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ID & T by Mind Map: ID & T

1. Additional Resources & Instructional Technology Examples

1.1. Risal Account: Miawong

2. My Overall Reflection

3. Basic Concepts

3.1. History

3.1.1. Instructional Media School Museums (the first decade of the 20th century) Visual Instruction Supplementary Curriculum Materials The "Visual Instruction"/"Visual Education" Movement (1914-1923) Magic Lanterns (lantern slide projectors ) Stereopticons (Stereograph viewers) Motion Picture Projector Instructional Films The Audiovisual Instruction Movement (1920s-1930s) Medium Evolvement World War Ⅱ (1939-1945) Slowed in Schools Military Service and in Industry Post-World War Ⅱ Developments (1950s-1995) Theories of Communication Instructional Tevevision Shifting Terminology (early 1970s) Computers (1950s-1995) Recent Developments (since 1995) Computer Internet Other Digital Technology

3.1.2. Instructional Design The Origins: World War Ⅱ Conduct Research and Develop Training materials Evaluation and Testing Solve Instructional Problems (late 1940s-1950s) More Early Developments The Programmed Instruction Movement (mid-1950s-mid1960s) The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives Ralph Tyler (1934) Benjamin Bloom, et al. (1956) Robert Mager (1962) The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement (1960s) Criterion-referenced Measures Robert M Gagné The Conditions of Learning (1965) Events of Instruction Learning Hierarchies and Hierarchical Analysis Evaluation Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation Early Instructional Design Models (early and mid-1960s) Task Analysis Objective Specification Criterion-referenced Testing Systems Approach (1970s) US Military (mid-1970s) Instructional Improvement Centers Business & Industry International Arena Growth and Redirection (1980s) Institution Growth Redirection New Performance Technology Movement Changing Views and Practice (1990s) The Performance Technology Movement Constructivism Electronic Performance Support Systems Rapid Prototyping Internet for Distance Learning Knowledge Management

3.2. Instructional Design & Learning Theory

3.2.1. Theories Learning Theories Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism

3.2.2. Models Instructional Design Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Practice of Instructional Design

3.3. Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education

3.3.1. Online learning Materials for online learning Information Access Interactive Learning Networked Learning Materials Development Frameworks for online learning settings General lectures group discussions learning events communication self-study individual projects group projects testing Instructional forms and learning Initial Knowledge Advanced Knowledge Expertise Knowledge construction Learning environments Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) Instructional design for Web-based learning Learning Tasks Learning Resources Learning Supports Approaches to Instructional Design Learning settings that support knowledge construction Learning Tasks Learning Resources Learning Supports

3.3.2. Tasks Learning Tasks Design learning Courseware delivery systems Planning learning tasks Problem solving, Inquiry tasks, Projects, Investigations Authentic Tasks Authentic assessment in Online Settings

3.3.3. Resources Content pages Web pages as information sources Creating text for online presentation Making use of the media e.g., PDF documents, sound, video, Virtual Reality, 3D Creative ideas for designing online learning resources Interactive learning resources tutorials quizzes simulations worksheets

3.3.4. Supports Online learning support strategies Learning Guides Learning Contracts Learning Schedules Supporting self-regulated learning skill & will Metacognition and self-concept Self-monitoring and motivation Volitional and Cognitive Strategy formation Social construction of knowledge socio-cognitive conflict and co-construction of knowledge Groupwork and Collaboration Successful Collaborative Groups Contexts for Collaborative Activity Cooperative learning in on-line settings Learning scaffolds Vygotsky's (1978) zone of proximal development Scaffolding The concept of fading Learning communities Developing learning communities Discussion activities Group Projects Mentors and Buddies

3.3.5. Designs Learning designs supporting knowledge construction Situated Learning cognitive apprenticeships as a model of instruction Problem-based learning Designing an online problem-based learning setting Case-based learning Project-based learning Characteristics Planning project-based learning in online settings Inquiry-based learning Characteristics Choosing inquiry-based learning Planning inquiry-based learning settings Role-playing and simulations Characteristics Role-playing in online settings Planning and designing role-playing activities Role-playing activities online

