making & communication, Rosch's (1978) “cognitive economy”, e.g., human reasoning, discrete psychological phenomena, the reorganization conceptual frameworks, conceptual change, an evolutionary process, Piagetian, cognitive conflict, revolutionary, assessment, patterns, use, similarity-based conceptions, limitation, concepts-in-use conception, different context, Similarity View of Concepts, Classical-Attribute Isolation View, it must have a critical attribute, e.g., component display theory, Prototype or Probablistic View, e.g., a prototype: a robin (a typical example) of the concept bird, limitation: how to prototype a striped apple or porcelain cat, Exemplar View, a relational view, Problems, Other Views, Actional View, Theory-Based Views, Implications of Conceptual Change for Concept Learning and Assessment, Implications for Assessment: Propositions, structural knowledge (relationship), Eliciting Conceptual Patterns, Free word associations, generate word association lists, A correlation matrix, Similarity ratings, a distance matrix, Card sort, an adjacency matrix,, e.g., computer-based card-sorting program, Representing Conceptual Patterns, Cognitive maps, Pathfinder networks, Concept Maps, assessing learning outcomes, e.g., mindmaps, Implications for Instruction: Propositions, a coherent, integrated set of concepts, reasoning forms: comparison-contrast and causal, teach propositions, combinations of concepts, linking relationships, concepts taught in the context of domain-relevant principles, model-based reasoning, build scaffold, externalize mental models, e.g., systems modeling tool, Stella®, Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use, Semistructured Interviews, generative questions, Think-Aloud Problem Solving, thinking aloud paired problem solving, Implications for Instruction: Concepts-in-Use, engage in problem solving, ill-structured problems, a conceptual anchor

Complex Learning

Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model, Advantages: 4C/ID-model, Complex Learning, multiple performance objectives, the whole is clearly more than the sum of its parts, the moderately complex cognitive skill, constituent skills, a horizontal relationship, a vertical relationship, for expert task performers, nonrecurrent constituent skills, schemata, guide problem solving (cognitive strategies), reason about domain (mental models), schema construction, induction, elaboration, recurrent constituent skills, rules, rule automation, compilation, high levels of automaticity, strengthening, information presentation, restricted encoding, Training programs, reflective expertise, component fluency hypothesis, understanding hypothesis, The 4 Blueprint Components, Learning Tasks, Task classes, a simple-to-complex sequence, microsequencing level, Learner support, scaffolding, A general framework of human problem solving, product-oriented, process-oriented, Supportive Information, Mental models, conceptual models (what is this?), structural models (how is this organized?), causal models (how does this work?), instructional methods, guided discovery, Inquiry methods, Expository methods, 4C/ID-model, inductive-inquiry strategy, by default, inductive-expository strategy, deductive strategy, Cognitive strategies, 4C/ID-model, inductive-expository strategy, Cognitive feedback, Just-in-Time Information, Information displays, a didactical specification of the rules, knowledge, Demonstrations and instances, demonstrations, rules (examples), instances, concepts, plans, & principles, a deductive-expository approach, Corrective feedback, immediately, why there was an error?, provide a suggestion or hint of how to reach the goal, Part-task Practice, Practice items, procedure support, JIT information for part-task practice, Overtraining, make the skill fully automatic, performance criteria, intermix training, the use of the model for designing adaptive instruction

Active Learning

Rich environments for active learning, constructivist values and theories, Need for educational change, Changing society, challenge, utilize strategies, Weaknesses within the current system, Inert knowledge, Erroneous assumptions, resolvent: reasoning & problem-solving skill, explore ways, establish new goals for learning, developing independent thinkers, engage in life-long learning, New assumptions about learning, contextualized teaching, REALs, Definition, characteristics, integration, general skills and attitudes, specific concepts and principles, comprehensiveness, What a REAL is not, Foundation, Characteristics of constructivism, Wheatley (1992), innovation, improvement of society, active knowledge construction & evolution, indexed knowledge acquisition, collaboration social negotiation of meaning, The main attributes of REALs, A. Student responsibility & initiative, Intentional learning, Questioning, Self-Reflection, Von Wright's (1992) 2 levels, Metacognitive skills, Blakely and Spence's (1990) strategies, reciprocal teaching, intentional learning strategies, 3 theoretical principles, reasons for its success, B. Generative learning activities, role shift, students, investigators, seekers, & problem solvers, teachers, facilitators & guides, cognitive apprenticeship, invisible visible, C. Authentic learning contexts, anchored instruction, of the model, 'macrocontexts', cognitive flexibility theory (CFT), ill-structured domains, develop rich and deep knowledge structures, D. Authentic assessment strategies, learning in design, E. Co-operative support, problem-based learning, work with an authentic problem, motivational factors