3.3.6. Design and Development Strategies Learning objects main considerations Learning designs and learning objects Reusable learning objects Developing resources for reuse Accessibility Creating accessible content Priority levels of accessibility Section 508 Metadata Inserting Metadata Organisation strategies for online learning sites metaphor Evaluating online learning settings Attributes of effective online settings A framework for evaluating online learning settings

3.4. Second generation instructional design (ID2)

3.4.1. First Generation Instructional Design (ID1) Instructional Design Theory Instructional Systems Development (ISD) Component Display Theory Information Processing Analysis Structural Analysis by Scandura Algorithm/ Heuristic Analysis Limitations ID1 content analysis does not use integrated wholes ID1 has limited prescriptions for knowledge acquisition ID1 has limited prescriptions for course organization ID1 theories are essentially closed systems ID1 fails to integrate the phases of instructional development ID1 teaches pieces but not integrated wholes ID1 instruction is often passive rather than interactive Every ID1 presentation must be constructed from small components ID1 is labor intensive

3.4.2. Second Generation Instructional Design ID2 characteristics components Analyzing and Representing Knowledge for Integrated Goals mental models a representation of the knowledge Instructional Strategies and Transactions Transactions Transaction Classes Strategy Analysis Strategy Analysis System (SAS) Transaction Configuration Transaction Configuration System (TCS) and Library An Intelligent Advisor System (IADV) An Open System -- Mini-Experts Integration of the ID Phases - A Single Knowledge Representation Comparison with Other Approaches drawback and difficulties

3.5. The events of instruction

3.5.1. The Nature of Instruction Self-Instruction and the Self-Learner Instruction and Learning Learning Theory Learning Process Instructional/External Events

3.5.2. The events of instruction in a Lesson Comparison with Lessons for Older Students homework assignments

3.6. Designing constructivist learning environments

3.6.1. Learning Theories complementary design tools objectivism constructivism

3.6.2. Model Case-, project-, & problem-based learning Ill-structured problems definable by the learners question/case/problem/project problem context problem representation/simulation problem manipulation space related cases scaffold student memory: CBR enhance cognitive flexibility information resources cognitive (knowledge-construction) tools problem/task representation tools static and dynamic knowledge modeling tools performance support tools information gathering tools conversation & collaboration tools Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments (CSILEs) social/contextual support accommodating contextual factors

3.6.3. Supporting Learning in CLEs A.modeling model performance articulate reasoning B.coaching solicited & unsolicited provide motivational prompts Monitor and regulate the learner's performance provoke reflection perturb learners' models C.scaffolding adjust task difficulty restructure a task to supplant knowledge provide alternative assessments

4. Concrete Concepts

4.1. Teachers' Theories

4.1.1. Teachers’ Private Theories & Their Design of Technology-based Learning Teachers' Private Theories instructional decisions/planning and technology integration dominant focus areas a self-examination Emerging area of constraints to student-centred design practice

4.1.2. An Expert Teacher's Thinking and Teaching and Instructional Design Models and Principles teacher's practice Teacher's Thinking Teaching processes instructional design procedures Instructional Design (ID) models Instructional Design Principles Eight Grades Science Classroom:The Classroom Physical and Social Context classroom arrangement a rule-governed community the school practice the implicit rules The Teacher's Experiential World Sarah's present beliefs The Teacher's Knowledge, Bellefs, and Theories of Action Knowledge of self as a teacher Knowledge of content and curriculum Pedagogical knowledge Knowledge of students Knowledge of context The Teacher's Preplannlng and Interactive Thinking Yearly/Courseplannin Unit and daily planning Teacher's Reflective Teaching reflection-in-action reflection-on- action The Conceptual Model of the Teacher's Preactlve. Interactive and Reflective Teaching Comparison of the Teacher's Thinking and Teaching Processes with Mlcroinstructionol Design Models Differences between Sarah's Thinking and Teaching and Microinstructional Design Models Similarities Between Sarah's Thinking and Teaching and Microinstructional Design Models

4.2. Concept Learning

4.2.1. On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design Concepts cognitive tools meaning making & communication Rosch's (1978) “cognitive economy” discrete psychological phenomena the reorganization conceptual frameworks similarity-based conceptions concepts-in-use conception Similarity View of Concepts Classical-Attribute Isolation View Prototype or Probablistic View Exemplar View a relational view Problems Other Views Actional View Theory-Based Views Implications of Conceptual Change for Concept Learning and Assessment Implications for Assessment: Propositions Eliciting Conceptual Patterns Representing Conceptual Patterns Concept Maps Implications for Instruction: Propositions Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use Implications for Instruction: Concepts-in-Use