Collaborative Learning

Collaborative Educational Learning Tools, computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), A Learner-Centered View, 14 basic principles from the APA, Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors, Motivational and Affective Factors, Developmental and Social Factors, Individual Differences, “learner-centered technology”, A Constructivist View, cognitive constructivist, Piaget, social constructivist, Vygotsky, Sociocultural Views, Mediation, one’s sociocultural milieu, e.g., mathematical symbols, diagrams, software visualizations, Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), social interaction, Internalization, independent selfregulatory processes, e.g., Private or inner speech, Cognitive Apprenticeship, authentic learning activities, e.g., Teachers: colearner /coparticipant, Assisted Learning, e.g., scaffolding and fading, Teleapprenticeship, e.g., electronic libraries, virtual cafes, whiteboards, debates and opinion polls,, Scaffolded Instruction, e.g., hinting, elaborating, questioning,, Intersubjectivit, shared collective reality, created a mental “shared space”, e.g., electronic whiteboards, conferencing tools, group brainstorming tools, etc., Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis, activity or word meaning, Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community

Problem-based Learning

Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework, Constructivism, Understanding, what is learned, how it is learned, a function, content, context, activity, goals, Cognitive conflict/ puzzlement, Dewey's (1938) "problematic", Knowledge evolves, social environment, Collaborative groups, the development of our individual understanding, develop a set of propostions we call knowledge, viability, Instructional Principles, Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem, Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task, solicit problems from the learners, establish a problem, Design an authentic task, cognitive demands, Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning, Collins, Brown, & Newman's (1989) cognitive apprenticeship, Spiro, et al. (1992) cognitive flexibility theories, Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution, problem solving process, problem itself, Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking, learners' role, effective worker/thinker, teachers' role, consultant / coach, inquiring at the "leading edge", sources of information, support the learners inquiry or performance, Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts, a learning community, collaborative learning groups, Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process, to become independent, How does PBL work?, Barrows’ mode (1992), Learning goals, cognitive apprenticeship environment, self directed learning, content knowledge, problem solving, Problem Generation, content domain, concepts, principles, "real", Problem Presentation, own the problem, the data presented does not highlight critical factors in the case, Facilitator Role

Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving, Discrepancy, complex, ill-structured problem-solving experience, schools and corporate training, What Is a Problem?, an unknown entity, Finding the unknown, problem solving, attributes, problem space:mental representation/model, internal mental models, activity-based manipulation of the problem space, information-processing models, General Problem Solver, (a) understanding processes, (b) search processes, IDEAL problem solver, Problem Variations, Structuredness, Well-structured problems, Ill-structured problems, Complexity, Problem difficulty, Domain Specificity (Abstract-Situated), Problem Representations, Context, social, historical, cultural, Cues/Clues, problem space, Modality, Individual Difference, Domain knowledge, Familiarity, Routine problems, well-structured, low-road transfer, less conscious attention, nonroutine problems, highroad transfer, perplexity, experience, Structural Knowledge, Cognitive Controls, Metacognition, skills, orienting, self-judging, eg. solve mathematical story problems, Epistemological Beliefs, 3 periods, dualist learners, multiplists, evaluative thinkers, Affectlve and Conative, Mayer's (1998) effort-based learning principle, General Problem-Solving Skills, strong strategies, domain-specific, weak strategies, general heuristics, Typology of Problem Solving, Logical Problems, Algorithmic Problems, Story Problems, Marshall's (1995) five different story problem schemas, Rule-Using Problems, Decision-Making Problems, Mullen and Roth (1991), Dynamic decision making, Troubleshooting Problems, skills, system knowledge, procedural knowledge, strategic knowledge, troubleshooter's mental model, analytical method, the PARI method, Strategic Performance Problems, difficulty, Case-Analysis Problems, ill-structured problems, Design Problems, designing, general & domain-specific schemas, procedural knowledge, Dilemmas, social dilemmas, ethical dilemmas, Discrete Problems vs. Metaproblems

Activity-based Learning

Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environment, Activity Theory/Activity-based Learning, focus on practice, a descriptive tool, Activity System, object, e.g., curriculum design, goal directed hierarchy of actions, Activity, Action, Operation, Motive, Goal, Conditions, Assumptions, Activity: Minds in Context, co-exist & mutually supportive, activity, consciousness, Consciousness in the World, "you are what you do", Intentionality, plans & intentions, intended activity, purposeful actions, Object-Orientedness, objects, physical objects, e.g., a house that is bulit, soft objects, e.g., computer program, conceptual objects, e.g., a theory or model of activity, transformation process, motivate activity, affordance, Community: A Dialectic Context, formal and informal rules, social negotiation, adaption, Historical-Cultural Dimension, historical development, activity in a cultural theory of cognition, Tool Mediation, mental representations, tools, e.g., artifacts, Collaboration, horizontal activity systems, verticalness, Method, Methodological Assumptions of Activity Theory, a qualitative approach, a real-life practice, active participants, a formative evaluation, Constructivist Learning Environment (CLEs), problem-project space, ill-structured problem, problem context, problem presentation/simulation, problem manipulation, related cases, case-based learning, e.g., cognitive flexibility theory, information resources, information banks, information accessible, e.g., Hypermedia, cognitive tools, scaffolds, conversation and collaboration tools, e.g., computer conferencing, chat, Process for Applying Activity Theory for Designing CLEs, clarify purpose of activity system, purpose, techniques, outcome, guide the construction of the problem sapce, analyze the activity system, subject, object, tangible & intangible, community, social interactions, beliefs & values, community of practice, rules, division of labor, outcome, describe all aspects of the problem, analyze the activity structure, activity, intentional level, e.g., developing training programs, action, functional level, planning and problem solving actions, e.g., need analysis and designing presentations for the training activity, need to understand the context of the activities, same actions can belong to different activities, operation, automatized/routinized behaviors, e.g., tabulating surveys and drawing graphs for the training activity, outcome, a description of the activities, actions, and operations that are required to solve the problem in CLE, analyze tools and mediators, signs and tools, e.g, computer, off-load cognitive responsibility, make activity feasible & possible, possible to grasp the object, e.g., formal rules/models, outcome, describe the kinds of models that constrain activity, describe the problem manipulate space, provide recommendations about the kinds and formats of information resources in a CLE, analyzing the context, internal to people, specific objects/goal, external, artifacts, other people, setting, outcome, describe the problem context in CLE, identify the contextual elements, make obvious the kinds of conversation & collaboration tools, analyzing activity system dynamics, final reality check, outcome, link the components of CLE, interconnected

Case-based & Goal-based Learning

Learning by Doing, the problems with traditional instruction, "know that"(factual knowledge), goals lack motivation, divorced from real life, negative effect of memory function, goal-based scenarios(GBSs), environment, software environment, live role-plays, institution, school, business, values, "how to", content knowledge, a goal is relevant, meaningful & interesting to students, desired content knowledge in relevant tasks, providing rich experience, use the skills outside the learning environment, case-based reasoning(CBR), the only way people reason, a new problem, reasoning process, reason across contexts, using deep similarities, draw analogies (case-based reason), "expert", indexing, cues, e.g. make good chocolate chip cookies for the first time, goals, make delicious cookies, plans, adapt old to suit new plan, baking cakes (successful), expectations, standard, follow the recipe to make great cookies, expectation failure, learn from it, explanations, why that failure, did not match the recipe's requirement, do the right next time, GBS design, "Advise the President", Goals, process knowledge, how to make good arguments, content knowledge, related factual, historical, strategic informtaion, Mission, prepare a report to resolving a crisis in a foreign country, be motivational, be somewhat realistice, require the skills & knowledge you wish to impact, Cover Story, Krasnovia breaks out into a civil war, create the need for the mission, allow enough opportunities to practice the skills & seek the knowledge, be motivating, Role, an advisor to the president of the U.S, be one who uses the necessary skills and knowledge, be motivating, Scenario Operations, complete the report, comply information, make claims, back up claims, etc, be closely related to both the mission and goals, have decision points with consequences that become evident, success, indicate progress, failure, expectation failure, be plenty of operations for student to do, not require more than what the goals call for, do more than necessary, Resources, provide the information the students need to succeed in the mission, well organized & readily accessible, provided in the form of stories, understandable, Feedback, be situated, be just in time, given in 3 ways, consequence of actions, coaches, domain expert's stories abt similar experiences, the live GBS, important skills, communications, human relations, and reasoning, the case of a fictional client company, learning goals, domain content, communication, analytical skills, technical skills, a prototypical real-world case, analyze the case, which activities trainees can encounter the target knowledge and skills, build an overall infrastructure to create a more authentic environment