4.3. Complex Learning

4.3.1. Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model Advantages: 4C/ID-model Complex Learning multiple performance objectives the whole is clearly more than the sum of its parts the moderately complex cognitive skill The 4 Blueprint Components Learning Tasks Supportive Information Just-in-Time Information Part-task Practice the use of the model for designing adaptive instruction

4.4. Active Learning

4.4.1. Rich environments for active learning constructivist values and theories Need for educational change Changing society Weaknesses within the current system explore ways REALs Definition Foundation The main attributes of REALs A. Student responsibility & initiative B. Generative learning activities C. Authentic learning contexts D. Authentic assessment strategies E. Co-operative support

4.5. Collaborative Learning

4.5.1. Collaborative Educational Learning Tools computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) A Learner-Centered View 14 basic principles from the APA “learner-centered technology” A Constructivist View cognitive constructivist social constructivist Sociocultural Views Mediation Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Internalization Cognitive Apprenticeship Assisted Learning Teleapprenticeship Scaffolded Instruction Intersubjectivit Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community

4.6. Problem-based Learning

4.6.1. Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework Constructivism Understanding Cognitive conflict/ puzzlement Knowledge evolves Instructional Principles Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task Design an authentic task Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process How does PBL work? Barrows’ mode (1992) Learning goals Problem Generation Problem Presentation Facilitator Role

4.6.2. Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving Discrepancy complex, ill-structured problem-solving experience schools and corporate training What Is a Problem? an unknown entity Finding the unknown Problem Variations Structuredness Complexity Domain Specificity (Abstract-Situated) Problem Representations Context Cues/Clues Modality Individual Difference Domain knowledge Structural Knowledge Cognitive Controls Metacognition Epistemological Beliefs Affectlve and Conative General Problem-Solving Skills Typology of Problem Solving Logical Problems Algorithmic Problems Story Problems Rule-Using Problems Decision-Making Problems Troubleshooting Problems Strategic Performance Problems Case-Analysis Problems Design Problems Dilemmas Discrete Problems vs. Metaproblems

4.7. Activity-based Learning

4.7.1. Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environment Activity Theory/Activity-based Learning focus on practice Activity System object Assumptions Activity: Minds in Context Consciousness in the World Intentionality Object-Orientedness Community: A Dialectic Context Historical-Cultural Dimension Tool Mediation Collaboration Method Methodological Assumptions of Activity Theory Constructivist Learning Environment (CLEs) Process for Applying Activity Theory for Designing CLEs clarify purpose of activity system analyze the activity system analyze the activity structure analyze tools and mediators analyzing the context analyzing activity system dynamics

4.8. Case-based & Goal-based Learning

4.8.1. Learning by Doing the problems with traditional instruction "know that"(factual knowledge) goals lack motivation divorced from real life goal-based scenarios(GBSs) environment institution values case-based reasoning(CBR) the only way people reason "expert" e.g. make good chocolate chip cookies for the first time GBS design "Advise the President" the live GBS important skills the case of a fictional client company

4.9. Resource-based Learning

4.9.1. Teaching and learning in digital environments: the resurgence of resource-based learning resource-based learning environments (RBLEs) meet learning needs Evolution of Resources for T&L Predigital perspectives Emerging perspectives Resource-based T&L an RBLE Primer Components of RBLEs Challenge, Opportunities, & Implications

4.9.2. The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media What is the promise of multimedia learning? media deep learning (understanding) What is a multimedia instructional message? contains words and pictures designed to foster meaningful learning How does multimedia learning work? a cognitive theory of multimedia learning A framework for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning Do methods work across media? book-based & computer-based environments computer-based environments

4.9.3. Cisco Systems Reusable Information Object Strategy the Reusable Information Object Strategy RIOs & Cisco the RLO-RIO Structure “Road Map” RIO Creation Process Design Development Delivery Evaluation Guidelines for Building the RLO Overview Summary Assessment Guidelines for Building RIOs Content items Practice Items Assessment Items Cognitive Level RIO Types