Resource-based Learning

Teaching and learning in digital environments: the resurgence of resource-based learning, resource-based learning environments (RBLEs), meet learning needs, Evolution of Resources for T&L, Predigital perspectives, static nature, instructional materials, a single medium, visual cues, aural cues, goals & objectives, Freire's (1993) “banking” model, resources, given cultural perspectives, interpretations, ancillary educational materials, nonessential “add-ons”, typical physical location, wide-spread distribution, packaging, the dominant educational perspective, an industrial model of production, information conveyed, Emerging perspectives, standards, e.g. Instructional Management System project (IMS), dynamic & malleable resources, metadata, e.g. QuickTime®, analog resources, library classifications and catalog indexes, metadata, a resource, role refined, teachers, directors, facilitators, same resource, intact resources, boundaries have diminished, systems, digitization & distribution, Resource-based T&L, an RBLE Primer, adapt to diverse environments, pedagogically neutral, Components of RBLEs, resources, static, quickly become obsolete or inaccurate, dynamic, web-based resources, e.g., New York Times, human resource, e.g., expert/peer, contexts, externally directed, external agent, learner generated, defines goals, negotiated, a partnership, tools, searching, Enable location of resources, people, search services, card catalogs, e.g., Georgia Integrated Libraries,, processing, Provide cognitive support, e.g., copy-paste function, manipulating, Testing beliefs/theories, e.g., spreadsheets, communicating, Mechanisms for exchanging ideas, asynchronous communication tools, e.g., e-mail, synchronous communication tools, e.g., videoconferencing, scaffolds, conceptual, e.g., outline, learner generated, e.g., cognitive map, metacognitive, e.g., Linn’s (1995) knowledge integration environment (KIE), procedural, e.g., help system in Microsoft Word®, strategic, e.g., DOROTHIE, Challenge, Opportunities, & Implications

The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media, What is the promise of multimedia learning?, media, verbal, words (spoken or printed text), visual, pictures (animation or illustrations), deep learning (understanding), problem-solving transfer, What is a multimedia instructional message?, contains words and pictures, designed to foster meaningful learning, How does multimedia learning work?, a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the dual channel assumption, the limited capacity assumption, the active learning assumption, A framework for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, active learning, selecting, words, verbal channel, pictures, visual channel, organizing, a coherent mental representation, verbal material, visual material, integrating, verbal and pictorial models, prior knowledge, long-term memory, Do methods work across media?, book-based & computer-based environments, text-and-illustrations & narration-and-animation, Multimedia effect, Coherence effect, seductive details, text-and-illustrations & text-and-animation, Contiguity effect, computer-based environments, animation-and-narration & animation-and-text, Personalization effect

Cisco Systems Reusable Information Object Strategy, the Reusable Information Object Strategy, RIOs & Cisco, the RLO-RIO Structure, “Road Map”, Reusable Learning Object (RLO), Overview, Summary, Assessment, five to nine (7 ± 2) RIOs, Reusable Information Object (RIO), content items, practice items, assessment items, RIO Creation Process, Design, Needs Assessment, Task Analysis, prerequisite knowledge, “nice-to-know” information, “need-to-know” information, Learning Objectives, Identify the Cognitive Level, Component Display Theory, Bloom’s Taxonomy, RIO Types, 7 ± 2 Rule, Detail Design Document (DDD), Development, Authoring Tools, Build RLO, Build RIOs, subject mater experts (SMEs), Media production, graphics, video clips, simulations, Alpha Review, Beta Review, Delivery, Dynamic Web Packages, Publish CD-ROM, Conduct ITL (Instructor-Led training materials), Evaluation, Dr. Donald Kirkpatrick, Level 1 Survey, Did Learners like it?, Level 2 Assessment, Did Learners learn?, Level 3 Transfer, Are they using it?, 360 degree peer/manager review, observation, Level 4 Impact, Did it matter?, Guidelines for Building the RLO, Overview, Summary, Assessment, Pre-RLO, a prescriptive tool, Post-RLO, mastery assessment, RLO level parameters, Pass or Fail Threshold, Number of Re- Takes, Weighted Assessment Items, Guidelines for Building RIOs, Content items, Practice Items, Objective and Cognitive Level, Media Independence, Types of Practices, Practice Vs Assessment, different, purpose, function, same, authoring tools, engine, Guidelines, Assessment Items, How they are used, Objective and Cognitive Level, Media Independence, Types of Assessment Items, Guidelines, Cognitive Level, Merrill, Remember, Use, Bloom, Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation, Use Vs Remember, Verb Identifies the Level, RIO Types, Concept, Content items, Identifying a Concept RIO, What is a ?, What are the types of ?, Practice Item Guidelines, Use, Remember, Fact, Content items, Practice items, Practice Item Guidelines, Use, Remember, Procedure, Content items, Identifying a Procedure RIO, Practice Item Guidelines, Use, Remember, Process, Content items, Identifying a Process RIO, Practice Item Guidelines, Use, Remember, Principle, Content items, Identifying a Process RIO, Practice Item Guidelines, Use, Remember